43 Works

How far do Asian hornbills disperse seeds?

Rohit Naniwadekar, Akanksha Rathore, Ushma Shukla, Saniya Chaplod & Aparajita Datta
Biotic seed dispersal of plants is a complex phenomenon that is influenced by multiple seed disperser species with implications for plant fitness and range expansions. While inter-species variation has been well-studied, the importance of incorporating intraspecific variation in seed dispersal is increasingly being acknowledged. We compared seed dispersal patterns of breeding and non-breeding great hornbills Buceros bicornis and a breeding wreathed hornbill Rhyticeros undulatus by combining data on fruiting tree visitations, gut passage time and...

Data from: Multilocus phylogeny and revised classification for mountain dragons of the genus Japalura s.l. (Reptilia: Agamidae: Draconinae) from Asia

Kai Wang, Jing Che, Simin Lin, V. Deepak, Datta-Roy Aniruddha, Ke Jiang, Jieqiong Jin, Hongman Chen & Cameron D. Siler
Although the genus Japalura s.l. has long been recognized as paraphyletic based on limited genetic sampling, its problematic taxonomy has not been revised, and phylogenetic relationships among the majority of congeners remain unknown. Here we utilize a densely sampled dataset of both multilocus genetic and morphological data to provide the first phylogenetic inference of relationships among Japalura s.l.species. Our results show that Japalura s.l. is paraphyletic, consisting of four major clades that are scattered across...

Calponin-Homology Domain mediated bending of membrane associated actin filaments

Saravanan Palani, Mohan Balasubramanian & Darius Vasco Köster
This dataset contains data from experiments described in 'Palani S, Ghosh S, Ivorra-Molla E, Clarke S, Suchenko A, Balasubramanian MK, Köster DV. 2021. Calponin-homology domain mediated bending of membrane associated actin filaments. Elife 10. doi:10.7554/eLife.61078'. This dataset consists of fluorescence microscopy images obtained by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. Using an in vitro approach, we studied the effect of the IQGAP protein fragment Rng2(1-189) on the geometry of actin filaments when tethered to supported...

Repeated evolution of terrestrial lineages in a continental lizard radiation

Aparna Lajmi, Anjali Verma & Praveen Karanth
The ‘early-burst’ model of adaptive radiation predicts an early increase in phenotypic disparity concurrent with lineage diversification. Although most studies report a lack of this coupled pattern, the underlying processes are not identified. The continental radiation of <i>Hemidactylus</i> geckos from Peninsular India includes morphologically diverse species that occupy various microhabitats. This radiation began diversifying ~36 Mya with an early increase in lineage diversification. Here, we test the ‘early-burst’ hypothesis by investigating the presence of ecomorphs...

Data from: A global optimization paradigm based on change of measures

Saikat Sarkar, Debasish Roy & Ram Mohan Vasu
A global optimization framework, COMBEO (Change Of Measure Based Evolutionary Optimization), is proposed. An important aspect in the development is a set of derivative-free additive directional terms, obtainable through a change of measures en route to the imposition of any stipulated conditions aimed at driving the realized design variables (particles) to the global optimum. The generalized setting offered by the new approach also enables several basic ideas, used with other global search methods such as...

Data from: Residue proximity information and protein model discrimination using saturation-suppressor mutagenesis

Anusmita Sahoo, Shruti Khare, Sivasankar Devanarayanan, Pankaj Jain & Raghavan Varadarajan
Identification of residue-residue contacts from primary sequence can be used to guide protein structure prediction. Using Escherichia coli CcdB as the test case, we describe an experimental method termed saturation-suppressor mutagenesis to acquire residue contact information. In this methodology, for each of five inactive CcdB mutants, exhaustive screens for suppressors were performed. Proximal suppressors were accurately discriminated from distal suppressors based on their phenotypes when present as single mutants. Experimentally identified putative proximal pairs formed...

