166 Works

Data from: Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon

Nicola J. Barson, Tuku Aykanat, Kjetil Hindar, Matthew Baranski, Geir H. Bolstad, Peder Fiske, Céleste Jacq, Arne J. Jensen, Susan E. Johnston, Sten Karlsson, Matthew Kent, Thomas Moen, Eero Niemelä, Torfinn Nome, Tor F. Næsje, Panu Orell, Atso Romakkaniemi, Harald Sægrov, Kurt Urdal, Jaakko Erkinaro, Sigbjørn Lien & Craig R. Primmer
Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic...

Data from: Using partial aggregation in Spatial Capture Recapture

Cyril Milleret, Pierre Dupont, Henrik Brøseth, Jonas Kindberg, J. Andrew Royle & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models are commonly used for analyzing data collected using non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS). Opportunistic NGS often leads to detections that do not occur at discrete detector locations. Therefore, spatial aggregation of individual detections into fixed detectors (e.g. center of grid cells) is an option to increase computing speed of SCR analyses. However, it may reduce precision and accuracy of parameter estimations. 2. Using simulations, we explored the impact that spatial aggregation...

Data from: Effects of mammalian herbivores and termites on performance of native and exotic plantation tree seedlings

Stein R. Moe, Leif Egil Loe, Malin Jessen & Paul Okullo
Invasion of exotic species is a global challenge and the potential for adverse effects on local biodiversity is particularly high in protected areas. Protected African savanna areas support globally important biodiversity. At the same time, forest plantations are widespread throughout Africa and exotic tree species frequently invade natural areas. To evaluate the potential invasiveness of plant species, it is pertinent to know to what extent, if at all, consumption by native herbivore assemblages differentially affects...

Data from: Biochar from \"Kon Tiki\" flame curtain and other kilns: effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on crop yield and soil chemistry

Naba Raj Pandit, Jan Mulder, Sarah Elisabeth Hale, Hans Peter Schmidt & Gerard Cornelissen
Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small...

Data from: Sex-specific genetic analysis indicates low correlation between demographic and genetic connectivity in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos)

Julia Schregel, Alexander Kopatz, Hans Geir Eiken, Jon E. Swenson & Snorre B. Hagen
Species viability is strongly connected to the degree of gene flow within and among populations. Such genetic population connectivity may closely track demographic population connectivity or, alternatively, the rate of gene flow may change relative to the rate of dispersal. In this study, we have explored the relationship between genetic and demographic population connectivity using the Scandinavian brown bear as model species, due to its pronounced male dispersal and female philopatry. Our expectation, based on...

Data from: Direct and indirect effects of early-life environment on lifetime fitness of bighorn ewes

Gabriel Pigeon & Fanie Pelletier
Cohort effects, when a common environment affects long-term performance, can have a major impact on population dynamics. Very few studies of wild animals have obtained the necessary data to study the mechanisms leading to cohort effects. We exploited 42 years of individual-based data on bighorn sheep to test for causal links between birth density, body mass, age at first reproduction, longevity, and lifetime reproductive success using path analysis. Specifically, we investigated whether the effect of...

Data from: Experimental warming increases herbivory by leaf-chewing insects in an alpine plant community

Tone Birkemoe, Saskia Bergmann, Toril E. Hasle & Kari Klanderud
Climate warming is predicted to affect species and trophic interactions worldwide, and alpine ecosystems are expected to be especially sensitive to changes. In this study, we used two ongoing climate warming (open-top chambers) experiments at Finse, southern Norway, to examine whether warming had an effect on herbivory by leaf-chewing insects in an alpine Dryas heath community. We recorded feeding marks on the most common vascular plant species in warmed and control plots at two experimental...

Data from: Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation

Odd Terje Sandlund, Sten Karlsson, Eva B. Thorstad, Ole Kristian Berg, Matthew P. Kent, Ine C. J. Norum & Kjetil Hindar
The river-resident Salmo salar (“småblank”) has been isolated from other Atlantic salmon populations for 9,500 years in upper River Namsen, Norway. This is the only European Atlantic salmon population accomplishing its entire life cycle in a river. Hydropower development during the last six decades has introduced movement barriers and changed more than 50% of the river habitat to lentic conditions. Based on microsatellites and SNPs, genetic variation within småblank was only about 50% of that...

Data from: Amplicon-pyrosequencing based detection of compositional shifts in bryophyte-associated fungal communities along an elevation gradient.

Marie L. Davey, Einar Heegaard, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud & Mikael Ohlson
Although bryophytes are a dominant vegetation component of boreal and alpine ecosystems, little is known about their associated fungal communities. HPLC assays of ergosterol (fungal biomass) and amplicon pyrosequencing of the ITS2 region of rDNA were used to investigate how the fungal communities associated with four bryophyte species changed across an elevational gradient transitioning from conifer forest to the low alpine. Fungal biomass and OTU richness associated with the four moss hosts did not vary...

