74 Works

Data from: Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading

Chavaunne T. Thorpe, Graham P. Riley, Helen L. Birch, Peter D. Clegg & Hazel R. C. Screen
Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess...

Data from: Social chromosome variants differentially affect queen determination and the survival of workers in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta

Séverine D. Buechel, Yannick Wurm & Laurent Keller
Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and Sb. Colonies containing exclusively SB/SB workers accept only one single queen and she must be SB/SB. By contrast, when colonies contain more than 10% of...

Data from: Molecular footprints of the Holocene retreat of dwarf birch in Britain

Nian Wang, James S. Borrell, William J. A. Bodles, Ana Kuttapitiya, Richard A. Nicholes, Richard J. A. Buggs, Anasuya Kuttapitiya & Richard A. Nichols
Past reproductive interactions among incompletely isolated species may leave behind a trail of introgressed alleles, shedding light on historical range movements. Betula pubescens is a widespread native tetraploid tree species in Britain, occupying habitats intermediate to those of its native diploid relatives, B. pendula and B. nana. Genotyping 1134 trees from the three species at 12 microsatellite loci we found evidence of introgression from both diploid species into B. pubescens, despite the ploidy difference. Surprisingly,...

Data from: Building a beetle: how larval environment leads to adult performance in a horned beetle

Leeann T. Reaney & Robert J. Knell
The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related...

Data from: The role of host phenology in determining the incidence of an insect sexually transmitted infection

Daria Pastok, Mary-Jo Hoare, Jonathan J. Ryder, Michael Boots, Rob J. Knell, David Atkinson, Gregory D. D. Hurst & Mike Boots
Changes in the timing of life history events within the year alter the degree to which the activity patterns of different species coincide, making the dynamics of interspecific interactions sensitive to the phenology of the interacting parties. For parasites, the availability of suitable hosts to infect represents a crucial determinant of dynamics, and changes in the host (and parasite) phenology may thus alter disease epidemiology and the conditions for disease maintenance. We tested the hypothesis...

Data from: The predictability and magnitude of life-history divergence to ecological agents of selection: a meta-analysis in livebearing fishes

Michael Moore, Rüdiger Riesch, Ryan A. Martin & Michael P. Moore
Environments causing variation in age-specific mortality – ecological agents of selection – mediate the evolution of reproductive life-history traits. However, the relative magnitude of life-history divergence across selective agents, whether divergence in response to specific selective agents is consistent across taxa and whether it occurs as predicted by theory, remains largely unexplored. We evaluated divergence in offspring size, offspring number, and the trade-off between these traits using a meta-analysis in livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae). Life-history divergence...

Data from: Tempo and mode of performance evolution across multiple independent origins of adhesive toe pads in lizards

Travis Jay Hagey, Josef C. Uyeda, Kristen E. Crandell, Jorn A. Cheney, Kellar Autumn & Luke J. Harmon
Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphological traits may yield the same or similar performance and as performance is often more proximately the target of selection, examining only morphology may give an incomplete understanding of evolutionary dynamics....

Data from: Miniaturisation of biologgers is not alleviating the 5% rule

Steven J. Portugal & Craig R. White
1. The use of biologging technology has increased exponentially over the last decade, allowing us to study animal behaviour at a level of detail not previously possible. 2. It is clear from recent meta-analyses that the attachment of such devices can have negative effects on individual animals, particularly their behaviour and physiology. In recognition of this, a commonly applied rule is to ensure that devices borne by flying animals weigh less than 5% of their...

Data from: Gaze-contingent reinforcement learning reveals incentive value of social signals in young children and adults

Angélina Vernetti, Tim J. Smith & Atsushi Senju
While numerous studies have demonstrated that infants and adults preferentially orient to social stimuli, it remains unclear as to what drives such preferential orienting. It has been suggested that the learned association between social cues and subsequent reward delivery might shape such social orienting. Using a novel, spontaneous indication of reinforcement learning (with the use of a gaze contingent reward-learning task), we investigated whether children and adults' orienting towards social and non-social visual cues can...

Data from: Foraging bumblebees acquire a preference for neonicotinoid-treated food with prolonged exposure

Andres N. Arce, Ana Ramos Rodrigues, Jiajun Yu, Thomas J. Colgan, Yannick Wurm & Richard J. Gill
Social bees represent an important group of pollinating insects but can be exposed to potentially harmful pesticides when foraging on treated or contaminated flowering plants. To investigate if such exposure is detrimental to bees, many studies have exclusively fed individuals with pesticide spiked food, informing us about the hazard but not necessarily the risk of exposure. Whilst such studies are important to establish the physiological and behavioural effects on individuals they do not consider the...

