40 Works

Data from: How much would it cost to monitor farmland biodiversity in Europe?

Ilse R. Geijzendorffer, Stefano Targetti, Manuel K. Schneider, Dick J. Brus, Philippe Jeanneret, Robert H. G. Jongman, Martin Knotters, Davide Viaggi, Siyka Angelova, Michaela Arndorfer, Debra Bailey, Katalin Balzacs, András Báldim, Marion M. B. Bogers, Robert G.H. Bunce, Jean-Philippe Choisis, Peter Dennis, Sebastian Eiter, Wendy Fjellstad, Jürgen F. Friedel, Tiziano Gomiero, Arjan Griffioen, Max Kainz, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Gisela Lüscher … & András Báldi
To evaluate progress on political biodiversity objectives, biodiversity monitoring provides information on whether intended results are being achieved. Despite scientific proof that monitoring and evaluation increase the (cost) efficiency of policy measures, cost estimates for monitoring schemes are seldom available, hampering their inclusion in policy programme budgets. Empirical data collected from 12 case studies across Europe were used in a power analysis to estimate the number of farms that would need to be sampled per...

Data from: A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

Bénédicte Wenden, José Antonio Campoy, Julien Lecourt, Gregorio López Ortega, Michael Blanke, Sanja Radičević, Elisabeth Schüller, Andreas Spornberger, Danilo Christen, Hugo Magein, Daniela Giovannini, Carlos Campillo, Svetoslav Malchev, José Miguel Peris, Mekjell Meland, Rolf Stehr, Gérard Charlot & José Quero-García
Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978 - 2015). Such dataset is...

Data from: Ultraconserved yet informative for species delimitation: UCEs resolve long-standing systematic enigma in Central European bees

Morgan Gueuning, Christophe Praz & Juerg Frey
Accurate and testable species delimitation hypotheses are essential for measuring, surveying and managing biodiversity. Today, taxonomists often rely on mitochondrial DNA barcoding to complement morphological species delimitations. Although COI barcoding has largely proven successful in assisting identifications for most animal taxa, there are nevertheless numerous cases where mitochondrial barcodes do not necessarily reflect the species history. For instance, what is regarded as one single species can be associated with two distinct DNA barcodes, which can...

Database of non-target invertebrates recorded in field experiments of genetically engineered Bt maize and corresponding non-Bt maize: data files

Michael Meissle, Steven Naranjo & Jörg Romeis
This database represents a comprehensive collection of experimental field data from all over the world on non-target invertebrates recorded in genetically engineered/modified Bt and non-Bt maize. The three data files deposited here are described by Meissle et al. (2022), BMC Research Notes, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-022-06021-3 . The database was created for a systematic review with the question if growing Bt maize changes abundance or ecological function of non-target animals compared to growing of non-GM maize, published by...

Data from: Enhancing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes promotes both rare bees and dominant crop-pollinating bees through complementary increase in key floral resources

Louis Sutter, Philippe Jeanneret, Agustín M. Bartual, Gionata Bocci & Matthias Albrecht
1. Enhancing key floral resources is essential to effectively mitigate the loss of pollinator diversity and associated provisioning of pollination functions in agro-ecosystems. However, effective floral provisioning measures may diverge among different pollinator conservation targets, such as the conservation of rare species or the promotion of economically important crop pollinators. We examined to what extent such diverging conservation goals could be reconciled. 2. We analysed plant–bee visitation networks of 64 herbaceous semi-natural habitats representing a...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Data from: Linking diversity, synchrony and stability in soil microbial communities

Cameron Wagg, Jan-Hendrik Dudenhöffer, Franco Widmer, Marcel G.A. Van Der Heijden & Marcel G. A. Van Der Heijden
1. It is becoming well established that plant diversity is instrumental in stabilizing the temporal functioning of ecosystems through population dynamics and the so-called insurance or portfolio effect. However, it is unclear whether diversity-stability relationships and the role of population dynamics in soil microbial communities parallel those in plant communities. 2. Our study took place in a long-term land management experiment with and without perturbation to the soil ecosystem by tilling. We assessed the impacts...

