191 Works

Data from: Operational sex ratio but not density affects sexual selection in a fish

Sebastian Wacker, Kenyon Mobley, Elisabet Forsgren, Lise Cats Myhre, Karen De Jong & Trond Amundsen
The operational sex ratio (OSR) and density are considered important factors affecting the strength of sexual selection. While there is increasing evidence that OSR and density affect the potential for sexual selection, few studies have addressed whether this is realized in phenotypic selection and how the two factors interact. We manipulated OSR (three levels) and male density (two levels) in 36 experimental breeding populations of Gobiusculus flavescens – a fish with paternal care. We measured...

Data from: Cryptic choice of conspecific sperm controlled by the impact of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behaviour

Sarah Elizabeth Yeates, Sian Elizabeth Diamond, Sigurd Einum, Brent C. Emerson, William V. Holt & Matthew J. G. Gage
Despite evidence that variation in male-female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic micro-environment, we find complete inter-fertility between both species. However, if either species’ ova were presented with equivalent numbers of...

Data from: To breed or not to breed: endocrine response to mercury contamination by an Arctic seabird

Sabrina Tartu, Aurélie Goutte, Paco Bustamante, Frédéric Angelier, Børge Moe, Céline Clément-Chastel, Claus Bech, Geir Wing Gabrielsen, Jan Ove Bustnes & Olivier Chastel
Mercury, a ubiquitous toxic element, is known to alter expression of sex steroids and to impair reproduction across vertebrates but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clearly identified. We examined whether contamination by mercury predicts the probability to skip reproduction in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard. We also manipulated the endocrine system to investigate the mechanism underlying this relationship. During the pre-laying period, we injected exogenous GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) to test the ability...

Data from: Persistent organic pollution in a high-Arctic top predator: sex-dependent thresholds in adult survival

Kjell Einar Erikstad, Hanno Sandvik, Tone Kristin Reiertsen, Jan Ove Bustnes, Hallvard Strøm & H. Strom
In long-lived species, any negative effect of pollution on adult survival may pose serious hazards to breeding populations. In the present study we measured concentrations of various organochlorines (OCs: PCB and organochlorine pesticides) in the blood of a large number of adult glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding on Bjørnøya (Bear Island) in the Norwegian Arctic, and modelled their local survival using capture–recapture analysis. Survival was negatively associated with concentrations of OCs in the blood. The...

Data from: Migration and stress during reproduction govern telomere dynamics in a seabird

Jannik Schultner, Børge Moe, Olivier Chastel, Claus Bech & Alexander S. Kitaysky
Changes in telomere length are believed to reflect changes in physiological state and life expectancy in animals. However, much remains unknown about the determinants of telomere dynamics in wild populations, and specifically the influence of conditions during highly mobile life-history stages, for example migration. We tested whether telomere dynamics were associated with migratory behaviour and/or with stress during reproduction in free-living seabirds. We induced short-term stress during reproduction in chick-rearing, black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), tracked...

Data from: Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon

Sarah E. Yeates, Sigurd Einum, William V. Holt, Ian A. Fleming & Matthew J. G. Gage
Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole...

Data from: The role of predation and food limitation on claims for compensation, reindeer demography and population dynamics

Torkild Tveraa, Audun Stien, Henrik Brøseth & Nigel Gilles Yoccoz
1. A major challenge in biodiversity conservation is to facilitate viable populations of large apex predators in ecosystems where they were recently driven to ecological extinction due to resource conflict with humans. 2. Monetary compensation for losses of livestock due to predation is currently a key instrument to encourage human–carnivore coexistence. However, a lack of quantitative estimates of livestock losses due to predation leads to disagreement over the practise of compensation payments. This disagreement sustains...

Data from: Complex constraints on allometry revealed by artificial selection on the wing of Drosophila melanogaster

Geir H. Bolstad, Jason A. Cassara, Eladio Márquez, Thomas F. Hansen, Kim Van Der Linde, David Houle & Christophe Pélabon
Precise exponential scaling with size is a fundamental aspect of phenotypic variation. These allometric power laws are often invariant across taxa and have long been hypothesized to reflect developmental constraints. Here we test this hypothesis by investigating the evolutionary potential of an allometric scaling relationship in drosophilid wing shape that is nearly invariant across 111 species separated by at least 50 million years of evolution. In only 26 generations of artificial selection in a population...

Data from: Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Jürgen Schmidl, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jonathan R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H.C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan, Andreas Floren, Roger L. Kitching … & Jacques H. C. Delabie
Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14...

Data from: Let’s stay together? Intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved in pair bond dissolution in a recolonizing wolf population

Cyril Milleret, Petter Wabakken, Olof Liberg, Mikael Åkesson, Øystein Flagstad, Harry Peter Andreassen & Håkan Sand
For socially monogamous species, breeder bond dissolution has important consequences for population dynamics, but the extent to which extrinsic or intrinsic population factors causes pair dissolution remain poorly understood, especially among carnivores. Using an extensive life-history data set, a survival analysis and competing risks framework, we examined the fate of 153 different wolf (Canis lupus) pairs in the recolonizing Scandinavian wolf population, during 14 winters of snow tracking and DNA monitoring. Wolf pair dissolution was...