Data from: Tree crickets optimize the acoustics of baffles to exaggerate their mate-attraction signal

Natasha Mhatre, Robert Malkin, Rittik Deb, Rohini Balakrishnan & Daniel Robert
Object manufacture in insects is typically inherited, and believed to be highly stereotyped. Optimization, the ability to select the functionally best material and modify it appropriately for a specific function, implies flexibility and is usually thought to be incompatible with inherited behaviour. Here we show that tree-crickets optimize acoustic baffles, objects that are used to increase the effective loudness of mate-attraction calls. We quantified the acoustic efficiency of all baffles within the naturally feasible design...

Hopping on: Conspecific traveller density within a vehicle regulates parasitic hitchhiking between ephemeral microcosms

Satyajeet Gupta & Renee Borges
Hitchhikers (phoretic organisms) identify their vehicles using species-specific visual, chemical and vibrational cues. However, what factors influence their choice between vehicles of the same species has rarely been investigated. Hitchhikers must not only avoid overcrowded vehicles but may also need to travel with conspecifics to ensure mates at their destination. Hence, a trade-off between overcrowding and presence of conspecifics likely determines choice of a vehicle especially when destination sites are distant, ephemeral and unique. Here,...

Association of SUMOlation pathway genes with stroke in a genome-wide association study in India

Amit Kumar, Ganesh Chauhan, Shriram Sharma, Surekha Dabla, P. N. Sylaja, Neera Chaudhary, Salil Gupta, Chandra Sekhar Agrawal, Kuljeet Singh Anand, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Deepti Vibha, Ram Sagar, Ritesh Raj, Ankita Maheswari, Subbiah Vivekanandhan, Bhavna Kaul, Samudrala Raghavan, Sankar Prasad Gorthi, Dheeraj Mohania, Samander Kaushik, Rohtas Kanwar Yadav, Anjali Hazarika, Pankaj Sharma & Kameshwar Prasad
Objective: To undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants for stroke in Indians. Methods: In a hospital-based case-control study, eight teaching hospitals in India recruited 4,088 subjects, including 1,609 stroke cases. Imputed genetic variants were tested for association with stroke subtypes using both single-marker and gene-based tests. Association with vascular risk factors was performed using logistic regression. Various databases were searched for replication, functional annotation, and association with related traits. Status of...

Mixed-species groups of herbivorous reef fish show variable responses to ecosystem perturbations in the Lakshadweep Islands, India

Kartik Shanker & Anne Heloise Theo
This dataset contains data on mixed-species groups of herbivorous reef fish and local species composition in the Lakshadweep Islands, India. Herbivorous reef fish provide a vital function in reef ecosystems by removing algae and making space available to coral recruits. The high abundance of herbivores in the reefs of the Lakshadweep islands has potentially aided in reef recovery and helped avoid a phase shift to an algal-dominated system, despite most areas having suffered massive coral...

Data from: Positive relationships between association strength and phenotypic similarity characterize the assembly of mixed-species bird flocks worldwide

Hari Sridhar, Umesh Srinivasan, Robert A. Askins, Julio Cesar Canales Delgadillo, Chao-Chieh Chen, David N. Ewert, George A. Gale, Eben Goodale, Wendy K. Gram, Patrick J. Hart, Keith A. Hobson, Richard L. Hutto, Sarath W. Kotagama, Jessie L. Knowlton, Tien Ming Lee, Charles A. Munn, Somchai Nimnuan, B. Z. Nizam, Guillaume Péron, V. V. Robin, Amanda D. Rodewald, Paul G. Rodewald, Robert L. Thomson, Pranav Trivedi, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg … & Kartik Shanker
Competition theory predicts that communities at small spatial scales should consist of species more dissimilar than expected by chance. We find a strikingly different pattern in a multi-continent dataset (55 presence-absence matrices from 24 locations) on the composition of mixed-species bird flocks, important subunits of local bird communities the world over. Using null models and randomization tests followed by meta-analysis, we find the association strength of species in flocks to be strongly related to similarity...

