25 Works

Data from: Does biomass growth increase in the largest trees? Flaws, fallacies and alternative analyses

Douglas Sheil, Chris S. Eastaugh, Mart Vlam, Pieter A. Zuidema, Peter Groenendijk, Peter Van Der Sleen, Alex Jay & Jerome Vanclay
The long-standing view that biomass growth in trees typically follows a rise-and-fall unimodal pattern has been challenged by studies concluding that biomass growth increases with size even among the largest stems in both closed forests and in open competition-free environments. We highlight challenges and pitfalls that influence such interpretations. The ability to observe and calibrate biomass change in large stems requires adequate data regarding these specific stems. Data checking and control procedures can bias estimates...

Data from: Host and tissue variation overshadow the response of boreal moss-associated fungal communities to increased nitrogen load

Marie L. Davey, Marte J. Skogen, Einar Heegaard, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud & Mikael Ohlson
Human activity has more than doubled the amount of nitrogen entering the global nitrogen cycle, and the boreal forest biome is a nitrogen-limited ecosystem sensitive to nitrogen load perturbation. Although bryophyte-associated microbes contribute significantly to boreal forest ecosystem function, particularly in carbon and nitrogen cycling, little is known about their responses to anthropogenic global change. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the ITS2 region of rDNA was used to investigate how fungal communities associated with three bryophyte species...

Data from: De novo and reference transcriptome assembly of transcripts expressed during flowering provide insight into seed setting in tetraploid red clover

Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Helga Amdahl, Muath Alsheikh & Odd Arne Rognli
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is one of the most important legume forage species in temperate livestock agriculture. Tetraploid red clover cultivars are generally producing less seed than diploid cultivars. Improving the seed setting potential of tetraploid cultivars is necessary to utilize the high forage quality and environmentally sustainable nitrogen fixation ability of red clover. In the current study, our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in seed setting. Two genotypes, ‘Tripo’ with weak...

Data from: Evolution of the immune system influences speciation rates in teleost fishes

Martin Malmstrøm, Michael Matschiner, Ole K. Tørresen, Bastiaan Star, Lars G. Snipen, Thomas F. Hansen, Helle T. Baalsrud, Alexander J. Nederbragt, Reinhold Hanel, Walter Salzburger, Nils C. Stenseth, Kjetill S. Jakobsen & Sissel Jentoft
Teleost fishes constitute the most species-rich vertebrate clade and exhibit extensive genetic and phenotypic variation, including diverse immune defense strategies. The genomic basis of a particularly aberrant strategy is exemplified by Atlantic cod, in which a loss of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II functionality coincides with a marked expansion of MHC I genes. Through low-coverage genome sequencing (9–39×), assembly and comparative analyses for 66 teleost species, we show here that MHC II is missing in...

Data from: A genome-wide association study identifies a region strongly associated with symmetrical onychomadesis on chromosome 12 in dogs

Stina Dahlgren, Martine Lund Ziener & Frode Lingaas
Symmetrical onychomadesis causes periodic loss of claws in otherwise healthy dogs. Genome-wide association analysis in 225 Gordon Setters identified a single region associated with symmetrical onychomadesis on chromosome 12 (spanning about 3.3 mb). A meta-analysis including also English Setters indicated that this genomic region predisposes for symmetrical onychomadesis in English Setters as well. The associated region spans most of the major histocompatibility complex and nearly 1 Mb downstream. Like many other autoimmune diseases, associations of...

Data from: Monitoring of plant-environment interactions by high throughput FTIR spectroscopy of pollen

Murat Bağcıoğlu, Achim Kohler, Stephan Seifert, Janina Kneipp & Boris Zimmermann
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy enables chemical analysis of pollen samples for plant phenotyping to study plant–environment interactions, such as influence of climate change or pathogens. However, current approach, such as microspectroscopy and attenuated total reflection spectroscopy, does not allow for high-throughput protocols. This study at hand suggests a new spectroscopic method for high-throughput characterization of pollen. Samples were measured as thin films of pollen fragments using a Bruker FTIR spectrometer with a high-throughput eXTension...