Data from: The narrow gap between norms and cooperative behaviour in a reindeer herding community

Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen & Marius Warg Næss
Cooperation evolves on social networks and is shaped, in part, by norms: beliefs and expectations about the behaviour of others or of oneself. Networks of cooperative social partners and associated norms are vital for pastoralists, such as Saami reindeer herders in northern Norway. However, little is known quantitatively about how norms structure pastoralists' social networks or shape cooperation. Saami herders reported their social networks and participated in field experiments, allowing us to gauge the overlap...

Data from: Berry production drives bottom-up effects on body mass and reproductive success in an omnivore

Anne G. Hertel, Richard Bischof, Ola Langvall, Atle Mysterud, Jonas Kindberg, Jon E. Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser & Ola Langval
Obligate herbivores dominate studies of the effects of climate change on mammals, however there is limited empirical evidence for how changes in the abundance or quality of plant food affect mammalian omnivores. Omnivores can exploit a range of different food resources over the course of a year, but they often rely on seasonally restricted highly nutritious fruiting bodies during critical life stages. Brown bears Ursus arctos in Sweden are dependent on berries for fattening before...

Data from: Quantifying risk of overharvest when implementation is uncertain

Lasse F. Eriksen, Pål F. Moa & Erlend B. Nilsen
1. Sustainable harvest management implies an ability to control harvest rates. This is challenging in systems that have limited control of resources and resource users, which is often the case in small game harvest management. The difference between management strategies and actual harvest bag size (i.e. implementation uncertainty) may be substantial, but few studies have explored this. 2. We investigated how different management strategies and ecosystem variables affected realised harvest of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus...

Data from: Reproduction as a bottleneck to treeline advance across the circumarctic forest tundra ecotone

Carissa D. Brown, Geneviève Dufour-Tremblay, Ryan G. Jameson, Steven D. Mamet, Andrew J. Trant, Xanthe J. Walker, Stéphane Boudraeu, Karen A. Harper, Greg H.R. Henry, Luise Hermanutz, Annika Hofgaard, Ludmila Isaeva, G. Peter Kershaw, Jill F. Johnstone & Gregory H. R. Henry
The fundamental niche of many species is shifting with climate change, especially in sub-arctic ecosystems with pronounced recent warming. Ongoing warming in sub-arctic regions should lessen environmental constraints on tree growth and reproduction, leading to increased success of trees colonising tundra. Nevertheless, variable responses of treeline ecotones have been documented in association with warming temperatures. One explanation for time lags between increasingly favourable environmental conditions and treeline ecotone movement is reproductive limitations caused by low...

Data from: Circadian rhythmicity persists through the Polar night and midnight sun in Svalbard reindeer

Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Leif Egil Loe, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Vebjørn Veiberg & Steve D. Albon
Studies of locomotor activity in Svalbard reindeer reported the temporary absence of diel rhythms under Arctic photic conditions. However, using Lomb-Scargle periodogram analyses with high statistical power we found diel or circadian rhythmicity throughout the entire year in measures of behaviour, temperature in the rumen and heart rate in free-living Svalbard reindeer. Significant diel rhythmicity was only lacking during some of the 15-day intervals analysed in the less frequently measured heart rate. During Polar Night...

Data from: Can variation in standard metabolic rate explain context-dependent performance of farmed salmon offspring?

Grethe Robertsen, Donald Reid, Sigurd Einum, Tonje Aronsen, Ian A. Fleming, Line E. Sundt-Hansen, Sten Karlsson, Eli Kvingedal, Ola Ugedal & Kjetil Hindar
Escaped farmed Atlantic salmon interbreed with wild Atlantic salmon, leaving offspring that often have lower success in nature than pure wild salmon. On top of this, presence of farmed salmon descendants can impair production of wild type recruits. We hypothesize that both these effects connect with farmed salmon having acquired higher standard metabolic rates (SMR, the energetic cost of self-maintenance) during domestication. Furthermore, fitness related advantages of phenotypic traits associated with both high SMR and...

Data from: A local evaluation of the individual state-space to scale up Bayesian spatial capture recapture

Cyril Milleret, Pierre Dupont, Christophe Bonenfant, Henrik Brøseth, Øystein Flagstad, Chris Sutherland & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) are used to estimate animal density and to investigate a range of problems in spatial ecology that cannot be addressed with traditional non-spatial methods. Bayesian approaches in particular offer tremendous flexibility for SCR modelling. Increasingly, SCR data are being collected over very large spatial extents making analysis computational intensive, sometimes prohibitively so. 2. To mitigate the computational burden of large-scale SCR models, we developed an improved formulation of the Bayesian...

