22 Works

Data from: Nutrient release from moose bioturbation in aquatic ecosystems

Joseph K. Bump, Brenda G. Bergman, Amy J. Schrank, Amy M. Marcarelli, Evan S. Kane, Anita C. Risch & Martin Schütz
While the ecological importance of bioturbation is well recognized and the prevalence of aquatic foraging by terrestrial ungulates is increasingly appreciated, research linking how terrestrial ungulates function as disturbance mechanisms via bioturbation in freshwater systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to quantify potential nutrient pulses released from benthic sediments into the water column when moose Alces alces feed on aquatic plants. We also determined if we could experimentally mimic the benthic disturbance...

Data from: Plant species richness negatively affects root decomposition in grasslands

Hongmei Chen, Liesje Mommer, Jasper Van Ruijven, Hans De Kroon, Christine Fischer, Arthur Gessler, Anke Hildebrandt, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Christian Wirth & Alexandra Weigelt
Plant diversity enhances many ecosystem functions, including root biomass production, which drives soil carbon input. Although root decomposition accounts for a large proportion of carbon input for soil, little is known about plant diversity effect on this process. Plant diversity may affect root decomposition in two non-exclusive ways: by providing roots of different substrate quality (e.g. root chemistry) and/or by altering the soil environment (e.g. microclimate). To disentangle these two pathways, we conducted three decomposition...

Data from: Stoichiometric N:P flexibility and mycorrhizal symbiosis favor plant resistance against drought

Pierre Mariotte, Alberto Canarini & Feike A. Dijkstra
1. Drought induces changes in the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycle but most plant species have limited flexibility to take up nutrients under such variable or unbalanced N and P availability. Both the degree of flexibility in plant N:P ratio and of root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi might control plant resistance to drought-induced changes in nutrient availability, but this has not been directly tested. 2. Here, we examined the role of plant...

Data from: Observed forest sensitivity to climate implies large changes in 21st century North American forest growth

Noah D. Charney, Flurin Babst, Benjamin Poulter, Sydne Record, Valerie M. Trouet, David Frank, Brian J. Enquist & Margaret E. K. Evans
Predicting long-term trends in forest growth requires accurate characterisation of how the relationship between forest productivity and climatic stress varies across climatic regimes. Using a network of over two million tree-ring observations spanning North America and a space-for-time substitution methodology, we forecast climate impacts on future forest growth. We explored differing scenarios of increased water-use efficiency (WUE) due to CO2-fertilisation, which we simulated as increased effective precipitation. In our forecasts: (1) climate change negatively impacted...

Data from: Growth and carbon relations of mature Picea abies trees under 5 years of free-air CO2 enrichment

Tamir Klein, Martin K. F. Bader, Sebastian Leuzinger, Manuel Mildner, Patrick Schleppi, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Christian Koerner, Martin K.-F. Bader & Rolf T.W. Siegwolf
Are mature forests carbon limited? To explore this question, we exposed ca. 110-year-old, 40-m tall Picea abies trees to a 550-ppm CO2 concentration in a mixed lowland forest in NW Switzerland. The site receives substantial soluble nitrogen (N) via atmospheric deposition, and thus, trees are unlikely N-limited. We used a construction crane to operate the free-air CO2 release system and for canopy access. Here, we summarize the major results for growth and carbon (C) fluxes....

Data from: Repetitive flanking sequences challenge SSR marker development: a case study in the lepidopteran Melanargia galathea

Max Schmid, Daniela Csencsics & Felix Gugerli
Microsatellite DNA families (MDF) are stretches of DNA that share similar or identical sequences beside nuclear simple-sequence repeat (nSSR) motifs, potentially causing problems during nSSR marker development. Primers positioned within MDFs can bind several times within the genome and might result in multiple banding patterns. It is therefore common practice to exclude MDF loci in the course of marker development. Here, we propose an approach to deal with multiple primer binding sites by purposefully positioning...

Data from: Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Anna Sala, Dolores Asensio, Lucia Galiano, Guenter Hoch, Sara Palacio, Frida I. Piper & Francisco Lloret
Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand....

Data from: The simultaneous inducibility of phytochemicals related to plant direct and indirect defences against herbivores is stronger at low elevation

Loïc Pellissier, Xoaquín Moreira, Holger Danner, Martha Serrano, Nicolas Salamin, Nicole M. Van Dam & Sergio Rasmann
Ecological theory indicates that warmer and more stable climates should result in stronger biotic interactions. Therefore, plant species growing at lower elevations and experiencing greater herbivore pressure, should invest in higher levels of defences than those at higher elevations. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies that have found no effect of elevational gradients on plant defensive traits. Several factors might explain the lack of consistency for the altitude-defence relationships; including 1) the reduction of...

