115 Works

Macronutrients modulate survival to infection and immunity in Drosophila

Fleur Ponton, Juliano Morimoto, Katie Robinson, Sheemal S. Kumar, Sheena C. Cotter, Kenneth Wilson & Stephen J. Simpson
Immunity and nutrition are two essential modulators of individual fitness. However, while the implications of immune function and nutrition on an individual’s lifespan and reproduction are well established, the interplay between feeding behaviour, infection, and immune function, remains poorly understood. Asking how ecological and physiological factors affect immune responses and resistance to infections is a central theme of eco-immunology. In this study, we used the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate how infection through septic...

Data from: Cost, risk, and avoidance of inbreeding in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amy Leedale, Michelle Simeoni, Stuart Sharp, Jonathan Green, Jon Slate, Robert Lachlan, Ben Hatchwell & Elva Robinson
Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that risks inbreeding by living alongside opposite-sex relatives, inbreeding carries fitness costs and is avoided by active kin discrimination during mate choice. First, we identified a...

Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland

Elise Pendall, Edmund M. Ryan, Kiona Ogle, Drew Peltier, David G. Williams, Anthony P. Walker, Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, William Parton, Shinichi Asao, Bertrand Guenet, Anna B. Harper, Xingjie Lu, Kristina A. Luus, Sönke Zaehle, Shijie Shu, Christian Werner & Jianyang Xia
Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007–2012) of flux‐derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a...

Acoustic indices perform better when applied at ecologically meaningful time and frequency scales

Oliver Metcalf, Jos Barlow, Christian Devenish, Stuart Marsden, Erika Berenguer & Alexander Lees
Abstract: 1. Acoustic indices are increasingly employed in the analysis of soundscapes to ascertain biodiversity value. However, conflicting results and lack of consensus on best practices for their usage has hindered their application in conservation and land-use management contexts. Here we propose that the sensitivity of acoustic indices to ecological change and fidelity of acoustic indices to ecological communities are severely impacted by signal masking. Signal masking can occur when acoustic responses sensitive to the...

Data from: Evidence for a pervasive ‘idling-mode’ activity template in flying and pedestrian insects

Andrew M. Reynolds, Hayley B. C. Jones, Jane K. Hill, Aislinn J. Pearson, Kenneth Wilson, Stephan Wolf, Ka S. Lim, Donald R. Reynolds & Jason W. Chapman
Understanding the complex movement patterns of animals in natural environments is a key objective of ‘movement ecology’. Complexity results from behavioural responses to external stimuli but can also arise spontaneously in their absence. Drawing on theoretical arguments about decision-making circuitry, we predict that the spontaneous patterns will be scale-free and universal, being independent of taxon and mode of locomotion. To test this hypothesis, we examined the activity patterns of the European honeybee, and multiple species...

Drought-driven wildfire impacts on structure and dynamics in a wet Central Amazonian forest

Aline Pontes-Lopes, Camila V. J. Silva, Jos Barlow, Lorena M. Rincón, Wesley A. Campanharo, Cássio A. Nunes, Catherine T. De Almeida, Celso H. L. Silva Junior, Henrique L. G. Cassol, Ricardo Dalagnol, Scott C. Stark, Paulo M.L.A. Graça & Luiz E. O. C. Aragão
While climate and human-induced forest degradation is increasing in the Amazon, fire impacts on forest dynamics remain understudied in the wetter regions of the basin, which are susceptible to large wildfires only during extreme droughts. To address this gap, we installed burned and unburned plots immediately after a wildfire in the northern Purus-Madeira (central Amazon) during the 2015 El-Niño. We measured all individuals ≥10cm in diameter at breast height, and conducted recensuses to track the...

