29 Works

Oldest fossil ciliates from the Cryogenian glacial interlude reinterpreted as possible red algal spores

Phoebe Cohen, Maoli Vizcaino & Ross Anderson
The Cryogenian Period experienced two long lived global glaciations known as Snowball Earths. While these events were dramatic, eukaryotic life persisted through them, and fossil evidence shows that eukaryotes thrived during the ca. 30-million-year interlude between the glaciations. Carbonate successions have become an important taphonomic window for this interval. One of the most notable examples is the ca. 662–635 Ma Taishir Formation (Tsagaan Olom Group, Zavkhan Terrane, Mongolia) which has yielded a number of eukaryotic...

Data from: Mapping reduced introgression loci to the X chromosome of the hybridizing field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus

D. Patrick Gainey, Jeremiah Y. Kim & Luana S. Maroja
The genomic architecture of barriers to gene exchange during the speciation process is poorly understood. The genomic islands model suggests that loci associated with barriers to gene exchange prevent introgression of nearby genomic regions via linkage disequilibrium. But few analyses of the actual genomic location of non-introgressing loci in closely related species exist. In a previous study Maroja et al. showed that in the hybridizing field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus, 50 non-introgressing loci...

Supplementary information for: A continuous-score occupancy modeling framework for incorporating uncertain machine learning output in autonomous biodiversity surveys

Tessa Rhinehart, Daniel Turek & Justin Kitzes
Ecologists often study biodiversity by evaluating species occupancy and the relationship between occupancy and other covariates. Occupancy models are now widely used to account for false absences in field surveys and to reduce bias in estimates of covariate relationships. Existing occupancy models take as inputs binary detection/non-detection observations of species at each visit to each site. However, autonomous sensing devices and machine learning models are increasingly used to survey biodiversity, generating a new type of...

Data from: A metacognitive illusion in monkeys

Stephen Ferrigno, Nate Kornell & Jessica F. Cantlon
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something...

Data from: Bayesian vector transmission model detects conflicting interactions from transgenic disease‐resistant grapevines

Adam R. Zeilinger, Daniel Turek, Daniele Cornara, Anne Sicard, Steven E. Lindow & Rodrigo P. P. Almeida
Effective management of vector-borne plant pathogens often relies on disease-resistant cultivars. While heterogeneity in host resistance and in pathogen population density at the host population level play important and well-recognized roles in epidemiology, the effects of resistance traits on pathogen distribution at the individual host level, and the epidemiological consequences in turn, are poorly understood. Transgenic disease-resistant plants that produce bacterial Diffusible Signaling Factor (DSF) could provide resistance to the vector-borne bacterium Xylella fastidiosa by...

The evolution of size-dependent competitive interactions promotes species coexistence

Jaime Mauricio Anaya-Rojas, Ronald D Bassar, Tomos Potter, Allison Blanchette, Shay Callahan, Nick Framstead, David Reznick & Joseph Travis
1. Theory indicates that competing species coexist in a community when intraspecific competition is stronger than interspecific competition. When body size determines the outcome of competitive interactions between individuals, coexistence depends also on how resource use and the ability to compete for these resources change with body size. Testing coexistence theory in size-structured communities, therefore, requires disentangling the effects of size-dependent competitive abilities and niche shifts. 2. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the evolution...

Data from: Model selection analysis of temporal variation in benefit for an ant-tended treehopper

Manuel Morales
Recent studies of mutualism have emphasized both that the net benefit to participants depends on the ecological context and that the density‐dependent pattern of benefit is key to understanding the population dynamics of mutualism. Indeed, changes in the ecological context are likely to drive changes in both the magnitude of benefit and the density‐dependent pattern of benefit. Despite the close linkage between these two areas of research, however, few studies have addressed the factors underlying...

