49 Works

Data from: Healing quantitative trait loci in a combined cross analysis using related mouse strain crosses

James M. Cheverud, Heather A. Lawson, Ryan Funk, Jia Zhou, Elizabeth P. Blankenhorn & Ellen Heber-Katz
Inbred mouse strains MRL and LG share the ability to fully heal ear hole punches with the full range of appropriate tissues without scarring. They also share a common ancestry, MRL being formed from a multi-strain cross with two final backcrosses to LG before being inbred by brother-sister mating. Many gene mapping studies for healing ability have been performed using these two strains, resulting in the location of about 20 quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here,...

Data from: Patterns, causes, and consequences of defensive microbiome dynamics across multiple scales

Andrew H. Smith, Piotr Lukasik, Michael P. O'Connor, Amanda Lee, Garrett Mayo, Milton T. Drott, Steven Doll, Robert Tuttle, Rachael A. DiSciullo, Andrea Messina, Kerry M. Oliver & Jacob A. Russell
The microbiome can significantly impact host phenotypes and serve as an additional source of heritable genetic variation. While patterns across eukaryotes are consistent with a role for symbiotic microbes in host macroevolution, few studies have examined symbiont-driven host evolution or the ecological implications of a dynamic microbiome across temporal, spatial or ecological scales. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and its eight heritable bacterial endosymbionts have served as a model for studies on symbiosis and its...

Data from: Breakdown of a defensive symbiosis, but not endogenous defenses, at elevated temperatures

Matthew R. Doremus, Andrew H. Smith, Kyungsun L. Kim, Angela J. Holder, Jacob A. Russell & Kerry M. Oliver
Environmental factors, including temperature, can have large effects on species interactions, including mutualisms and antagonisms. Most insect species are infected with heritable bacterial symbionts with many protecting their hosts from natural enemies. However, many symbionts or their products are thermally sensitive hence their effectiveness may vary across a range of temperatures. In the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa, and its associated APSE bacteriophages confer resistance to this aphid's dominant parasitoid, Aphidius...

Data from: Day/night upper thermal limits differ within Ectatomma ruidum ant colonies

Annika S. Nelson, Trey Scott, Maciej Barczyk, Terrence P. McGlynn, Arian Avalos, Elizabeth Clifton, Amlan Das, Andreia Figueiredo, Laura L. Figueroa, Mark Janowiecki, Sarah Pahlke, Jignasha D. Rana & Sean O'Donnell
In the tropics, daily temperature fluctuations can pose physiological challenges for ectothermic organisms, and upper thermal limits may affect foraging activity over the course of the day. Variation in upper thermal limits can occur among and within species, and for social insects such as ants, within colonies. Within colonies, upper thermal limits may differ among individuals or change for an individual throughout the day. Daytime foragers of the Neotropical ant Ectatomma ruidum have higher critical...

Data from: Aphid-encoded variability in susceptibility to a parasitoid

Adam J. Martinez, Shannon G. Ritter, Matthew R. Doremus, Jacob A. Russell & Kerry M. Oliver
Background: Many animals exhibit variation in resistance to specific natural enemies. Such variation may be encoded in their genomes or derived from infection with protective symbionts. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, for example, exhibits tremendous variation in susceptibility to a common natural enemy, the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi. Pea aphids are often infected with the heritable bacterial symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, which confers partial to complete resistance against this parasitoid depending on bacterial strain and associated...

Data from: Thirdhand smoke uptake to aerosol particles in the indoor environment

Peter F. DeCarlo, Anita M. Avery & Michael S. Waring
Aerosol composition measurements made in an indoor classroom indicate the uptake of thirdhand smoke (THS) species to indoor particles, a novel exposure route for THS to humans indoors. Chemical speciation of the organic aerosol fraction using mass spectrometric data and factor analysis identified a reduced nitrogen component, predominantly found in the indoor environment, contributing 29% of the indoor submicron aerosol mass. We identify this factor as THS compounds partitioning from interior surfaces to gas phase...