Data from: Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem

Jolanda Jetten, Nyla R. Branscombe, S. Alexander Haslam, Catherine Haslam, Tegan Cruwys, Janelle M. Jones, Lijuan Cui, Genevieve Dingle, James Liu, Sean Murphy, Anh Thai, Zoe Walter & Airong Zhang
Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to...

Data from: Temperature-dependence of minimum resource requirements alters competitive hierarchies in phytoplankton

Leah Lewington-Pearce, Anita Narwani, Mridul K. Thomas, Colin Kremer, Helena Vogler & Pavel Kratina
1. Resource competition theory is a conceptual framework that provides mechanistic insights into competition and community assembly of species with different resource requirements. However, there has been little exploration of how resource requirements depend on other environmental factors, including temperature. Changes in resource requirements as influenced by environmental temperature would imply that climate warming can alter the outcomes of competition and community assembly. 2. We experimentally demonstrate that environmental temperature alters the minimum light and...

Data from: Increased Dystrophin Production With Golodirsen in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Diane E. Frank, Frederick J. Schnell, Cody Akana, Saleh H. El-Husayni, Cody A. Desjardins, Jennifer Morgan, Jay S. Charleston, Valentina Sardone, Joana Domingos, George Dickson, Volker Straub, Michela Guglieri, Eugenio Mercuri, Laurent Servais & Francesco Muntoni
Objective To report safety, pharmacokinetics, exon 53 skipping, and dystrophin expression in golodirsen-treated patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) amenable to exon 53 skipping. Methods Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week dose titration of once-weekly golodirsen; Part 2 is an ongoing, open-label evaluation. Safety and pharmacokinetics were primary and secondary objectives of Part 1. Primary biological outcome measures of part 2 were blinded exon skipping and dystrophin protein production on muscle biopsies (baseline,...

Data from: Multi-serotype pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence in vaccine naïve Nepalese children, assessed using molecular serotyping.

Rama Kandasamy, Meeru Gurung, Anushil Thapa, Susan Ndimah, Neelam Adhikari, David R. Murdoch, Dominic F. Kelly, Denise E. Waldron, Katherine A. Gould, Stephen Thorson, Shrijana Shrestha, Jason Hinds & Andrew J. Pollard
Invasive pneumococcal disease is one of the major causes of death in young children in resource poor countries. Nasopharyngeal carriage studies provide insight into the local prevalence of circulating pneumococcal serotypes. There are very few data on the concurrent carriage of multiple pneumococcal serotypes. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and serotype distribution of pneumococci carried in the nasopharynx of young healthy Nepalese children prior to the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine using...

Data from: New quantitative approaches reveal the spatial preference of nuclear compartments in mammalian fibroblasts

David J. Weston, Richard A. Russell, Elizabeth Batty, Kirsten Jensen, David A. Stephens, Niall M. Adams & Paul S. Freemont
The nuclei of higher eukaryotic cells display compartmentalization and certain nuclear compartments have been shown to follow a degree of spatial organization. To date, the study of nuclear organization has often involved simple quantitative procedures that struggle with both the irregularity of the nuclear boundary and the problem of handling replicate images. Such studies typically focus on inter-object distance, rather than spatial location within the nucleus. The concern of this paper is the spatial preference...

Data from: Epidemiological interactions between urogenital and intestinal human schistosomiasis in the context of praziquantel treatment across three West African countries

Sarah C. L. Knowles, Bonnie L. Webster, Amadou Garba, Moussa Sacko, Oumar T. Diaw, Alan Fenwick, David Rollinson & Joanne P. Webster
Background: In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis co-occur, and mixed species infections containing both Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni can be common. During co-infection, interactions between these two species are possible, yet the extent to which such interactions influence disease dynamics or the outcome of control efforts remains poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we analyse epidemiological data from three West African countries co-endemic for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis (Senegal, Niger and...

Data from: A sting in the spit: widespread cross-infection of multiple RNA viruses across wild and managed bees

Dino P. McMahon, Matthias A. Fürst, Jesicca Caspar, Panagiotis Theodorou, Mark J. F. Brown & Robert J. Paxton
1.Declining populations of bee pollinators are a cause of concern, with major repercussions for biodiversity loss and food security. RNA viruses associated with honeybees represent a potential threat to other insect pollinators, but the extent of this threat is poorly understood. 2.This study aims to attain a detailed understanding of the current and on going risk of emerging infectious disease (EID) transmission between managed and wild pollinator species across a wide range of RNA viruses....

