172 Works

Strategies to Mitigate Enteric Methane Emissions by Ruminants

C. Arndt, A.N. Hristov, W.J. Price, S.C. McClelland, A.M. Pelaez, A.R. Bayat, L.A. Crompton, J. Dijkstra, M.A. Eugène, D. Enahoro, E. Kebreab, M. Kreuzer, M. McGee, C. Martin, C.J. Newbold, C.K. Reynolds, A. Schwarm, K.J. Shingfield, J.B. Veneman, D.R. Yáñez-Ruiz & Z. Yu
To meet the 1.5°C target, methane (CH4) from ruminants must be reduced by 11 to 30% of the 2010 level by 2030 and by 24 to 47% by 2050. A meta-analysis identified strategies to decrease product-based [PB; CH4 per unit meat or milk (CH4I)] and absolute (ABS) enteric CH4 emissions while maintaining or increasing animal productivity (AP; weight gain and milk yield). Next the potential of different adoption rates of one PB and/or ABS strategies...

Asynchronous Saturation of the Carbon Sink in African and Amazonian tropical forests

Wannes Hubau, Simon Lewis, Oliver Phillips, Kofi Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Hans Hans Beeckman, Aida Cuni-Sanchez, Corneille Ewango, Sophie Fauset, Douglas Sheil, Bonaventure Sonké, Martin Sullivan, Terry Sunderland, Sean Thomas, Katharine Abernethy, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Christian Amani, Timothy Baker, Lindsay Banin, Fidèle Baya, Serge Begne, Amy Bennett, Fabrice Benedet, Robert Bitariho & Yannick Bocko
Data and R-code from Hubau W et al. 2020. 'Asynchronous Saturation of the Carbon Sink in African and Amazonian tropical forests'. Nature 579, 80-87. 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2035-0. ABSTRACT: Structurally intact tropical forests sequestered ~50% of global terrestrial carbon uptake over the 1990s and early 2000s, offsetting ~15% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions1-3. Climate-driven vegetation models typically predict that this tropical forest ‘carbon sink’ will continue for decades4,5. However, recent inventories of intact Amazonian forests show declining...

Data from: Evolution of the immune system influences speciation rates in teleost fishes

Martin Malmstrøm, Michael Matschiner, Ole K. Tørresen, Bastiaan Star, Lars G. Snipen, Thomas F. Hansen, Helle T. Baalsrud, Alexander J. Nederbragt, Reinhold Hanel, Walter Salzburger, Nils C. Stenseth, Kjetill S. Jakobsen & Sissel Jentoft
Teleost fishes constitute the most species-rich vertebrate clade and exhibit extensive genetic and phenotypic variation, including diverse immune defense strategies. The genomic basis of a particularly aberrant strategy is exemplified by Atlantic cod, in which a loss of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II functionality coincides with a marked expansion of MHC I genes. Through low-coverage genome sequencing (9–39×), assembly and comparative analyses for 66 teleost species, we show here that MHC II is missing in...

Data from: Genomic signatures of parasite-driven natural selection in north European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Ksenia J. Zueva, Jaakko Lumme, Alexei E Veselov, Matthew P. Kent & Craig R. Primmer
Understanding the genomic basis of host-parasite adaptation is important for predicting the long-term viability of species and developing successful management practices. However, in wild populations, identifying specific signatures of parasite-driven selection often presents a challenge, as it is difficult to unravel the molecular signatures of selection driven by different, but correlated, environmental factors. Furthermore, separating parasite-mediated selection from similar signatures due to genetic drift and population history can also be difficult. Populations of Atlantic salmon...

