163 Works

A genome-wide linkage map for the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) provides insights into the evolutionary history of the avian genome

Ingerid Hagen, Sigbjørn Lien, Anna Billing, Tore O. Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Alina K. Niskanen, Maja Tarka, Jon Slate, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Henrik Jensen
The house sparrow is an important model species for studying physiological, ecological and evolutionary processes in wild populations. Here, we present a medium density, genome wide linkage map for house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has aided the assembly of the house sparrow reference genome, and that will provide an important resource for ongoing mapping of genes controlling important traits in the ecology and evolution of this species. Using a custom house sparrow 10K iSelect Illumina...

Phytplanction Juruá River

Joao Vitor Campos-Silva & Carlos Peres
1. Tropical floodplains secure the protein supply of millions of people, but only sound management can ensure the long-term continuity of such ecosystem services. Overfishing is a widespread threat to multitrophic systems, but how it affects ecosystem functioning is poorly understood, particularly in tropical freshwater foodwebs. Models based on temperate lakes frequently assume that primary producers are mostly bottom-up controlled by nutrient and light limitations, with negligible effects of top-down forces. Yet this assumption remains...

Enhancing pollination is more effective than increased conventional agriculture inputs for improving watermelon yields

Thomas Sawe, Katrine Eldegard, Ørjan Totland, Samora Macrice & Anders Nielsen
Agricultural practices to improve yields in small-scale farms in Africa usually focus on improving growing conditions for the crops by applying fertilizers, irrigation and/or pesticides. This may however, have limited effect on yield if the availability of effective pollinators is too low. In this study, we established an experiment to test whether soil fertility, soil moisture and/or pollination was limiting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) yields in Northern Tanzania. We subjected the experimental field to common farming...

Data from: Consistent scaling of inbreeding depression in space and time in a house sparrow metapopulation

Alina K. Niskanen, Anna M. Billing, Håkon Holand, Ingerid J. Hagen, Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy, Arild Husby, Bernt Rønning, Ane Marlene Myhre, Peter Sjolte Ranke, Thomas Kvalnes, Henrik Pärn, Thor Harald Ringsby, Sigbjørn Lien, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Stefanie Muff & Henrik Jensen
Inbreeding may increase the extinction risk of small populations. Yet, studies using modern genomic tools to investigate inbreeding depression in nature have been limited to single populations, and little is known about the dynamics of inbreeding depression in subdivided populations over time. Natural populations often experience different environmental conditions and differ in demographic history and genetic composition; characteristics that can affect the severity of inbreeding depression. We utilised extensive long-term data on more than 3100...

Data from: Environmental conditions alter successional trajectories on an ephemeral resource: a field experiment with beetles in dead wood

Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad, Tone Birkemoe, Rolf Anker Ims & Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Successional processes can be observed for many organisms and resources, but most studies of succession have focused on plants. A general framework has been proposed, advocating that successional patterns in species turnover are predominantly driven by competition, dispersal or abiotic limitation, and that the patterning of species accumulation over time gives clues to which process is most influential in a given system. We applied this framework to succession in communities of wood-living beetles, utilizing ephemeral...

Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics

Francesco Rovero, Jorge Ahumada, Patrick Jansen, Douglas Sheil, Patricia Alvarez, Kelly Boekee, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Lima, Emanuel Martin, Timothy O’Brien, Julia Salvador, Fernanda Santos, Melissa Rosa, Alexander Zvoleff, Chris Sutherland & Simone Tenan
Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here,...

Do tradeoffs govern plant species responses to different global change treatments?

J. Adam Langley, Emily Grman, Kevin Wilcox, Meghan Avolio, Kimberly Komatsu, Scott Collins, Sally Koerner, Melinda Smith, Andrew Baldwin, William Bowman, Nona Chiariello, Anu Eskelinen, Harry Harmens, Mark Hovenden, Kari Klanderud, Rebecca McCulley, Vladimir Onipchenko, Clare Robinson & Katharine Suding
Plants are subject to tradeoffs among growth strategies such that adaptations for optimal growth in one condition can preclude optimal growth in another. Thus, we hypothesized that the response of plant species abundance to one global change treatment would relate inversely to the response to a second treatment, particularly for treatment combinations that accentuate distinct traits. To address this hypothesis, we examined plant species abundances in 39 global change experiments manipulating CO2, nitrogen, phosphorus, water,...

Data from: No place like home? A test of the natal habitat-biased dispersal hypothesis in Scandinavian wolves

Ana Sanz Pérez, Andres Ordiz, Håkan Sand, Jon Swenson, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Mikael Åkesson & Cyril Milleret
Natal dispersal is an important mechanism for the viability of populations. The influence of local conditions or experience gained in the natal habitat could improve fitness if dispersing individuals settle in an area with similar habitat characteristics. This process, defined as “natal habitat-biased dispersal” (NHBD), has been used to explain distribution patterns in large carnivores, but actual studies evaluating it are rare. We tested whether gray wolf Canis lupus territory establishment was influenced by the...