Using GBIF to Demonstrate Colonial Legacies on Biodiversity Data

Ryan S. Mohammed, Melissa Kemp, Michelle J. LeFebvre, Alexis M. Mychajliw, Grace Turner, Kelly Fowler, Michael Pateman, Maria A. Nieves-Colón, Lanya Fanovich, Siobhan B. Cooke, Liliana M. Dávalos, Scott M. Fitzpatrick, Christina M. Giovas, Myles Stokowski & Ashley A. Wrean
Biologists recognize the Caribbean archipelago as a biodiversity hotspot and employ it for their research as a “natural laboratory”, but do not always appreciate that these ecosystems are in fact palimpsests shaped by multiple human cultures over millennia. We discuss two case studies of the Caribbean’s fragmented natural history collections, the effects of differing legislation and governance by the region’s multiple nation states. We use digital natural history specimen data from GBIF to demonstrate how...

Influence of female cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile on male courtship behavior in two hybridizing field crickets Gryllus firmus and Gryllus pennsylvanicus.

Luana Maroja, Brianna Heggeseth, Danielle Sim & Laura Partida
Background : The hybridizing field crickets, Gryllus firmus and Gryllus pennsylvanicus have several barriers that prevent gene flow between species. The behavioral pre-zygotic mating barrier, where males court conspecifics more intensely than heterospecifics, is important because by acting earlier in the life cycle it has the potential to prevent a larger fraction of hybridization. The mechanism behind such male mate preference is unknown. Here we investigate if the female cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile could be...

Data from: Environmental change, if unaccounted, prevents detection of cryptic evolution in a wild population

Tomos Potter, Ronald D. Bassar, Paul Bentzen, Emily W. Ruell, Julián Torres-Dowdall, Corey A. Handelsman, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Joseph Travis, David N. Reznick & Tim Coulson
Detecting contemporary evolution requires demonstrating that genetic change has occurred. Mixed-effects models allow estimation of quantitative genetic parameters and are widely used to study evolution in wild populations. However, predictions of evolution based on these parameters frequently fail to match observations. Furthermore, such studies often lack an independent measure of evolutionary change against which to verify predictions. Here, we applied three commonly used quantitative genetic approaches to predict the evolution of size at maturity in...

Primary detection records for aquatic nonindigenous species in global estuarine and marine ecosystems and the Great Lakes

Sarah Bailey, Lyndsay Brown, Marnie Campbell, João Canning-Clode, James Carlton, Nuno Castro, Paula Chainho, Farrah Chan, Joel Creed, Amelia Curd, John Darling, Paul Fofonoff, Bella Galil, Chad Hewitt, Graeme Inglis, Inti Keith, Nicholas Mandrak, Agnese Marchini, Cynthia McKenzie, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Henn Ojaveer, Larissa Pires-Teixeira, Tamara Robinson, Gregory Ruiz, Kimberley Seaward … & Aibin Zhan
Aim The introduction of aquatic non-indigenous species (ANS) has become a major driver for global changes in species biogeography. We examined spatial patterns and temporal trends of ANS detections since 1965 to inform conservation policy and management. Location Global Methods We assembled an extensive dataset of first records of detection of ANS (1965-2015) across 49 aquatic ecosystems, including the i) year of first collection, ii) population status and iii) potential pathway(s) of introduction. Data were...

Ecological causes of fluctuating natural selection on habitat choice in an amphibian

Joseph Van Buskirk & David C. Smith
We estimated natural selection targeting three traits related to habitat choice in a frog (Pseudacris maculata) breeding in pools on the rocky shores of Isle Royale, Michigan, over 16 years. Our aim was to identify the form and ecological causes of annual variation in directional and correlational selection as expressed in the survival and growth of tadpoles. We found directional selection favoring early breeding, but pool choice was under weak stabilizing selection. However, the form...

Cumulative cultural evolution and mechanisms for cultural selection in wild bird songs

Heather Williams, Andrew Scharf, Anna R. Ryba, D. Ryan Norris, Daniel J. Mennill, Amy E. M. Newman, Stéphanie M. Doucet & Julie C. Blackwood
Cumulative cultural evolution, the accumulation of sequential changes within a single socially learned behaviour that results in improved function, is prominent in humans and has been documented in experimental studies of captive animals and managed wild populations. Here, we provide evidence that cumulative cultural evolution has occurred in the learned songs of Savannah sparrows. In a first step, “click trains” replaced “high note clusters” over a period of three decades. We use mathematical modeling to...