Data from: A genome-wide association study identifies a region strongly associated with symmetrical onychomadesis on chromosome 12 in dogs

Stina Dahlgren, Martine Lund Ziener & Frode Lingaas
Symmetrical onychomadesis causes periodic loss of claws in otherwise healthy dogs. Genome-wide association analysis in 225 Gordon Setters identified a single region associated with symmetrical onychomadesis on chromosome 12 (spanning about 3.3 mb). A meta-analysis including also English Setters indicated that this genomic region predisposes for symmetrical onychomadesis in English Setters as well. The associated region spans most of the major histocompatibility complex and nearly 1 Mb downstream. Like many other autoimmune diseases, associations of...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP analysis reveals a genetic basis for sea-age variation in a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Susan E. Johnston, Panu Orell, Victoria L. Pritchard, Matthew P. Kent, Sigbjørn Lien, Eero Niemelä, Jaakko Erkinaro, Craig Primmer & Craig R. Primmer
Delaying sexual maturation can lead to larger body size and higher reproductive success, but carries an increased risk of death before reproducing. Classical life history theory predicts that trade-offs between reproductive success and survival should lead to the evolution of an optimal strategy in a given population. However, variation in mating strategies generally persists, and in general, there remains a poor understanding of genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying this variation. One extreme case of this...

Data from: Circadian rhythmicity persists through the Polar night and midnight sun in Svalbard reindeer

Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Leif Egil Loe, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Vebjørn Veiberg & Steve D. Albon
Studies of locomotor activity in Svalbard reindeer reported the temporary absence of diel rhythms under Arctic photic conditions. However, using Lomb-Scargle periodogram analyses with high statistical power we found diel or circadian rhythmicity throughout the entire year in measures of behaviour, temperature in the rumen and heart rate in free-living Svalbard reindeer. Significant diel rhythmicity was only lacking during some of the 15-day intervals analysed in the less frequently measured heart rate. During Polar Night...

Data from: A local evaluation of the individual state-space to scale up Bayesian spatial capture recapture

Cyril Milleret, Pierre Dupont, Christophe Bonenfant, Henrik Brøseth, Øystein Flagstad, Chris Sutherland & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) are used to estimate animal density and to investigate a range of problems in spatial ecology that cannot be addressed with traditional non-spatial methods. Bayesian approaches in particular offer tremendous flexibility for SCR modelling. Increasingly, SCR data are being collected over very large spatial extents making analysis computational intensive, sometimes prohibitively so. 2. To mitigate the computational burden of large-scale SCR models, we developed an improved formulation of the Bayesian...

Data from: Berry production drives bottom-up effects on body mass and reproductive success in an omnivore

Anne G. Hertel, Richard Bischof, Ola Langvall, Atle Mysterud, Jonas Kindberg, Jon E. Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser & Ola Langval
Obligate herbivores dominate studies of the effects of climate change on mammals, however there is limited empirical evidence for how changes in the abundance or quality of plant food affect mammalian omnivores. Omnivores can exploit a range of different food resources over the course of a year, but they often rely on seasonally restricted highly nutritious fruiting bodies during critical life stages. Brown bears Ursus arctos in Sweden are dependent on berries for fattening before...

Data from: Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects

Daniel Hering, Jukka Aroviita, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Karel Brabec, Tom Buijse, Frauke Ecke, Nikolai Friberg, Marek Gielczewski, Kathrin Januschke, Jan Köhler, Benjamin Kupilas, Armin W. Lorenz, Susanne Muhar, Amael Paillex, Michaela Poppe, Torsten Schmidt, Stefan Schmutz, Jan Vermaat, Piet F. M. Verdonschot, Ralf C. M. Verdonschot, Jochem Kail & Christian Wolter
1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of restored river sections of which one was a large project involving a long, intensively restored river section and one represented a smaller restoration effort. The restoration effect was quantified by...

Data from: Population structure, genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in perennial ryegrass populations divergently selected for freezing tolerance

Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Siri Fjellheim, Simen R. Sandve, Arild Larsen, Heidi Rudi, Torben Asp, Matthew Peter Kent & Odd Arne Rognli
Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF] and 27 of Unselected [US]) from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected control...

Data from: Neighborhood bully: no difference in territorial response towards neighbors or strangers in marmots

Mariona Ferrandiz-Rovira, Timothée Zidat, Pierre Dupont, Vérane Berger, Célia Rézouki & Aurélie Cohas
Territorial animals are expected to adjust their response to intruders according to the perceived threat-level. One of the factors that drives threat-level is the identity of the intruder. The dear enemy phenomenon theory postulates that individuals should respond with lower intensity to neighbors, already possessing a territory, than to strangers that may fight to evict them. In social species, the hierarchical status of the intruder might also mediate this response. Such behavioral adjustments presuppose a...