Data from: Characterization of the placoderm (Gnathostomata) assemblage from the tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud (Belgium, Upper Famennian)

Sébastien Olive, Gaël Clément, Edward B. Daeschler & Vincent Dupret
The placoderm fauna of the late Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, Belgium, is studied on the basis of historical and newly collected material. It includes the previously described antiarch Grossilepis rikiki, the groenlandaspidid Turrisaspis strudensis sp. nov. and the actinolepidoideid Phyllolepis undulata. P. undulata is thoroughly described and joins the list of the valid Phyllolepis species confidently diagnosed. A morphometrical analysis performed on the centronuchal and anterior ventrolateral plates of the Phyllolepis material demonstrates that...

Data from: Idiosyncratic responses to climate-driven forest fragmentation and marine incursions in reed frogs from Central Africa and the Gulf of Guinea Islands

Rayna C. Bell, Juan L. Parra, Gabriel Badjedjea, Michael F. Barej, David C. Blackburn, Marius Burger, Alan Channing, J. Maximilian Dehling, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Jos Kielgast, Chifundera Kusamba, Stefan Lötters, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Zoltán T. Nagy, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Daniel M. Portik, Bryan L. Stuart, Jeremy VanDerWal, Ange-Ghislain Zassi Boulou & Kelly R. Zamudio
Organismal traits interact with environmental variation to mediate how species respond to shared landscapes. Thus, differences in traits related to dispersal ability or physiological tolerance may result in phylogeographic discordance among co-distributed taxa, even when they are responding to common barriers. We quantified climatic suitability and stability, and phylogeographic divergence within three reed frog species complexes across the Guineo-Congolian forests and Gulf of Guinea archipelago of Central Africa to investigate how they responded to a...

Extensive in situ radiation of feather lice on tinamous

Stephany Virrueta Herrera, Andrew Sweet, Julie Allen, Kimberly Walden, Jason Weckstein & Kevin Johnson
Tinamous host the highest generic diversity of lice of any group of birds, as well as hosting representatives of all four avian feather louse ecomorphs. Although the generic diversity of tinamou feather lice is well documented, few attempts have been made to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among these lice. To test whether tinamou feather lice form a monophyletic group as a whole, we used whole genome sequencing to estimate a higher-level phylogeny of tinamou feather...

River network rearrangements promote speciation in lowland Amazonian birds

Lukas Musher
Large Amazonian rivers impede dispersal for many species, but lowland river networks frequently rearrange, thereby altering the location and effectiveness of river-barriers through time. These rearrangements may promote biotic diversification by facilitating episodic allopatry and secondary contact among populations. We sequenced genome-wide markers to evaluate histories of divergence and introgression in six Amazonian avian species-complexes. We first tested the assumption that rivers are barriers for these taxa and found that even relatively small rivers facilitate...

Data from: Hurricane effects on Neotropical lizards span geographic and phylogenetic scales

Colin Donihue, Alex Kowaleski, Jonathan Losos, Adam Algar, Simon Baeckens, Robert Buchkowski, Anne-Claire Fabre, Hannah Frank, Anthony Geneva, Graham Reynolds, James Stroud, Julián Velasco, Jason Kolbe, Luke Mahler & Anthony Herrel
Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of...

Data from: Rain shadow effects predict population differences in thermal tolerance of leaf-cutting ant workers (Atta cephalotes)

Kaitlin M. Baudier & Sean O'Donnell
Tests of hypotheses for the evolution of thermal physiology often rely on mean temperatures, but mounting evidence suggests geographic variation in temperature extremes is also an important predictor of species’ thermal tolerances. Although the tropics are less thermally variable than higher latitude regions, rain shadows on the leeward sides of mountains can experience greater diel and seasonal variation in temperature than windward sites. Rain shadows provide opportunities to test predictions about the relationships of extreme...