Data from: Alternative reproductive tactics and inverse size-assortment in a high-density fish spawning aggregation

Rucha Karkarey, Amod Zambre, Kavita Isvaran & Rohan Arthur
Background: At high densities, terrestrial and marine species often employ alternate reproductive tactics (ARTs) to maximize reproductive benefits. We describe ARTs in a high-density and unfished spawning aggregation of the squaretail grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) in Lakshadweep, India. Results: As previously reported for this species, territorial males engage in pair-courtship, which is associated with a pair-spawning tactic. Here, we document a previously unreported school-courtship tactic; where territorial males court multiple females in mid-water schools, which appears...

Data from: Spatio-temporal dynamics of field cricket calling behaviour: implications for female mate search and mate choice

Diptarup Nandi & Rohini Balakrishnan
Amount of calling activity (calling effort) is a strong determinant of male mating success in species such as orthopterans and anurans that use acoustic communication in the context of mating behaviour. While many studies in crickets have investigated the determinants of calling effort, patterns of variability in male calling effort in natural choruses remain largely unexplored. Within-individual variability in calling activity across multiple nights of calling can influence female mate search and mate choice strategies....

Data from: Reproductive isolation in the acoustically divergent groups of Tettigoniid, Mecopoda elongata

Rochishnu Dutta, Tregenza Tom & Balakrishnan Rohini
Sympatric divergent populations of the same species provide an opportunity to study the evolution and maintenance of reproductive isolation. Male mating calls are important in sexual selection acoustically communicating species, and they also have the potential to maintain isolation among species or incipient species. We studied divergent south Indian populations of the bush cricket Mecopoda elongata which are extremely difficult to distinguish morphologically, but which exhibit striking divergence in male acoustic signals. We performed phonotactic...

Unique mode of cell division by the mycobacterial genetic resister clones emerging de novo from the antibiotic surviving population

Parthasarathi Ajitkumar
Live cell and timelapse microscopic images of the cells taken from different time points post antibiotic (Rifampicin and Moxifloxacin) exposure. The cells post antibiotic exposure, during their regrowth, showed multiple constriction to divide and generate sister antibiotic resister daughter cells with abrupt increased cell number within less division time by multiple septation. The phenomena of multiple septation can be seen in Miscellaneous Figures (MF. 1-4) and Miscellaneous Movies (MF. 1-4).

Data from: A new ancient lineage of frog (Anura: Nyctibatrachidae: Astrobatrachinae subfam. nov.) endemic to the Western Ghats of Peninsular India

Seenapuram Palaniswamy Vijayakumar, Robert Alexander Pyron, K. P. Dinesh, Varun R. Torsekar, Achyuthan N. Srikanthan, Priyanka Swamy, Edward L. Stanley, David C. Blackburn & Kartik Shanker
The Western Ghats (WG) is an escarpment on the west coast of Peninsular India, housing one of the richest assemblages of frogs in the world, with three endemic families. Here, we report the discovery of a new ancient lineage from a high-elevation massif in the Wayanad Plateau of the southern WG. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the lineage belongs to Natatanura and clusters with Nyctibatrachidae, a family endemic to the WG/Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Based on...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity and endemism in the Western Ghats, India: a case study using ancient predatory arthropods

D. K. Bharti, Greg Edgecombe, Praveen Karanth & Jahnavi Joshi
The Western Ghats (WG) mountain chain in peninsular India is a global biodiversity hotspot, one in which patterns of phylogenetic diversity and endemism remain to be documented across taxa. We used a well-characterized community of ancient soil predatory arthropods from the WG to understand diversity gradients, identify hotspots of endemism and conservation importance, and highlight poorly-studied areas with unique biodiversity. We compiled an occurrence dataset for 19 species of scolopendrid centipedes, which was used to...