Data from: The standard metabolic rate of a land snail (Cepaea hortensis) is a repeatable trait and influences winter survival

Claus Bech, Maren Trones Christiansen, Pernille Kvernland, Randi Marie Nygård, Eline Rypdal, Sara Kjeldsø Sneltorp, Liv Monica Trondrud & Øyvind Gjønnes Tvedten
Phenotypic selection on physiological parameters is an underrepresented topic in studies of evolutionary biology. There is especially a lack of studies involving invertebrate organisms. We studied the repeatability of the standard metabolic rate (SMR) and the effect of individual variation in SMR on the subsequent winter survival in a terrestrial shell-bearing mollusc, the white-lipped snail (Cepaea hortensis) in mid-Norway. SMR was measured twice during the autumn and – after an experimental overwintering at controlled conditions...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

A test of frequency dependent selection in the evolution of a generalist phenotype

Stephanie Blain, Louise Chavarie, Mackenzie Kinney & Dolph Schluter
A solitary population of consumers frequently evolves to the middle of a resource gradient and an intermediate mean phenotype compared to a sympatric pair of competing species that diverge to either side via character displacement. The forces governing the distribution of phenotypes in these allopatric populations, however, are little investigated. Theory predicts that the intermediate mean phenotype of the generalist should be maintained by negative frequency dependent selection, whereby alternate extreme phenotypes are favored because...

Climate influence on plant–pollinator interactions in the keystone species Vaccinium myrtillus

Marianne Evju, Siri L. Olsen, Jens Åström, Jørn O. Løkken, Sondre Dahle, Jonas L. Andresen & Nina E. Eide
Background: Climate change is altering the world’s ecosystems through direct effects of climate warming and precipitation changes, but also indirectly through changes in biotic interactions. For instance, climate-driven changes in plant and/or insect communities may alter plant-pollinator interactions, thereby influencing plant reproductive success and ultimately population dynamics of insect-pollinated plants. Methods: To better understand how the importance of insect pollination for plant fruit set varies with climate, we experimentally excluded pollinators from the partly selfing...

Fat storage influences fasting endurance more than body size in an ungulate

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Elżbieta Król, Steve Albon, Alina L. Evans, Walter Arnold, Catherine Hambly, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
1. The fasting endurance hypothesis (FEH) predicts strong selection for large body size in mammals living in environments where food supply is interrupted over prolonged periods of time. The Arctic is a highly seasonal and food restricted environment, but contrary to predictions from the FEH, empirical evidence shows that Arctic mammals are often smaller than their temperate conspecifics. Intraspecific studies integrating physiology and behaviour of different-sized individuals, may shed light on this paradox. 2. We...

Determinants of heart rate in Svalbard reindeer reveal mechanisms of seasonal energy management

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Steve Albon, Walter Arnold, Alina L. Evans, R. Justin Irvine, Elżbieta Król, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
Seasonal energetic challenges may constrain an animal’s ability to respond to changing individual and environmental conditions. Here we investigated variation in heart rate, a well-established proxy for metabolic rate, in Svalbard reindeer, a species with strong seasonal changes in foraging and metabolic activity. In 19 adult females we recorded heart rate, subcutaneous temperature and activity using biologgers. Mean heart rate more than doubled from winter to summer. Typical drivers of energy expenditure, such as reproduction...

Data from: Traits mediate niches and co-occurrences of forest beetles in ways that differ among bioclimatic regions

Ryan C. Burner, Jörg G. Stephan, Lukas Drag, Tone Birkemoe, Jörg Muller, Tord Snäll, Otso Ovaskainen, Mária Potterf, Juha Siitonen, Olav Skarpaas, Inken Doerfler, Martin M. Gossner, Peter Schall, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Aim To investigate the role of traits in beetle community assembly and test for consistency in these effects among several bioclimatic regions. We asked (1) whether traits predicted species’ responses to environmental gradients (i.e., their niches), (2) whether these same traits could predict co-occurrence patterns, and (3) how consistent were niches and the role of traits among study regions. Location Boreal forests in Norway and Finland, temperate forests in Germany. Methods We complied capture records...