Data from: Experimental herbivore exclusion, shrub introduction, and carbon sequestration in alpine plant communities

Mia Vedel Sørensen, Bente Jessen Graae, Dagmar Hagen, Brian Joseph Enquist, Kristin Odden Nystuen & Richard Strimbeck
Background: Shrub cover in arctic and alpine ecosystems has increased in recent decades, and is predicted to further increase with climate change. Changes in shrub abundance may alter ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration and storage, with potential positive feedback on global C cycling. Small and large herbivores may reduce shrub expansion and thereby counteract the positive feedback on C cycling, but herbivore pressures have also changed in the alpine-arctic tundra; the increased shrub cover together with...

Data from: A method that accounts for differential detectability in mixed samples of long-term infections with applications to the case of Chronic Wasting Disease in cervids

Hildegunn Viljugrein, Petter Hopp, Sylvie L. Benestad, Erlend B. Nilsen, Jørn Våge, Saraya Tavornpanich, Christer M. Rolandsen, Olav Strand & Atle Mysterud
1. Surveillance of wildlife diseases is logistically difficult, and imperfect detection is a recurrent challenge for disease estimation. Using citizen science can increase sample sizes, but it is associated with a cost in terms of the anatomical type and quality of the sample. Additionally, biological tissue samples from remote areas lose quality due to autolysis. These challenges are faced in the case of emerging Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in cervids. 2. Here, we develop a...

Data from: Supplementary stocking selects for domesticated genotypes

Ingerid J. Hagen, Arne J. Jensen, Geir H. Bolstad, Ola H. Diserud, Kjetil Hindar, Håvard Lo & Sten Karlsson
Stocking of hatchery produced fish is common practise to mitigate declines in natural populations and may have unwanted genetic consequences. Here we describe a novel phenomenon arising where broodstock used for stocking may be introgressed with farmed individuals. We test how stocking affects introgression in a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by quantifying how the number of adult offspring recaptured in a stocked river depend on parental introgression. We found that hatchery conditions...

Data from: Multi-generational genetic consequences of reinforcement in a bird metapopulation

Peter S. Ranke, Sigrun Skjelseth, Ingerid Julie Hagen, Anna Maria Billing, Åsa Alexandra Borg Pedersen, Henrik Pärn, Thor Harald Ringsby, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Henrik Jensen
Translocation of conspecific individuals to reduce extinction risk of small, isolated populations and prevent genetic depletion is a powerful tool in conservation biology. An important question is how the translocated individuals influence the long-term genetic composition of the recipient population. Here, we experimentally reinforced a house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population, and examined the impact of this translocation on allele frequencies, levels of heterozygosity and genetic differentiation over six cohorts. We found no permanent increase in...

Data from: Effect of tower base painting on willow ptarmigan collision rates with wind turbines

Bård Stokke, Torgeir Nygard, Ulla Falkdalen, Hans Pedersen & Roel May
1. Birds colliding with turbine rotor blades is a well-known negative consequence of wind-power plants. However, there has been far less attention to the risk of birds colliding with the turbine towers, and how to mitigate this risk. 2. Based on data from the Smøla wind-power plant in Central Norway, it seems highly likely that willow ptarmigan (the only gallinaceous species found on the island) is prone to collide with turbine towers. By employing a...

When does weather synchronise life history traits? Spatiotemporal patterns in juvenile body mass of two ungulates

Ivar Herfindal, Torkild Tveraa, Audun Stien, Erling Johan Solberg & Vidar Grøtan
1. Theory predicts that animal populations will be synchronised over large distances by weather and climatic conditions with high spatial synchrony. However, local variation in population responses to weather, and low synchrony in key weather variables or in other ecological processes may reduce the population synchrony. 2. We investigated to what extent temperature and precipitation during different periods of the year synchronised juvenile body mass of moose and reindeer in Norway. We expected high synchronising...

The unique spatial ecology of human hunters

Atle Mysterud, Inger Maren Rivrud, Hildegunn Viljugrein, Vegard Gundersen & Christer Rolandsen
Human hunters are described as ‘superpredators’ with a unique ecology. Chronic Wasting Disease among cervids and African swine fever among wild boar are emerging wildlife diseases in Europe with huge economic and cultural repercussions. Understanding hunter movements at broad scales has implications for how to control their spread. Here we show, based on the analysis of the settlement patterns and movements of reindeer (n = 9,685), red deer (n = 47,845), moose (n = 60,365),...

Data from: Sámi knowledge and ecosystem-based adaptation strategies for managing pastures under threat from multiple land uses

Sigrid Engen & Vera Hausner
1. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) relies upon the capacity of ecosystems to buffer communities against the adverse impacts of climate change. Maintaining ecosystems that deliver critical services to communities can also provide co-benefits beyond adaptation, such as climate mitigation and protection of biological diversity and livelihoods. EbA has to a limited extent drawn upon indigenous-and local knowledge (ILK) for defining critical services and for implementing EbA in decision-making. This is a paradox given that the primary...

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