Data from: Exotic or not, leaf trait dissimilarity modulates the effect of dominant species on mixed litter decomposition

Genevieve E. Finerty, Francesco De Bello, Karolína Bílá, Matty P. Berg, André T. C. Dias, Gianni B. Pezzatti & Marco Moretti
It has long been recognized that leaf traits exert a crucial control on litter decomposition, a key process for nutrient cycling, and that invading species can greatly alter such soil processes via changes in mixed litter trait composition. Trait effects on ecosystem processes are hypothesized to operate via changes in either dominant trait values in the community (often calculated as community weighted mean trait values; CWM) or trait functional diversity (dissimilarity between species trait values;...

Data from: Signatures of local adaptation in candidate genes of oaks (Quercus spp.) in respect to present and future climatic conditions

Christian Rellstab, Stefan Zoller, Lorenz Walthert, Isabelle Lesur, Andrea R. Pluess, René Graf, Catherine Bodénès, Christoph Sperisen, Antoine Kremer & Felix Gugerli
Testing how populations are locally adapted and predicting their response to their future environment is of key importance in view of climate change. Landscape genomics is a powerful approach to investigate genes and environmental factors involved in local adaptation. In a pooled amplicon sequencing approach of 94 genes in 71 populations, we tested if >3'500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the three most common oak species in Switzerland (Quercus petraea, Q. pubescens, Q. robur) show...

Data from: The snow and the willows: earlier spring snowmelt reduces performance in the low-lying alpine shrub Salix herbacea

Julia A. Wheeler, Andres J. Cortés, Janosch Sedlacek, Sophie Karrenberg, Mark Van Kleunen, Sonja Wipf, Guenter Hoch, Oliver Bossdorf & Christian Rixen
Current changes in shrub abundance in alpine and arctic tundra ecosystems are primarily driven by climate change. However, while taller shrub communities are expanding, dwarf shrub communities show reductions under climate warming, and the mechanisms driving the latter (such as warming temperatures or accelerated spring snowmelt) may be complex. To determine and disentangle the response of a widespread arctic-alpine prostrate dwarf shrub to both climate warming and changes in snowmelt time, we investigated phenology, clonal...

Data from: Contrasting trait assembly patterns in plant and bird communities along environmental and human-induced land-use gradients

Elena D. Concepción, Lars Götzenberger, Michael P. Nobis, Francesco De Bello, Martin K. Obrist & Marco Moretti
Human-driven environmental changes can induce marked shifts in the functional structure of biological communities with possible repercussion on important ecosystem functions and services. At the same time it remains unclear to which extent these changes may differently affect various types of organisms. We investigated species richness and community functional structure of species assemblages at the landscape scale (1km2 plots) for two contrasting model taxa, i.e., plants (producers and sessile organisms) and birds (consumers and mobile...

Data from: Aboveground mammal and invertebrate exclusions cause consistent changes in soil food webs of two subalpine grassland types, but mechanisms are system-specific

Martijn L. Vandegehuchte, Wim H. Van Der Putten, Henk Duyts, Martin Schütz & Anita C. Risch
Ungulates, smaller mammals, and invertebrates can each affect soil biota through their influence on vegetation and soil characteristics. However, direct and indirect effects of the aboveground biota on soil food webs remain to be unraveled. We assessed effects of progressively excluding aboveground large-, medium- and small-sized mammals as well as invertebrates on soil nematode diversity and feeding type abundances in two subalpine grassland types: short- and tall-grass vegetation. We explored pathways that link exclusions of...

Data from: The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

Yoshiaki Tsuda, Jun Chen, Michael Stocks, Thomas Källman, Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, Laura Parducci, Vladimir Semerikov, Christoph Sperisen, Dmitry Politov, Tiina Ronkainen, Minna Väliranta, Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramini, Mari Mette Tollefsrud, Martin Lascoux & Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin
Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct...

Data from: Extreme climate events counteract the effects of climate and land-use changes in Alpine treelines

Ceres Barros, Maya Guéguen, Rolland Douzet, Marta Carboni, Isabelle Boulangeat, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Tamara Münkemüller & Wilfried Thuiller
Climate change and extreme events, such as drought, threaten ecosystems world-wide and in particular mountain ecosystems, where species often live at their environmental tolerance limits. In the European Alps, plant communities are also influenced by land-use abandonment leading to woody encroachment of subalpine and alpine grasslands. In this study, we explored how the forest–grassland ecotone of Alpine tree lines will respond to gradual climate warming, drought events and land-use change in terms of forest expansion...