Data from: Forbidden fruit: human settlement and abundant fruit create an ecological trap for an apex omnivore

Clayton T. Lamb, Garth Mowat, Bruce N. McLellan, Scott E. Nielsen & Stan Boutin
Habitat choice is an evolutionary product of animals experiencing increased fitness when preferentially occupying high-quality habitat. However, an ecological trap (ET) can occur when an animal is presented with novel conditions and the animal's assessment of habitat quality is poorly matched to its resulting fitness. We tested for an ET for grizzly (brown) bears using demographic and movement data collected in an area with rich food resources and concentrated human settlement. We derived measures of...

Data from: Freezer on, lights off! Environmental effects on activity rhythms of fish in the Arctic

Kate L. Hawley, Carolyn M. Rosten, Thrond O. Haugen, Guttorm Christensen & Martyn C. Lucas
Polar regions are characterized by acute seasonal changes in the environment, with organisms inhabiting these regions lacking diel photoperiodic information for parts of the year. We present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution analysis of diel and seasonal activity of free-living fishes in polar waters (74°N), subject to extreme variation in photoperiod, temperature and food availability. Using biotelemetry, we tracked two sympatric ecomorphs of lake-dwelling Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus n = 23) over an annual...

Data from: The potential of biochar in improving drainage, aeration and maize yields in heavy clay soils

Alfred Obia, Jan Mulder, Sarah Elisabeth Hale, Neneng Laela Nurida, Gerard Cornelissen & Sarah Elizabeth Hale
Grain and biomass yieldsHeavy clay Ksat dataHeavy clay water retension data

Data from: Habitat segregation between brown bears and gray wolves in a human-dominated landscape

Cyril Milleret, Andrés Ordiz, Guillaume Chapron, Harry Peter Andreassen, Jonas Kindberg, Johan Månsson, Aimee Tallian, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Jon E. Swenson & Håkan Sand
Identifying how sympatric species belonging to the same guild coexist is a major question of community ecology and conservation. Habitat segregation between two species might help reduce the effects of interspecific competition and apex predators are of special interest in this context, because their interactions can have consequences for lower trophic levels. However, habitat segregation between sympatric large carnivores has seldom been studied. Based on monitoring of 53 brown bears (Ursus arctos) and 7 sympatric...

Data from: Effective population size of malaria mosquitoes: large impact of vector control

Giridhar Athrey, Theresa K. Hodges, Michael R. Reddy, Hans J. Overgaard, Abrahan Matias, Frances C. Ridl, Immo Kleinschmidt, Adalgisa Caccone & Michel A. Slotman
Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa have proven themselves very difficult adversaries in the global struggle against malaria. Decades of anti-vector interventions have yielded mixed results – with successful reductions in transmission in some areas, and limited impacts in others. These varying successes can be ascribed to a lack of universally effective vector control tools, as well as the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Understanding the impact of vector control on mosquito populations is...

Data from: Effects of fleas on nest success of Arctic barnacle geese: experimentally testing the mechanism

Margje E. De Jong & Maarten J.J.E. Loonen
Parasites have detrimental effects on their hosts’ fitness. Therefore, behavioural adaptations have evolved to avoid parasites or, when an individual is already in contact with a parasite, prevent or minimize infections. Such anti-parasite behaviours can be very effective, but can also be costly for the host. Specifically, ectoparasites can elicit strong host anti-parasite behaviours and interactions between fleas (Siphonaptera) and their hosts are one of the best studied. In altricial bird species, nest fleas can...

Data from: Conservation genomics of anadromous Atlantic salmon across its North American range: outlier loci identify the same patterns of population structure as neutral loci

Jean-Sébastien Moore, Vincent Bourret, Mélanie Dionne, Ian Bradbury, Patrick O’Reilly, Matthew Kent, Gérald Chaput, Louis Bernatchez & Patrick O'Reilly
Anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a species of major conservation and management concern in North America, where population abundance has been declining over the past 30 years. Effective conservation actions require the delineation of conservation units to appropriately reflect the spatial scale of intraspecific variation and local adaptation. Towards this goal, we used the most comprehensive genetic and genomic database for Atlantic salmon to date, covering the entire North American range of the species....

Data from: A multi-breed genome-wide association analysis for canine hypothyroidism identifies a shared major risk locus on CFA12

Matteo Bianchi, Stina Dahlgren, Jonathan Massey, Elisabeth Dietschi, Marcin Kierczak, Martine Lund-Ziener, Katarina Sundberg, Stein Istre Thoresen, Olle Kämpe, Göran Andersson, William E. R. Ollier, Åke Hedhammar, Tosso Leeb, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Lorna J. Kennedy, Frode Lingaas & Gerli Rosengren Pielberg
Bianchi, Dahlgren et al., Canine Hypothyroidism data

Data from: Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore

Astrid Vik Stronen, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Cino Pertoldi, Ditte Demontis, Ettore Randi, Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Tomasz Borowik, Vadim E. Sidorovich, Josip Kusak, Ilpo Kojola, Alexandros A. Karamanlidis, Janis Ozolins, Vitalii Dumenko & Sylwia D. Czarnomska
Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north–south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n =...