Data from: Consequences of a demographic bottleneck on genetic structure and variation in the Scandinavian brown bear

Georgios Xenikoudakis, Erik Ersmark, Lisette Waits, Jonas Kindberg, Jon E. Swenson & Love Dalén
The Scandinavian brown bear went through a major decline in population size approximately 100 years ago, due to intense hunting. After being protected, the population subsequently recovered and today numbers in the thousands. The genetic diversity in the contemporary population has been investigated in considerable detail, and it has been shown that the population consists of several subpopulations that display relatively high levels of genetic variation. However, previous studies have been unable to resolve the...

Data from: High-throughput microsatellite genotyping in ecology: improved accuracy, efficiency, standardization and success with low-quantity and degraded DNA

Marta De Barba, Christian Miquel, Stephane Lobreaux, Pierre Yves Quenette, Jon E. Swenson & Pierre Taberlet
Microsatellite markers have played a major role in ecological, evolutionary and conservation research during the past 20 years. However, technical constrains related to the use of capillary electrophoresis and a recent technological revolution that has impacted other marker types have brought to question the continued use of microsatellites for certain applications. We present a study for improving microsatellite genotyping in ecology using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). This approach entails selection of short markers suitable for HTS,...

Data from: Population properties affect inbreeding avoidance in moose

Ivar Herfindal, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H. Røed, Erling J. Solberg, Stine S. Markussen, Morten Heim, Bernt-Erik Sæther & B.-E. Saether
Mechanisms reducing inbreeding are thought to have evolved owing to fitness costs of breeding with close relatives. In small and isolated populations, or populations with skewed age- or sex distributions, mate choice becomes limited, and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms ineffective. We used a unique individual-based dataset on moose from a small island in Norway to assess whether inbreeding avoidance was related to population structure and size, expecting inbreeding avoidance to be greater in years with larger...

Data from: Computing the local field potential (LFP) from integrate-and-fire network models

Alberto Mazzoni, Henrik Anders Lindén, Hermann Cuntz, Anders Lansner, Stefano Panzeri, Gaute Tomas Einevoll & Henrik Lindén
Leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) network models are commonly used to study how the spiking dynamics of neural networks changes with stimuli, tasks or dynamic network states. However, neurophysiological studies in vivo often rather measure the mass activity of neuronal microcircuits with the local field potential (LFP). Given that LFPs are generated by spatially separated currents across the neuronal membrane, they cannot be computed directly from quantities defined in models of point-like LIF neurons. Here, we explore...

Data from: Temporal variation in habitat selection breaks the catch-22 of spatially contrasting predation risk from multiple predators

Karen Lone, Atle Mysterud, Terje Gobakken, John Odden, John Linnell & Leif Egil Loe
Predator avoidance depends on prey being able to discern how risk varies in space and time, but this is made considerably more complicated if risk is simultaneously present from multiple predators. This is the situation for an increasing number of mammalian prey species, as large carnivores recover or are reintroduced in ecosystems on several continents. Roe deer Capreolus capreolus in southern Norway illustrate a case in which prey face two predators with contrasting patterns of...

Data from: SNPs to discriminate different classes of hybrid between wild Atlantic salmon and aquaculture escapees

Victoria L. Pritchard, Jaakko Erkinaro, Matthew P. Kent, Eero Niemelä, Panu Orell, Sigbjørn Lien & Craig R. Primmer
Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations are threatened by introgressive hybridization from domesticated fish that have escaped from aquaculture facilities. A detailed understanding of the hybridization dynamics between wild salmon and aquaculture escapees requires discrimination of different hybrid classes, however markers currently available to discriminate the two types of parental genome have limited power to do this. Using a high-density Atlantic salmon SNP array in combination with pooled-sample allelotyping and an Fst outlier approach,...

Data from: Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Mohamed Abdelhalim, Anil Kunapareddy, Åshild Ergon, Anne Marte Tronsmo, May Bente Brurberg, Ingerd Skow Hofgaard, Torben Asp & Odd Arne Rognli
Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance...

Data from: Diel activity, frequency and visit duration of pollinators in focal plants: in situ automatic camera monitoring and data processing

Ronny Steen
Data collection on interactions between organisms and their environment has traditionally been conducted by on-site human observations, a time-consuming enterprise that could explain the shortage of around-the-clock observations of free-ranging wild animals. In this paper, I outline a time-efficient procedure to collect data on flower-visiting animals. The objectives were, first, to model diel activity rhythms by using cosine-based mixed-effects regression models (cosinor method) on data from an established automatic video monitoring system and, secondly, to...