Current status and future strategies for mentoring women in neurology

Christa San Luis Nobleza, Amtul Farheen, Ilena George, Divya Singhal, Regina Troxell, Jyoti Pillai, Logan Schneider, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Jennifer Graves & Stefano Sandrone
The American Academy of Neurology's (AAN) 2017 Gender Disparity Report identified improving mentorship as a key intervention to fill the leadership and pay gaps for women in neurology. Here we summarize the literature on mentoring women, provide an outline of ideal components of programs geared toward closing gender gaps, and present a mentoring program for AAN members. The strategies discussed share similarities with those for closing gaps related to race, ethnicity and religion. Developing effective...

Higher probability of tick infestation reveals a hidden cost of army ant-following in Amazonian birds

Alan Fecchio, Thiago F. Marins, Maria Ogrzewalska, Fabio Schunck, Jason D. Weckstein & Raphael I. Dias
The foraging specialization of army-ant-following birds has long intrigued ecologists and provided numerous questions such as why, how, and when did this foraging guild specialization arise and evolve. Many of the answers to these questions have focused on ecological interactions such as predation and competition, whereas little has been done to study the potential effects of host-parasite interactions among members of this foraging guild. Using 1,177 Amazonian birds from 187 species, we studied the probability...

Data from: Phylogenomic incongruence, hypothesis testing, and taxonomic sampling: the monophyly of characiform fishes

Ricardo Betancur-R., Dahiana Arcila, Richard P. Vari, Lily C. Hughes, Claudio Oliveira, Mark H. Sabaj & Guillermo Ortí
Phylogenomic studies using genome‐wide datasets are quickly becoming the state of the art for systematics and comparative studies, but in many cases, they result in strongly supported incongruent results. The extent to which this conflict is real depends on different sources of error potentially affecting big datasets (assembly, stochastic, and systematic error). Here, we apply a recently developed methodology (GGI or gene genealogy interrogation) and data curation to new and published datasets with more than...

Data from: Distributed cognition and social brains: reductions in mushroom body investment accompanied the origins of sociality in wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

Sean O'Donnell, Susan J. Bulova, Sara DeLeon, Paulina Khodak, Skye Miller & Elisabeth Sulger
The social brain hypothesis assumes the evolution of social behaviour changes animals' ecological environments, and predicts evolutionary shifts in social structure will be associated with changes in brain investment. Most social brain models to date assume social behaviour imposes additional cognitive challenges to animals, favouring the evolution of increased brain investment. Here, we present a modification of social brain models, which we term the distributed cognition hypothesis. Distributed cognition models assume group members can rely...

Pond excavation reduces coastal wetland carbon dioxide assimilation

Elisabeth Powell, Johannes Krause, Rose Martin & Elizabeth Watson
Coastal wetlands comprise important global carbon sinks; however, anthropogenic disturbance accompanied with accelerating sea-level rise threaten their continued survival. In this study, we quantified habitat disturbance to salt marshes in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, resulting from the construction of ponds for mosquito control. Geographic object-based image analysis of high resolution four-band imagery revealed that over 7,000 ponds were constructed in the marsh complex with pond densities as high as 290 ponds per km2. Physical disturbance...

Are Tidal Salt Marshes Exposed to Nutrient Pollution more Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise?

Johannes Krause, Elizabeth Watson, Cathleen Wigand & Nicole Maher
Over the past four decades, Long Island, NY, USA, has lost coastal wetlands at a rate of 4% per decade due to submergence. In this study, we examined relationships between the rate of tidal salt marsh loss and environmental factors, including marsh elevation, tidal range, and wastewater exposure through analysis of stable isotope ratios of marsh soils and biota. Our goal was to identify factors that increase vulnerability of marshes to sea level rise, with...

Population structure of giant clams (sub-family: Tridacninae) across Palau: implications for conservation

Lincoln Rehm, Lincy Marino, Randa Jonathan, Amanda Holt, Richard McCourt & Alison Sweeney
Giant clams (Sub-family: Tridacninae) are an important food and economic resource for the Republic of Palau. Previous surveys of giant clams conducted over 20 years ago found diverse, localized populations across Helen Reef and the Rock Islands Southern Lagoon. This study updates population structure data for Palauan giant clams and investigates the impacts of conservation on these important bivalves. We surveyed eleven sites within fringing, barrier, atoll, and oceanic reefs across the Palauan archipelago (total...