Data from: Glaciations, gradients, and geography: multiple drivers of diversification of bush frogs in the Western Ghats Escarpment

S P Vijayakumar, Riya C. Menezes, Aditi Jayarajan & Kartik Shanker
The historical processes underlying high diversity in tropical biodiversity hotspots like the Western Ghats of Peninsular India remain poorly understood. We sampled bush frogs on 13 massifs across the Western Ghats Escarpment and examined the relative influence of Quaternary glaciations, ecological gradients and geological processes on the spatial patterns of lineage and clade diversification. The results reveal a large in situ radiation (more than 60 lineages), exhibiting geographical structure and clade-level endemism, with two deeply...

Data from: Dispersal increases the resilience of tropical savanna and forest distributions

Nikunj Goel, Vishwesha Guttal, Simon Levin & Carla Staver
Global change may induce changes in savanna and forest distributions, but the dynamics of these changes remain unclear. Classical biome theory suggests that climate is predictive of biome distributions, such that shifts will be continuous and reversible. This view, however, cannot explain the overlap in the climatic ranges of tropical biomes, which some argue may result from fire-vegetation feedbacks, maintaining savanna and forest as bistable states. Under this view, biome shifts are argued to be...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Nocturnal bees feed on diurnal leftovers and pay the price of day–night lifestyle transition

Hema Somanathan, Shivani Krishna, Elsa Mini Jos, Vishwas Gowda, Almut Kelber & Renee Borges
Bees exemplify flights under bright sunlight. A few species across bee families have evolved nocturnality, displaying remarkable adaptations to overcome limitations of their daylight-suited apposition eyes. Phase inversion to nocturnality in a minority of bees that co-exist with diurnal bees provide a unique opportunity to study ecological benefits that mediate total temporal niche shifts. While floral traits and sensory modalities associated with the evolution of classical nocturnal pollination syndromes, e.g. by bats and moths, are...

Sex differences in alternative reproductive tactics in response to predation risk in tree crickets

Viraj Torsekar & Rohini Balakrishnan
1. Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are variable, often discontinuous, behaviours that allow a particular sex to achieve enhanced mating success. Predation risk has been hypothesised to drive the evolution of ARTs, but few empirical studies have examined this. It is unclear whether predators affect fitness of the two sexes directly, by reducing survival, or indirectly, by altering mate-searching. 2. In crickets, mate-search typically involves acoustic signalling by males and acoustic-mediated movement towards males by silent...

Lifetime reproductive output and life-history traits of lizards

Udita Bansal & Maria Thaker
Aim: Latitudinal gradients in life-history traits are apparent in many taxa and are expected to be strong for ectotherms that have temperature-driven constraints on performance and fitness. The strength of these gradients, however, should also be affected by diet. Because diet type (carnivory, omnivory, herbivory) influences accessibility to nutrition and assimilation efficiency, we aim to study how diet affects latitudinal gradients in lifetime reproductive output and the underlying life-history traits in ectotherms. Location: Global. Time...

Endemic plants of the Indian peninsular savannas

Ashish Nerlekar, Alok Chorghe, Jagdish Dalavi, Raja Kullayiswamy, Subbiah Karuppusamy, Vignesh Kamath, Ritesh Pokar, Ganesan Rengaian, Milind Sardesai & Sharad Kambale
Biodiversity of tropical grasslands and savannas (tropical grassy biomes; TGBs) remains poorly documented compared to tropical forests. This is in part due to the misplaced notion of TGBs being anthropogenic forest derivatives that support negligible biodiversity and endemism. For the Indian savannas, the legacy of colonial forestry has led to their misinterpretation as anthropogenic wastelands of low conservation value. One key assumption underlying the devaluation of Indian savannas against Indian forests is the presumed absence...

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  • Indian Institute of Science Bangalore
  • Nature Conservation Foundation
  • Utah State University
  • University of Montana
  • Columbia University
  • University of Minnesota
  • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
  • University of Florida
  • National Centre for Biological Sciences
  • Michigan Technological University