Data from: Three decades of cultural evolution in Savannah sparrow songs

Heather Williams, Iris I. Levin, D. Ryan Norris, Amy E. M. Newman, Nathaniel T. Wheelwright & Amy E.M. Newman
Cultural evolution can result in changes in the prevalence not only of different learned song types within bird populations but also of different segments within the song. Between 1980 and 2011, we examined changes within different segments of the single songs of male Savannah sparrows, Passerculus sandwichiensis, in an island population. Introductory notes did not change. The buzz segment showed similar stability; although a rare low-frequency variant appeared and then disappeared, the buzz segments from...

Data from: Major improvements to the Heliconius melpomene genome assembly used to confirm 10 chromosome fusion events in 6 million years of butterfly evolution

John W. Davey, Mathieu Chouteau, Sarah L. Barker, Luana Maroja, Simon W. Baxter, Fraser Simpson, Mathieu Joron, James Mallet, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, Chris D. Jiggins & Richard M. Merrill
The Heliconius butterflies are a widely studied adaptive radiation of 46 species spread across Central and South America, several of which are known to hybridize in the wild. Here, we present a substantially improved assembly of the Heliconius melpomene genome, developed using novel methods that should be applicable to improving other genome assemblies produced using short read sequencing. First, we whole-genome-sequenced a pedigree to produce a linkage map incorporating 99% of the genome. Second, we...

Data from: Mechanisms of aggregation in an ant-tended treehopper: attraction to mutualists is balanced by conspecific competition

Manuel A. Morales & Andrew G. Zink
Understanding the spatial structure of populations and communities has been a dominant focus of ecological research, and spatial structure is increasingly seen as critical for understanding population dynamics. Habitat (or host) preference is a proximate mechanism that can generate aggregation or overdispersion, lending insight into the ultimate consequences of observed spatial distributions. Publilia concava is a univoltine phloem-feeding insect that forms mutualistic associations with ants, which consume honeydew and protect treehoppers from predation. Treehopper adults...

Metabolic rate interacts with resource availability to determine individual variation in microhabitat use in the wild

Sonya Auer
Ecological pressures such as competition can lead individuals within a population to partition resources or habitats, but the underlying intrinsic mechanisms that determine an individual’s resource use are not well understood. Here we show that an individual’s own energy demand and associated competitive ability influence its resource use, but only when food is more limiting. We tested whether intraspecific variation in metabolic rate leads to microhabitat partitioning among juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in natural...

Data from: Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees

Lewis H. Ziska, Jeffery S. Pettis, Joan Edwards, Jillian E. Hancock, Martha B. Tomecek, Andrew Clark, Jeffrey S. Dukes, Irakli Loladze & H. Wayne Polley
At present, there is substantive evidence that the nutritional content of agriculturally important food crops will decrease in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Ca. However, whether Ca-induced declines in nutritional quality are also occurring for pollinator food sources is unknown. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.) pollen is a widely available autumnal food source commonly acknowledged by apiarists to be essential to native bee (e.g. Bombus spp.) and honeybee (Apis...

Does stress mess with rodents’ heads? Influence of habitat availability and genetic factors in mandible fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in South American water rats (Nectomys squamipes, Sigmodontinae) from Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

Aldo Caccavo, Hudson Lemos, Luana Maroja & Pablo Gonçalves
Loss of developmental stability can lead to deviations from bilateral symmetry (i.e. Fluctuating Asymmetry -FA), and is thought to be caused by environmental and genetic factors associated with habitat loss and stress. Therefore, levels of FA might be a valuable tool to monitor wild populations if FA serves an indicator of exposure to stress due to impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation. In studies examining FA and habitat fragmentation, FA levels are often explained by...