Data from: Disassembly of a tadpole community by a multi-host fungal pathogen with limited evidence of recovery

Graziella V. DiRenzo, Christian Che-Castaldo, Amanda Rugenski, Roberto Brenes, Matt R. Whiles, Catherine M. Pringle, Susan S. Kilham & Karen R. Lips
Emerging infectious diseases can cause host community disassembly, but the mechanisms driving the order of species declines and extirpations following a disease outbreak are unclear. We documented the community disassembly of a Neotropical tadpole community during a chytridiomycosis outbreak, triggered by the generalist fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Within the first 11 months of Bd arrival, tadpole density and occupancy rapidly declined. Rarity, in terms of tadpole occupancy and adult relative abundance, did not predict...

Data from: Low incidence of choroidal neovascularization following subthreshold diode micropulse laser (SDM) in high-risk AMD

Jeffrey K. Luttrull, Stephen H. Sinclair, Solly Elmann & Bert M. Glaser
Purpose: To determine the incidence of new choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) following subthreshold diode micropulse laser (SDM). Method: In an observational retrospective cohort study, the records of all patients active in the electronic medical records database were reviewed to identify eyes with dry AMD treated with SDM. Identified eyes were classified by simplified AREDS categories, and analyzed for the primary endpoint of new CNV after treatment. Results: The...

Data from: Conservation genetics of American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, populations in Pacific Costa Rica

Laurie A. Mauger, Elizabeth Velez, Michael S. Cherkiss, Matthew L. Brien, Frank J. Mazzotti & James R. Spotila
Maintaining genetic diversity is crucial for the survival and management of threatened and endangered species. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and population genetic structure at neutral loci in American crocodiles, Crocodylus acutus, from several areas (Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Parque Nacional Palo Verde, Rio Tarcoles, and Osa Conservation Area) in Pacific Costa Rica. We genotyped 184 individuals at nine microsatellite loci to describe the genetic diversity and conservation...

Data from: Amyloid precursor protein translation is regulated by a 3'UTR guanine quadruplex

Ezekiel Crenshaw, Brian P. Leung, Chun Kit Kwok, Michal Sharoni, Kalee Olson, Neeraj P. Sebastian, Sara Ansaloni, Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner, Michael R. Akins, Philip C. Bevilacqua & Aleister J. Saunders
A central event in Alzheimer’s disease is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP overexpression leads to increased Aβ generation and Alzheimer’s disease in humans and altered neuronal migration and increased long term depression in mice. Conversely, reduction of APP expression results in decreased Aβ levels in mice as well as impaired learning and memory and decreased numbers of dendritic spines. Together these...

Systematics and conservation of an endemic radiation of Accipiter hawks in the Caribbean islands

Therese A. Catanach, Matthew H. Halley, Julie M. Allen, Jeff A. Johnson, Russell Thorstrom, Samantha Palhano, Chyna Poor Thunder, Julio C. Gallardo & Jason D. Weckstein
More than one third of the bird species found in the Caribbean are endemic to a set of neighboring islands or a single island. However, we have little knowledge of the evolutionary history of the Caribbean avifauna and the lack of phylogenetic studies limits our understanding of the extent of endemism in the region. The Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus) occurs widely across the Americas and includes three endemic Caribbean taxa: venator on Puerto Rico, striatus...

Impacts of development and adult sex on brain cell numbers in the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

Meghan Barrett, R Keating Godfrey, Emily J. Sterner & Edward A. Waddell
The Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens, Diptera: Stratiomyidae) has been introduced across the globe, with numerous industry applications predicated on its tremendous growth during the larval stage. However, basic research on H. illucens biology (for example, studies of their central nervous system) are lacking. Despite their small brain volumes, insects are capable of complex behaviors; understanding how these behaviors are completed with such a small amount of neural tissue requires understanding processing power (e.g. number...

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