Data from: Using network analysis to study behavioural phenotypes: an example using domestic dogs

Conor Goold, Judit Vas, Christine Olsen & Ruth C. Newberry
Phenotypic integration describes the complex interrelationships between organismal traits, traditionally focusing on morphology. Recently, research has sought to represent behavioural phenotypes as composed of quasi-independent latent traits. Concurrently, psychologists have opposed latent variable interpretations of human behaviour, proposing instead a network perspective envisaging interrelationships between behaviours as emerging from causal dependencies. Network analysis could also be applied to understand integrated behavioural phenotypes in animals. Here, we assimilate this cross-disciplinary progression of ideas by demonstrating the...

Data from: Introduced Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) invades the genome of native populations in vulnerable heathland habitats

Lene Rostgaard Nielsen, Ursula Brandes, Erik Dahl Kjær, Siri Fjellheim & Erik Dahl Kjaer
Cytisus scoparius is a global invasive species that affects local flora and fauna at the intercontinental level. Its natural distribution spans across Europe, but seeds have also been moved among countries, mixing plants of native and non-native genetic origins. Hybridization between the introduced and native gene pool is likely to threaten both the native gene pool and the local flora. In this study, we address the potential threat of invasive C. scoparius to local gene...

Data from: Controlling for p-value inflation in allele frequency change in experimental evolution and artificial selection experiments

Petri Kemppainen, Bernt Rønning, Thomas Kvalnes, Ingerid J. Hagen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Anna M. Billing, Henrik Pärn, Sigbjorn Lien, Arild Husby, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Experimental evolution studies can be used to explore genomic response to artificial and natural selection. In such studies, loci that display larger allele frequency change than expected by genetic drift alone are assumed to be directly or indirectly associated with traits under selection. However, such studies report surprisingly many loci under selection, suggesting that current tests for allele frequency change may be subject to p-value inflation and hence be anti-conservative. One factor known from genome...

Data from: Harvest-induced phenotypic selection in an island population of moose, Alces alces

Thomas Kvalnes, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H. Røed, Steinar Engen, Erling J. Solberg & Bernt-Erik Saether
Empirical evidence strongly indicates that human exploitation has frequently led to rapid evolutionary changes in wild populations, yet the mechanisms involved are often poorly understood. Here we applied a recently developed demographic framework for analysing selection to data from a 20-year study of a wild population of moose, Alces alces. In this population, a genetic pedigree has been established all the way back to founders. We demonstrate harvest-induced directional selection for delayed birth dates in...

Data from: The influence of weather conditions during gestation on life histories in a wild Arctic ungulate

Mathieu Douhard, Leif Egil Loe, Audun Stien, Christophe Bonenfant, R. Justin Irvine, Vebjørn Veiberg, Erik Ropstad & Steve Albon
The internal predictive adaptive response (internal PAR) hypothesis predicts that individuals born in poor conditions should start to reproduce earlier if they are likely to have reduced performance in later life. However, whether this is the case remains unexplored in wild populations. Here, we use longitudinal data from a long-term study of Svalbard reindeer to examine age-related changes in adult female life-history responses to environmental conditions experienced in utero as indexed by rain-on-snow (ROSutero). We...

Data from: Human shields mediate sexual conflict in a top predator

Sam M.J.G. Steyaert, Martin Leclerc, Fanie Pelletier, Jonas Kindberg, Sven Brunberg, Jon E. Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser & S. M. J. G. Steyaert
Selecting the right habitat in a risky landscape is crucial for an individual's survival and reproduction. In predator–prey systems, prey often can anticipate the habitat use of their main predator and may use protective associates (i.e. typically an apex predator) as shields against predation. Although never tested, such mechanisms should also evolve in systems in which sexual conflict affects offspring survival. Here, we assessed the relationship between offspring survival and habitat selection, as well as...