Universal temperature sensitivity of denitrification nitrogen losses in forest soils

Haoming Yu, Yihang Duan, Jan Mulder, Peter Dörsch, Ronghua Kang, Kai Huang, Dongwei Liu, Chao Wang, Zhoutao Zheng, Zhi Quan, Feifei Zhu, Shushi Peng, Weixing Zhu, Yangjian Zhang & Yunting Fang
Soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen gas (N2) produced from denitrification are crucial components of the global nitrogen cycle and contribute to nitrogen limitation in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the temperature sensitivity of these gaseous N losses and their underlying processes in forest soils are poorly constrained, limiting our ability to predict nitrogen cycling responses to global warming. Here, we quantify temperature sensitivities (expressed as Q10) of denitrification N2O and N2 production in 18 forest soils...

Data from: Stabilizing selection and adaptive evolution in a combination of two traits in an arctic ungulate

Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Knut Røed, Øystein Holand, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Jouko Kumpula
Stabilizing selection is thought to be common in wild populations and act as one of the main evolutionary mechanisms which constrain phenotypic variation. When multiple traits interact to create a combined phenotype, correlational selection may be an important process driving adaptive evolution. Here we report on phenotypic selection and evolutionary changes in two natal traits in a semi-domestic population of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in northern Finland. The population has been closely monitored since 1969, and...

Data from: Population properties affect inbreeding avoidance in moose

Ivar Herfindal, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H. Røed, Erling J. Solberg, Stine S. Markussen, Morten Heim, Bernt-Erik Sæther & B.-E. Saether
Mechanisms reducing inbreeding are thought to have evolved owing to fitness costs of breeding with close relatives. In small and isolated populations, or populations with skewed age- or sex distributions, mate choice becomes limited, and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms ineffective. We used a unique individual-based dataset on moose from a small island in Norway to assess whether inbreeding avoidance was related to population structure and size, expecting inbreeding avoidance to be greater in years with larger...

Data from: High-throughput microsatellite genotyping in ecology: improved accuracy, efficiency, standardization and success with low-quantity and degraded DNA

Marta De Barba, Christian Miquel, Stephane Lobreaux, Pierre Yves Quenette, Jon E. Swenson & Pierre Taberlet
Microsatellite markers have played a major role in ecological, evolutionary and conservation research during the past 20 years. However, technical constrains related to the use of capillary electrophoresis and a recent technological revolution that has impacted other marker types have brought to question the continued use of microsatellites for certain applications. We present a study for improving microsatellite genotyping in ecology using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). This approach entails selection of short markers suitable for HTS,...

Data from: Temporal variation in habitat selection breaks the catch-22 of spatially contrasting predation risk from multiple predators

Karen Lone, Atle Mysterud, Terje Gobakken, John Odden, John Linnell & Leif Egil Loe
Predator avoidance depends on prey being able to discern how risk varies in space and time, but this is made considerably more complicated if risk is simultaneously present from multiple predators. This is the situation for an increasing number of mammalian prey species, as large carnivores recover or are reintroduced in ecosystems on several continents. Roe deer Capreolus capreolus in southern Norway illustrate a case in which prey face two predators with contrasting patterns of...

Data from: Consequences of a demographic bottleneck on genetic structure and variation in the Scandinavian brown bear

Georgios Xenikoudakis, Erik Ersmark, Lisette Waits, Jonas Kindberg, Jon E. Swenson & Love Dalén
The Scandinavian brown bear went through a major decline in population size approximately 100 years ago, due to intense hunting. After being protected, the population subsequently recovered and today numbers in the thousands. The genetic diversity in the contemporary population has been investigated in considerable detail, and it has been shown that the population consists of several subpopulations that display relatively high levels of genetic variation. However, previous studies have been unable to resolve the...

Data from: No place like home? A test of the natal habitat-biased dispersal hypothesis in Scandinavian wolves

Ana Sanz Pérez, Andres Ordiz, Håkan Sand, Jon Swenson, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Mikael Åkesson & Cyril Milleret
Natal dispersal is an important mechanism for the viability of populations. The influence of local conditions or experience gained in the natal habitat could improve fitness if dispersing individuals settle in an area with similar habitat characteristics. This process, defined as “natal habitat-biased dispersal” (NHBD), has been used to explain distribution patterns in large carnivores, but actual studies evaluating it are rare. We tested whether gray wolf Canis lupus territory establishment was influenced by the...

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