Arthropod OTUs in fruit bodies of wood decay fungi

Lisa Lunde & Sundy Maurice
Biological communities within living organisms are structured by their host’s traits. How host traits affect biodiversity and community composition is poorly explored for some associations, such as arthropods within fungal fruit bodies. Using DNA metabarcoding, we revealed the arthropod communities in living fruit bodies of eleven wood-decay fungi from boreal forests and investigated how they were affected by different fungal traits. Arthropod diversity was higher in fruit bodies with a larger surface area-to-volume ratio, suggesting...

Expanding forests in alpine regions lead to a corresponding shift in belowground fungal communities

Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Lea-Rebekka Tonjer, Ella Thoen, Sunil Mundra, Luis Morgado, Line Nybakken, Anders Bryn & Håvard Kauserud
Climate change causes upward shift of forest lines worldwide, with consequences on soil biota and carbon sequestration (C). We here analyse compositional changes in the soil biota across the forest line ecotone, an important transition zone between different ecosystems. We collected soil samples along transects stretching from subalpine mountain birch forests to low-alpine vegetation. Soil fungi and micro-eukaryotes were surveyed using DNA metabarcoding of the 18S and ITS2 markers, while ergosterol was used to quantify...

Data from: Anthrax outbreaks in the humans-livestock and wildlife interface areas of northern Tanzania: a retrospective review 2006 - 2016

Elibariki Reuben Mwakapeje, Sol Hoegset, Robert Fyumagwa, Hezron E Nonga, Robinson Mdegela & Eystein Skjerve
BACKGROUND: Anthrax outbreaks in Tanzania have been reported from the human, livestock and wildlife sectors over several years, and is among the notifiable diseases. Despite frequent anthrax outbreaks, there is no comprehensive dataset indicating the magnitude and distribution of the disease in susceptible species. This study is a retrospective review of anthrax outbreaks from the human, livestock, and wildlife surveillance systems from 2006 to 2016. The objectives were to identify hotspot districts, describe anthrax epidemiology...

Data from: Parallel and nonparallel genome-wide divergence among replicate population pairs of freshwater and anadromous Atlantic salmon

Charles Perrier, Vincent Bourret, Matthew P. Kent & Louis Bernatchez
Little is known about the genetic basis differentiating resident and anadromous forms found in many salmonid species. Using a medium-density SNP array, we documented genomic diversity and divergence at 2336 genetically mapped loci among three pairs of North American anadromous and freshwater Atlantic salmon populations. Our results show that across the genome, freshwater populations have lower diversity and a smaller proportion of private polymorphism relative to anadromous populations. Moreover, differentiation was more pronounced among freshwater...

Data from: Population genetic analysis of a global collection of Fragaria vesca using microsatellite markers

Hrannar Smári Hilmarsson, Timo Hytönen, Sachiko Isobe, Magnus Göransson, Tuomas Toivainen & Jón Hallsteinn Hallsson
The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, holds great promise as a model organism. It not only represents the important Rosaceae family that includes economically important species such as apples, pears, peaches and roses, but it also complements the well-known model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in key areas such as perennial life cycle and the development of fleshy fruit. Analysis of wild populations of A. thaliana has shed light on several important developmental pathways controlling, for example, flowering...

Data from: Monitoring of plant-environment interactions by high throughput FTIR spectroscopy of pollen

Murat Bağcıoğlu, Achim Kohler, Stephan Seifert, Janina Kneipp & Boris Zimmermann
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy enables chemical analysis of pollen samples for plant phenotyping to study plant–environment interactions, such as influence of climate change or pathogens. However, current approach, such as microspectroscopy and attenuated total reflection spectroscopy, does not allow for high-throughput protocols. This study at hand suggests a new spectroscopic method for high-throughput characterization of pollen. Samples were measured as thin films of pollen fragments using a Bruker FTIR spectrometer with a high-throughput eXTension...

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