Data from: Multispecies for multifunctions: combining four complementary species enhances multifunctionality of sown grassland

Matthias Suter, Olivier Huguenin-Elie & Andreas Lüscher
Assessing the overall performance of ecosystems requires a quantitative evaluation of multifunctionality. We investigated plant species diversity effects on individual functions and overall multifunctionality in a grassland experiment with sown monocultures and mixtures comprising four key grass and legume species. Nitrogen fertilisation rates were 50, 150, and 450 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N50, N150, N450). Ten functions were measured representing forage production, N cycling, and forage quality, all being related to either productivity or environmental...

Partitioning beta diversity to untangle mechanisms underlying the assembly of bird communities in Mediterranean olive groves

Vicente García-Navas, Carlos Martínez-Núñez, Rubén Tarifa, Antonio J. Manzaneda, Francisco Valera, Teresa Salido, Francisco M. Camacho & Pedro J. Rey
Aim: We investigated taxonomic and functional beta diversity of bird communities inhabiting Mediterranean olive groves subject to either intensive or extensive management of the ground cover and located in landscapes with different degrees of complexity. Location: Andalusia, southern Spain. Methods: We partitioned taxonomic and functional beta diversity into its two additive components, turnover and nestedness. We also explored the contributions of single sites to overall beta diversity (LCBD) and separated the effects of species replacement...

Disentangling direct and indirect drivers of farmland biodiversity at landscape scale

Eliane Meier, Gisela Lüscher & Eva Knop
To stop the ongoing decline of farmland biodiversity there are increasing claims for a paradigm shift in agriculture, namely from conserving and restoring farmland biodiversity at field scale (α-diversity) to doing it at landscape scale (γ-diversity). However, knowledge on factors driving farmland γ-diversity is currently limited. Here, we quantified farmland γ-diversity in 123 landscapes and analysed direct and indirect effects of abiotic and land-use factors shaping it using structural equation models. The direction and strength...

DataFile S1 from Age, empathy, familiarity, domestication and call features enhance human perception of animal emotion expressions

Jasmin Sowerby Greenall, Lydia Cornu, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Monica Padilla de la Torre & Elodie F. Briefer
Raw data used for the analyses.

Data from: No evidence for impaired solitary bee fitness following pre-flowering sulfoxaflor application alone or in combination with a common fungicide in a semi-field experiment

Janine Melanie Schwarz, Anina C. Knauer, Matthew J. Allan, Robin R. Dean, Jaboury Ghazoul, Giovanni Tamburini, Dimitry Wintermantel, Alexandra-Maria Klein & Matthias Albrecht
Pesticide exposure is considered a major driver of pollinator decline and the use of neonicotinoid insecticides has been restricted by regulatory authorities due to their risks for pollinators. Impacts of new alternative sulfoximine-based compounds on solitary bees and their potential interactive effects with other commonly applied pesticides in agriculture remain unclear. Here, we conducted a highly replicated full-factorial semi-field experiment with the solitary bee Osmia bicornis, an important pollinator of crops and wild plants in...

Data from: Tailored flower strips promote natural enemy biodiversity and pest control in potato crops

Matthias Tschumi, Matthias Albrecht, Jana Collatz, Viktor Dubsky, Martin H. Entling, Adriana J. Najar-Rodriguez & Katja Jacot
1. Sown flower strips are increasingly implemented within agri-environment schemes (AES) to increase functional biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination or natural pest control, but their effectiveness in achieving these goals remains poorly studied. 2. We tested the performance of experimentally sown annual flower strips specifically designed to promote natural enemies of aphids and their pest control services (tailored flower strips) in adjacent potato crops (n=8) compared to control fields (n=10). Flower strips consisted...