Data from: Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

Karl T. Bates, Philip D. Mannion, Peter L. Falkingham, Stephen L. Brusatte, John R. Hutchinson, Alexandros Otero, William I. Sellers, Corwin Sullivan, Kent A. Stevens & Vivian Allen
The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean...

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability

Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Klaus Høiland, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Thomas W. Kuyper, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Paul M. Kirk, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Alan C. Gange, Simon Egli, Claus Bässler, Ulf Büntgen, Lynne Boddy & Håvard Kauserud
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by...

Data from: Unidirectional diploid–tetraploid introgression among British birch trees with shifting ranges shown by restriction site-associated markers

Jasmin Zohren, Nian Wang, Igor Kardailsky, James S. Borrell, Anika Joecker, Richard A. Nichols & Richard J. A. Buggs
Hybridization may lead to introgression of genes among species. Introgression may be bidirectional or unidirectional, depending on factors such as the demography of the hybridizing species, or the nature of reproductive barriers between them. Previous microsatellite studies suggested bidirectional introgression between diploid Betula nana (dwarf birch) and tetraploid B. pubescens (downy birch) and also between B. pubescens and diploid B. pendula (silver birch) in Britain. Here, we analyse introgression among these species using 51 237...

Data from: Shifts along parasite-mutualist continuum are opposed by fundamental trade-offs

Andrew C. Matthews, Lauri Mikonranta & Ben Raymond
Theory suggests that symbionts can readily evolve more parasitic or mutualistic strategies with respect to hosts. However, many symbionts have stable interactions with hosts that improve nutrient assimilation or confer protection from pathogens. We explored the potential for evolution of increased parasitism or decreased parasitism and mutualism in a natural gut symbiosis between larvae of Plutella xylostella and the microbe Enterobacter cloacae. We focused on interactions with the pathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis: selecting for parasitism in...

Data from: Long-term balancing selection on chromosomal variants associated with crypsis in a stick insect

Dorothea Lindtke, Kay Lucek, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Romain Villoutreix, Timothy E. Farkas, Rüdiger Riesch, Stuart R. Dennis, Zach Gompert & Patrik Nosil
How polymorphisms are maintained within populations over long periods of time remains debated, because genetic drift and various forms of selection are expected to reduce variation. Here, we study the genetic architecture and maintenance of phenotypic morphs that confer crypsis in Timema cristinae stick insects, combining phenotypic information and genotyping-by-sequencing data from 1360 samples across 21 populations. We find two highly divergent chromosomal variants that span megabases of sequence and are associated with color polymorphism....

Data from: Reconstructing the emergence of a lethal infectious disease of wildlife supports a key role for spread through translocations by humans

Stephen J. Price, Trenton W.J. Garner, Andrew A. Cunningham, Tom E.S. Langton & Richard A. Nichols
There have been few reconstructions of wildlife disease emergences, despite their extensive impact on biodiversity and human health. This is in large part attributable to the lack of structured and robust spatio-temporal datasets. We overcame logistical problems of obtaining suitable information by using data from a citizen science project and formulating spatio-temporal models of the spread of a wildlife pathogen (genus Ranavirus, infecting amphibians). We evaluated three main hypotheses for the rapid increase in disease...

Data from: Impact of controlled neonicotinoid exposure on bumblebees in a realistic field setting

Andres N. Arce, Thomas I. David, Emma L. Randall, Ana Ramos Rodrigues, Thomas J. Colgan, Yannick Wurm & Richard J. Gill
Pesticide exposure has been implicated as a contributor to insect pollinator declines. In social bees, which are crucial pollination service providers, the effect of low-level chronic exposure is typically non-lethal leading researchers to consider whether exposure induces sublethal effects on behaviour and whether such impairment can affect colony development. Studies under laboratory conditions can control levels of pesticide exposure and elucidate causative effects, but are often criticized for being unrealistic. In contrast, field studies can...

Data from: Does wildlife resource selection accurately inform corridor conservation?

Briana Abrahms, Sarah C. Sawyer, Neil R. Jordan, J. Weldon McNutt, Alan M. Wilson & Justin S. Brashares
Evaluating landscape connectivity and identifying and protecting corridors for animal movement have become central challenges in applied ecology and conservation. Currently, resource selection analyses are widely used to focus corridor planning where animal movement is predicted to occur. An animal's behavioural state (e.g. foraging, dispersing) is a significant determinant of resource selection patterns, yet has largely been ignored in connectivity assessments. We review 16 years of connectivity studies employing resource selection analysis to evaluate how...

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