Data from: Simulating nutrient release from parental carcasses increases the growth, biomass and genetic diversity of juvenile Atlantic salmon

Darryl McLennan, Sonya K. Auer, Graeme J. Anderson, Thomas C. Reid, Ronald D. Bassar, David C. Stewart, Eef Cauwelier, James Sampayo, Simon McKelvey, Keith H. Nislow, John D. Armstrong & Neil B. Metcalfe
1. The net transport of nutrients by migratory fish from oceans to inland spawning areas has decreased due to population declines and migration barriers. Restoration of nutrients to increasingly oligotrophic upland streams (that were historically salmon spawning areas) have shown short-term benefits for juvenile salmon, but the longer-term consequences are little known. 2. Here we simulated the deposition of a small number of adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar carcasses at the end of the spawning...

Population regulation and density‐dependent demography in the Trinidadian guppy

Joseph Travis, Ronald Bassar, Tim Coulson, Andres Lopez-Sepulcre & David Reznick
Classic theory for density-dependent selection for delayed maturation requires that a population be regulated through some combination of adult fecundity and/or juvenile survival. We tested whether those demographic conditions were met in four experimental populations of Trinidadian guppies in which delayed maturation of males evolved when the densities of those populations became high. We used monthly mark-recapture data to examine population dynamics and demography in these populations. Three of the four populations displayed clear evidence...

Novel parasite invasion leads to rapid demographic compensation and recovery in an experimental population of guppies

Ron Bassar
The global movement of pathogens is altering populations and communities through a variety of direct and indirect ecological pathways. The direct effect of a pathogen on a host is reduced survival, which can lead to decreased population densities. However, theory also suggests that increased mortality can lead to no change or even increases in the density of the host. This paradoxical result can occur in a regulated population when the pathogen’s negative effect on survival...

Data from: Tsunami-driven rafting: transoceanic species dispersal and implications for marine biogeography

James T. Carlton, John W. Chapman, Jonathan B. Geller, Jessica A. Miller, Deborah A. Carlton, Megan I. McCuller, Nancy C. Treneman, Brian P. Steves & Gregory M. Ruiz
The 2011 East Japan earthquake generated a massive tsunami that launched an extraordinary transoceanic biological rafting event with no known historical precedent. We document 289 living Japanese coastal marine species from 16 phyla transported over 6 years on objects that traveled thousands of kilometers across the Pacific Ocean to the shores of North America and Hawai‘i. Most of this dispersal occurred on nonbiodegradable objects, resulting in the longest documented transoceanic survival and dispersal of coastal...

Data from: Experimental study of species invasion – early population dynamics and role of disturbance in invasion success

David Reznick, Sebastiano De Bona, Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Mauricio Torres, Ronald Bassar, Paul Bentzen & Joseph Travis
Much of our understanding of natural invasions is retrospective, based on data acquired after invaders become established. As a consequence, we know little about the characteristics of the early population growth and habitat use of the invaders during establishment. Here we report on experimental introductions of guppies into natural streams in which we conducted monthly censuses of each population. Two of the four introductions were in streams with thinned canopies, which mimics a common form...

Size-dependent predation and intraspecific inhibition of an estuarine snail feeding on oysters

Tim Pusack, J. Wilson White, Hanna G. Tillotson, David L. Kimbro & Christopher D. Stallings
Predator outbreaks have increased in the past two decades in many ecosystems and are predicted to become more common with climate change. During these outbreaks, predator densities increase rapidly, and can cause large reductions in prey populations or shifts in prey size structure. However, unexpected interactions may occur at high predator densities, necessitating a mechanistic understanding of how increased predator density affects predator-prey dynamics. In the northern Gulf of Mexico, outbreaks of southern oyster drill...

Registration Year

  • 2023
  • 2022
  • 2021
  • 2020
  • 2019
  • 2018
  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2012

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Williams College
  • University of California, Riverside
  • University of Oxford
  • Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
  • Florida State University
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • Dalhousie University
  • University of Guelph
  • Newport (United States)