Data from: Commonness and ecology, but not bigger brains, predict urban living in birds

Svein Dale, Jan T. Lifjeld & Melissah Rowe
Background: Several life history and ecological variables have been reported to affect the likelihood of species becoming urbanized. Recently, studies have also focused on the role of brain size in explaining ability to adapt to urban environments. In contrast, however, little is known about the effect of colonization pressure from surrounding areas, which may confound conclusions about what makes a species urban. We recorded presence/absence data for birds in 93 urban sites in Oslo (Norway)...

Data from: Cost of reproduction: a comparison of survival rates of breeding and non-breeding male ortolan buntings

Svein Dale
The cost of reproduction is expected to influence survival or future reproduction. Most previous studies have assessed cost of reproduction in relation to natural and experimental variation in number of offspring produced. The ortolan bunting Emberiza hortulana is a passerine bird species with biparental care, and the Norwegian population of the species has an extraordinarily skewed sex ratio with only about half of the males attracting a female, and therefore provides a rare opportunity to...

Data from: Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents

Aimee Tallian, Andres Ordiz, Matthew C. Metz, Cyril Milleret, Camilla Wikenros, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. Stahler, Jonas Kindberg, Daniel R. MacNulty, Petter Wabakken, Jon E. Swenson & Håkan Sand
Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as...

Data from: SNP-array reveals genome wide patterns of geographical and potential adaptive divergence across the natural range of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Vincent Bourret, Matthew P. Kent, Craig R. Primmer, Anti Vasemägi, Sten Karlsson, Kjetil Hindar, Philip McGinnity, Eric Verspoor, Louis Bernatchez & Sigbjørn Lien
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the most extensively studied fish species in the world due to its significance in aquaculture, fisheries and ongoing conservation efforts to protect declining populations. Yet, limited genomic resources have hampered our understanding of genetic architecture in the species and the genetic basis of adaptation to the wide range of natural and artificial environments it occupies. In this paper, we describe the development of a medium density Atlantic salmon...

Data from: Hunting promotes sexual conflict in brown bears

Jacinthe Gosselin, Martin Leclerc, Andreas Zedrosser, Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Jon E. Swenson & Fanie Pelletier
The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991–2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled...

Data from: Maternal winter body mass and not spring phenology determine annual calf production in an Arctic herbivore

Vebjorn Veiberg, Leif Egil Loe, Steve Albon, Robert Irvine, Torkild Tveraa, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Steve D. Albon & R. Justin Irvine
Warming of the Arctic has resulted in earlier snowmelt and green-up of plants in spring, potentially disrupting the synchrony between plant phenology and breeding phenology in herbivores. A negative relationship between offspring survival in West-Greenland caribou and the timing of vegetation emergence was the first finding of such a mismatch in Arctic mammals. However, other studies indicate that the energy for foetal growth and early lactation is predominantly drawn from stored energy reserves typical of...

Data from: The effects of habitat management on the species, phylogenetic and functional diversity of bees are modified by the environmental context

Markus A. K. Sydenham, Stein R. Moe, Diana N. Stanescu-Yadav, Ørjan Totland & Katrine Eldegard
Anthropogenic landscape elements, such as roadsides, hedgerows, field edges, and power line clearings, can be managed to provide important habitats for wild bees. However, the effects of habitat improvement schemes in power line clearings on components of diversity are poorly studied. We conducted a large-scale experiment to test the effects of different management practices on the species, phylogenetic, and functional diversity of wild bees in power line clearings (n = 19 sites across southeastern Norway)...

Data from: Inferences of genetic architecture of bill morphology in house sparrow using a high‐density SNP array point to a polygenic basis

Sarah L. Lundregan, Ingerid J. Hagen, Jostein Gohli, Alina K. Niskanen, Petri Kemppainen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Thomas Kvalnes, Henrik Pärn, Bernt Rønning, Håkon Holand, Peter S. Ranke, Anna S. Båtnes, Linn-Karina Selvik, Sigbjorn Lien, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Arild Husby, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits can provide insights into the mechanisms driving phenotypic evolution. Bill morphology is an ecologically important and phenotypically variable trait, which is highly heritable and closely linked to individual fitness. Thus, bill morphology traits are suitable candidates for gene mapping analyses. Previous studies have revealed several genes that may influence bill morphology, but the similarity of gene and allele effects between species and populations is unknown. Here, we develop...

Data from: Long-lasting effects of logging on beetles in hollow oaks

Hanne Eik Pilskog, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Marianne Evju, Erik Framstad & Tone Birkemoe
There is growing evidence that biodiversity is important for ecosystem functions. Thus, identification of habitat requirements essential for current species richness and abundance to persist is crucial. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp.) are biodiversity hot spots for deadwood‐dependent insect species, and the main objective of this paper was to test the effect of habitat history and current habitat distribution at various spatial scales on the associated beetle community. We used a gradient spanning 40 km from...

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