Data from: Experimental warming increases herbivory by leaf-chewing insects in an alpine plant community

Tone Birkemoe, Saskia Bergmann, Toril E. Hasle & Kari Klanderud
Climate warming is predicted to affect species and trophic interactions worldwide, and alpine ecosystems are expected to be especially sensitive to changes. In this study, we used two ongoing climate warming (open-top chambers) experiments at Finse, southern Norway, to examine whether warming had an effect on herbivory by leaf-chewing insects in an alpine Dryas heath community. We recorded feeding marks on the most common vascular plant species in warmed and control plots at two experimental...

Data from: What's the meaning of local? Using molecular markers to define seed transfer zones for ecological restoration in Norway

Marte Holten Jørgensen, Abdelhameed Elameen, Nadine Hofman, Sonja Klemsdal, Sandra Malaval & Siri Fjellheim
According to the Norwegian Diversity Act, practitioners of restoration in Norway are instructed to use seed mixtures of local provenance. However, there are no guidelines for how local seed should be selected. In this study, we use genetic variation in a set of alpine species (Agrostis mertensii, Avenella flexuosa, Carex bigelowii, Festuca ovina, Poa alpina and Scorzoneroides autumnalis) to define seed transfer zones to reduce confusion about the definition of ‘local seeds’. The species selected...

Data from: Forbidden fruit: human settlement and abundant fruit create an ecological trap for an apex omnivore

Clayton T. Lamb, Garth Mowat, Bruce N. McLellan, Scott E. Nielsen & Stan Boutin
Habitat choice is an evolutionary product of animals experiencing increased fitness when preferentially occupying high-quality habitat. However, an ecological trap (ET) can occur when an animal is presented with novel conditions and the animal's assessment of habitat quality is poorly matched to its resulting fitness. We tested for an ET for grizzly (brown) bears using demographic and movement data collected in an area with rich food resources and concentrated human settlement. We derived measures of...

Data from: High-throughput microsatellite genotyping in ecology: improved accuracy, efficiency, standardization and success with low-quantity and degraded DNA

Marta De Barba, Christian Miquel, Stephane Lobreaux, Pierre Yves Quenette, Jon E. Swenson & Pierre Taberlet
Microsatellite markers have played a major role in ecological, evolutionary and conservation research during the past 20 years. However, technical constrains related to the use of capillary electrophoresis and a recent technological revolution that has impacted other marker types have brought to question the continued use of microsatellites for certain applications. We present a study for improving microsatellite genotyping in ecology using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). This approach entails selection of short markers suitable for HTS,...

Data from: Temporal variation in habitat selection breaks the catch-22 of spatially contrasting predation risk from multiple predators

Karen Lone, Atle Mysterud, Terje Gobakken, John Odden, John Linnell & Leif Egil Loe
Predator avoidance depends on prey being able to discern how risk varies in space and time, but this is made considerably more complicated if risk is simultaneously present from multiple predators. This is the situation for an increasing number of mammalian prey species, as large carnivores recover or are reintroduced in ecosystems on several continents. Roe deer Capreolus capreolus in southern Norway illustrate a case in which prey face two predators with contrasting patterns of...

Data from: SNPs to discriminate different classes of hybrid between wild Atlantic salmon and aquaculture escapees

Victoria L. Pritchard, Jaakko Erkinaro, Matthew P. Kent, Eero Niemelä, Panu Orell, Sigbjørn Lien & Craig R. Primmer
Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations are threatened by introgressive hybridization from domesticated fish that have escaped from aquaculture facilities. A detailed understanding of the hybridization dynamics between wild salmon and aquaculture escapees requires discrimination of different hybrid classes, however markers currently available to discriminate the two types of parental genome have limited power to do this. Using a high-density Atlantic salmon SNP array in combination with pooled-sample allelotyping and an Fst outlier approach,...