Data from: Future ecosystem services from European mountain forests under climate change

Marco Mina, Harald Bugmann, Thomas Cordonnier, Florian Irauschek, Matija Klopcic, Marta Pardos & Maxime Cailleret
Ecosystem services (ES) from mountain forests are highly relevant for human societies. ES with a direct economic support function (e.g. timber production), regulatory services (e.g. protection from natural hazards) and cultural services (e.g. recreation) are likely to be affected strongly by a rapidly changing climate. To evaluate whether adverse climate change effects on ES can be counteracted by adapting management, dynamic models and indicator-based assessments are needed. We applied a forest dynamic model in case...

Data from: The relative contribution of species richness and species composition to ecosystem functioning

Nadine Sandau, Yvonne Fabian, Odile T. Bruggisse, Rudolf P. Rohr, Russell E. Naisbit, Patrik Kehrli, Alexandre Aebi, Louis-Félix Bersier & Odile T. Bruggisser
The influence of species diversity on ecosystem functioning has been the subject of many experiments and remains a key question for ecology and conservation biology. However, the fact that diversity cannot be manipulated without affecting species composition makes this quest methodologically challenging. We used partial Mantel tests to evaluate the relative importance of diversity and of composition on biomass production. Here, we applied partial Mantel tests (controlling for the other variable) on two datasets, the...

Data from: Local adaptation (mostly) remains local: reassessing environmental associations of climate-related candidate SNPs in Arabidopsis halleri

Christian Rellstab, Martin C. Fischer, Stefan Zoller, René Graf, Andrew Tedder, Kentaro K. Shimizu, Alex Widmer, Rolf Holderegger & Felix Gugerli
Numerous landscape genomic studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes potentially involved in local adaptation. Rarely, it has been explicitly evaluated whether these environmental associations also hold true beyond the populations studied. We tested whether putatively adaptive SNPs in Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae), characterized in a previous study investigating local adaptation to a highly heterogeneous environment, show the same environmental associations in an independent, geographically enlarged set of 18 populations. We analysed new SNP data...

Data from: Herbivores sculpt leaf traits differently in grasslands depending on life form and land-use histories

Jennifer Firn, Martin Schütz, Huong Nguyen & Anita C. Risch
Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores alter plant communities directly by selectively consuming plant species; and indirectly by inducing morphological and physiological changes to plant traits that provide competitive or survivorship advantages to some life forms over others. Progressively excluding aboveground herbivore communities (ungulates, medium and small sized mammals, invertebrates) over five growing seasons, we explored how leaf morphology (specific leaf area or SLA) and nutrition (nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and calcium) of different plant life...

Data from: Separating sources of density-dependent and density-independent establishment limitation in invading species

Erica N. Spotswood, Pierre Mariotte, Emily C. Farrer, Liana Nichols, Katherine N. Suding & Katharine N. Suding
Successful colonization by invasive species depends on both the ability to disperse seeds to a site and an ability to establish once seeds have arrived. While seed and establishment limitation are known to jointly influence colonization, decomposing establishment limitation into density-dependent and density-independent components has remained challenging. Here, we couple theoretical models of recruitment with a multispecies invasion experiment conducted within a natural gradient of soil moisture and productivity to assess how variation in establishment...

Data from: Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats

Janosch Sedlacek, Andrés J. Cortés, Julia Wheeler, Oliver Bossdorf, Guenter Hoch, Jaroslav Klápště, Christian Lexer, Christian Rixen, Sonja Wipf, Sophie Karrenberg & Mark Van Kleunen
Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers....

Data from: Does one model fit all? patterns of beech mortality in natural forests of three European regions

Lisa Hülsmann, Harald K.M. Bugmann, Brigitte Commarmot, Peter Meyer, Stephan Zimmermann & Peter Brang
Large uncertainties characterize forest development under global climate change. Although recent studies have found widespread increased tree mortality, the patterns and processes associated with tree death remain poorly understood, thus restricting accurate mortality predictions. Yet, projections of future forest dynamics depend critically on robust mortality models, preferably based on empirical data rather than theoretical, not well-constrained assumptions. We developed parsimonious mortality models for individual beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees and evaluated their potential for incorporation in...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • University of Basel
  • Uppsala University
  • University of Neuchâtel
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
  • University of Freiburg
  • University of Zurich
  • University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
  • University of Tübingen
  • Wageningen University & Research