Data from: Diverse pollinator communities enhance plant reproductive success

Matthias Albrecht, Bernhard Schmid, Yann Hautier & Christine B. Müller
Understanding the functional consequences of biodiversity loss is a major goal of ecology. Animal-mediated pollination is an essential ecosystem function and service provided to mankind. However, little is known how pollinator diversity could affect pollination services. Using a substitutive design, we experimentally manipulated functional group (FG) and species richness of pollinator communities to investigate their consequences on the reproductive success of an obligate out-crossing model plant species, Raphanus sativus. Both fruit and seed set increased...

Data from: Stacked Bt maize and arthropod predators – exposure to insecticidal Cry proteins and potential hazards

Zdeňka Svobodová, Yinghua Shu, Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Jörg Romeis & Michael Meissle
Genetically engineered (GE) crops with stacked insecticidal traits expose arthropods to multiple Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). One concern is that the different Cry proteins may interact and lead to unexpected adverse effects on non-target species. Bi- and tri-trophic experiments with SmartStax maize, herbivorous spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) and aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi), and predatory spiders (Phylloneta impressa), ladybeetles (Harmonia axyridis), and lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea) were conducted. Cry1A.105, Cry1F, Cry3Bb1, and Cry34Ab1 moved in a...

Adaptive population structure shifts in invasive parasitic mites, Varroa destructor

Arrigo Moro, Tjeerd Blacquière, Bjorn Dahle, Vincent Dietemann, Yves Le Conte, Locke Barbara, Peter Neumann & Alexis Beaurepaire
Comparative studies of genetic diversity and population structure can shed light on the ecological and evolutionary factors governing host–parasite interactions. Even though invasive parasites are considered of major biological importance, little is known about their adaptive potential when infesting the new hosts. Here, the genetic diversification of Varroa destructor, a novel parasite of Apis mellifera originating from Asia, was investigated using population genetics to determine how the genetic structure of the parasite changed in distinct...

Data from: Higher species richness enhances yield stability in intensively managed grasslands with experimental disturbance

Eamon Haughey, Matthias Suter, Daniel Hofer, Nyncke J. Hoekstra, Jennifer C. McElwain, Andreas Lüscher & John A. Finn
Climate models predict increased frequency and severity of drought events. At an Irish and Swiss site, experimental summer droughts were applied over two successive years to grassland plots sown with one, two or four grassland species with contrasting functional traits. Mean yield and plot-to-plot variance of yield were measured across harvests during drought and after a subsequent post-drought recovery period. At both sites, there was a positive relationship between species richness and yield. Under rainfed...

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe

Emily A. Martin, Matteo Dainese, Yann Clough, András Báldi, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Lorenzo Marini, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Diab Al Hassan, Matthias Albrecht, Georg K. S. Andersson, Josep Asis, Stephanie Aviron, Mario Balzan, Laura Baños-Picón, Ignasi Bartomeus, Peter Batary, Françoise Burel, Berta Caballero-López, Elena D. Concepcion … & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with...

Data from: Evaluating NGS methods for routine monitoring of wild bees: metabarcoding, mitogenomics or NGS barcoding

Morgan Gueuning, Dominik Ganser, Simon Blaser, Matthias Albrecht, Eva Knop, Christophe Praz & Juerg E. Frey
Implementing cost-effective monitoring programs for wild bees remains challenging due to the high costs of sampling and specimen identification. To reduce costs, next generation sequencing (NGS)-based methods have lately been suggested as alternatives to morphology-based identifications. To provide a comprehensive presentation of the advantages and weaknesses of different NGS-based identification methods, we assessed three of the most promising ones, namely metabarcoding, mitogenomics and NGS barcoding. Using a regular monitoring dataset (723 specimens identified using morphology),...