Data from: Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Mohamed Abdelhalim, Anil Kunapareddy, Åshild Ergon, Anne Marte Tronsmo, May Bente Brurberg, Ingerd Skow Hofgaard, Torben Asp & Odd Arne Rognli
Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance...

Data from: Diel activity, frequency and visit duration of pollinators in focal plants: in situ automatic camera monitoring and data processing

Ronny Steen
Data collection on interactions between organisms and their environment has traditionally been conducted by on-site human observations, a time-consuming enterprise that could explain the shortage of around-the-clock observations of free-ranging wild animals. In this paper, I outline a time-efficient procedure to collect data on flower-visiting animals. The objectives were, first, to model diel activity rhythms by using cosine-based mixed-effects regression models (cosinor method) on data from an established automatic video monitoring system and, secondly, to...

Data from: Cost of reproduction: a comparison of survival rates of breeding and non-breeding male ortolan buntings

Svein Dale
The cost of reproduction is expected to influence survival or future reproduction. Most previous studies have assessed cost of reproduction in relation to natural and experimental variation in number of offspring produced. The ortolan bunting Emberiza hortulana is a passerine bird species with biparental care, and the Norwegian population of the species has an extraordinarily skewed sex ratio with only about half of the males attracting a female, and therefore provides a rare opportunity to...

Data from: Hunting promotes sexual conflict in brown bears

Jacinthe Gosselin, Martin Leclerc, Andreas Zedrosser, Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Jon E. Swenson & Fanie Pelletier
The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991–2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled...

Data from: Maternal winter body mass and not spring phenology determine annual calf production in an Arctic herbivore

Vebjorn Veiberg, Leif Egil Loe, Steve Albon, Robert Irvine, Torkild Tveraa, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Steve D. Albon & R. Justin Irvine
Warming of the Arctic has resulted in earlier snowmelt and green-up of plants in spring, potentially disrupting the synchrony between plant phenology and breeding phenology in herbivores. A negative relationship between offspring survival in West-Greenland caribou and the timing of vegetation emergence was the first finding of such a mismatch in Arctic mammals. However, other studies indicate that the energy for foetal growth and early lactation is predominantly drawn from stored energy reserves typical of...

Data from: Fire history in a western Fennoscandian boreal forest as influenced by human land use and climate

Jørund Rolstad, Ylva-Li Blanck & Ken Olaf Storaunet
Knowing the historical variation in fire regimes is instrumental in managing forests today and in predicting what may happen in the future. By cross-dating 745 fire scars in 378 samples of remnant Scots pines, we delineated 254 individual forest fires during the past 700 years in a 74-km2 section of Trillemarka-Rollagsfjell Nature Reserve in south-central Norway. Fire sizes, numbers, burn rates, and frequencies were compared with historical climate proxies, vegetation maps, and written sources. The...

Data from: A genome scan for selection signatures comparing farmed Atlantic salmon with two wild populations: testing co-localization among outlier markers, candidate genes, and QTLs for production traits

Lei Liu, Keng Pee Ang, J. A. K. Elliott, Matthew Peter Kent, Sigbjørn Lien, Danielle MacDonald & Elizabeth Grace Boulding
Comparative genome scans can be used to identify chromosome regions, but not traits, that are putatively under selection. Identification of targeted traits may be more likely in recently domesticated populations under strong artificial selection for increased production. We used a North American Atlantic salmon 6K SNP dataset to locate genome regions of an aquaculture strain (Saint John River) that were highly diverged from that of its putative wild founder population (Tobique River). First, admixed individuals...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    25

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    25

Affiliations

  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    25
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    6
  • University of Oslo
    3
  • Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research
    3
  • Université de Sherbrooke
    2
  • James Hutton Institute
    2
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    2
  • Southern Cross University
    1
  • Centre national de la recherche scientifique
    1
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    1