Nutritional stress exacerbates impact of a novel insecticide on solitary bees’ behaviour, reproduction and survival

Anina Knauer, Cedric Alaux, Matthew Allan, Robin Dean, Virginie Dievart, Gaétan Glauser, Tomasz Kiljanek, Denis Michez, Janine Schwarz, Giovanni Tamburini, Dimitry Wintermantel, Alexandra-Maria Klein & Matthias Albrecht
Pesticide exposure and food stress are major threats to bees, but their potential synergistic impacts under field-realistic conditions remain poorly understood and are not considered in current pesticide risk assessments. We conducted a semi-field experiment to examine the single and interactive effects of the novel insecticide flupyradifurone (FPF) and nutritional stress on fitness proxies in the solitary bee Osmia bicornis. Individually marked bees were released into flight cages with monocultures of either buckwheat, wild mustard...

Data from: Vertical distribution of the soil microbiota along a successional gradient in a glacier forefield

Thomas Rime, Martin Hartmann, Ivano Brunner, Franco Widmer, Josef Zeyer & Beat Frey
Spatial patterns of microbial communities have been extensively surveyed in well-developed soils, but few studies investigated the vertical distribution of microorganisms in newly developed soils after glacier retreat. We used 454-pyrosequencing to assess whether bacterial and fungal community structures differed between stages of soil development (SSD) characterized by an increasing vegetation cover from barren (vegetation cover: 0%/ age: 10 years), sparsely-vegetated (13%/ 60 years), transient (60%/ 80 years) to vegetated (95%/ 110 years) and depths...

Data from: Yield of temperate forage grassland species is either largely resistant or resilient to experimental summer drought

Daniel Hofer, Matthias Suter, Eamon Haughey, John A. Finn, Nyncke J. Hoekstra, Nina Buchmann & Andreas Lüscher
Due to climate change, an increasing frequency and severity of drought events are expected to impair grassland productivity, particularly of intensively managed temperate grasslands. To assess drought impacts, a common field experiment to manipulate precipitation was set up at three sites (two Swiss and one Irish) using monocultures and mixtures with two and four key forage species. Species differed in their functional traits: a shallow-rooted non-legume (Lolium perenne L.), a deep-rooted non-legume (Cichorium intybus L.),...

Data from: Landscape greening and local creation of wildflower strips and hedgerows promote multiple ecosystem services

Louis Sutter, Matthias Albrecht & Philippe Jeanneret
1. The explicit and implicit aims of creating ecological focus areas (EFAs) and implementing greening measures in European agro-ecosystems include the promotion of regulatory ecosystem services (ES) to sustain crop production in conventional cropping systems. However, the extent to which these goals are achieved with current policy measures remains poorly explored. 2. We measured insect-mediated pollination and natural pest control service provisioning in 18 winter oilseed rape fields as a function of the independent and...

Data from: Symbiotic soil fungi enhance resistance and resilience of an experimental grassland to drought and nitrogen deposition

Yangyang Jia, Marcel Van Der Heijden, Cameron Wagg, Gu Feng & Florian Walder
Ecosystem stability is threatened by multiple global change factors such as drought and elevated nitrogen deposition. Yet, it is still poorly understood whether soil organisms can buffer against such perturbations. Here we focus on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a common and widespread group of soil fungi. AMF form symbiotic associations with the majority of terrestrial land plants and promote a range of ecosystem services including plant production, diversity and nutrient cycling. We tested whether AMF...

Wildflower strips enhance wild bee reproductive success

Dominik Ganser, Matthias Albrecht & Eva Knop
1. Intensification of agriculture has resulted in a simplification and fragmentation of agroecosystems. Yet, its impact on the reproductive success and population dynamics of wild bees, and how adverse effects can be mitigated, remains poorly understood. 2. We established populations of seven solitary bee species varying in body size in experimentally sown wild flower strips (WFS), existing semi-natural habitats (SNH; forest edges) and isolated sites lacking WFS and SNH in the local surrounding (350 m...

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