Who knows, who cares? Untangling ecological knowledge and nature connection among Amazonian colonist farmers

Katarzyna Mikolajczak, Alexander Lees, Jos Barlow, Frazer Sinclair, Oriana Trindade De Almeida, Agnis Souza & Luke Parry
Conservationists often assume that connection with and caring about nature’s wellbeing is strongly linked to ecological knowledge. Existing evidence on the link between ecological knowledge and psychological nature connection is mixed, geographically limited to countries in the Global North, and does not scrutinize potential differences in determinants of ecological knowledge and nature connection. We investigate the relationship between psychological nature connection and ecological knowledge of local bird species and assess their associations with potential drivers,...

Deepened snow cover mitigates soil carbon loss from intensive land use in a semi-arid temperate grassland

Ping Li, Emma Sayer, Zhou Jia, Yuntao Wu, Meifeng Deng, Xin Wang, Chao Liu, Bin Wang, Yang Wang, Yongfei Bai & Lingli Liu
Carbon (C) loss due to soil erosion is a major issue in semi-arid grasslands. The extent of soil erosion is determined by soil properties and vegetation structure, especially during the non-growing season. In many Inner Mongolian grasslands, intensive land use, such as overgrazing and mowing, has severely reduced plant cover and damaged soil structure, which has exacerbated soil C loss by erosion. At the same time, increasing winter snowfall due to climate change is stimulating...

Trans-generational viral transmission and immune priming are dose-dependent

Kenneth Wilson, David Grzywacz, Jenny Cory, Philip Donkersley & Robert Graham
It is becoming increasingly apparent that trans-generational immune priming (i.e. the transfer of the parental immunological experience to its progeny resulting in offspring protection from pathogens that persist across generations) is a common phenomenon not only in vertebrates, but also invertebrates. Likewise, it is known that covert pathogenic infections may become ‘triggered’ into an overt infection by various stimuli, including exposure to heterologous infections. Yet rarely have both phenomena been explored in parallel. Using as...

Functional biogeography of Neotropical moist forests: trait-climate relationships and assembly patterns of tree communities

Bruno Pinho, Marcelo Tabarelli, Cajo Ter Braak, S. J. Wright, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Maíra Benchimol, Bettina Engelbrecht, Simon Pierce, Peter Hietz, Bráulio Santos, Carlos Peres, Sandra Müller, Ian Wright, Frans Bongers, Madelon Lohbeck, Ülo Niinemets, Martijn Slot, Steven Jansen, Davi Jamelli, Renato Augusto Ferreira De Lima, Nathan Swenson, Richard Condit, Jos Barlow, Ferry Slik, Manuel Hernández-Ruedas … & Felipe Melo
Aim: Here we examine the functional profile of regional tree species pools across the latitudinal distribution of Neotropical moist forests, and test trait-climate relationships among local communities. We expected opportunistic strategies (acquisitive traits, small seeds) to be overrepresented in species pools further from the equator due to long-term instability, but also in terms of abundance in local communities in currently wetter, warmer and more seasonal climates. Location: Neotropics. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees....

Weather effects on solar PV efficiency

Alona Armstrong & Damon Waterworth
Meteorological and panel production data from the solar PV project - Southerly Winds Increase the Electricity Generated by Solar Photovoltaic Systems. This project looked at meteorological effects on solar panel electricity output in a field-based setting, demonstrating how differences in exposed surface area under northerly and southerly winds can affect the efficacy of surface cooling with implications for electricity output.

Stem respiration in human-modified forests of Eastern Amazonia

E. Berenguer, L.C. Rossi, M.M.M. Seixas & J. Barlow
This dataset includes measurements of stem respiration in 20 plots (250 x 10 m each) in the Brazilian Amazon. Study plots were distributed across a gradient of forest disturbance, including: undisturbed primary forests , logged primary forests, logged-and-burned primary forests, and secondary forests. Data were collected from June 2015 until July 2018. In December 2015, during the El Niño-mediated drought, eight of our study plots were affected by understory fires.

Soil properties across primary forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysia

D.M.O. Elias, N.P. McNamara, N.J. Ostle & N. Majalap-Lee
Data comprise soil properties and soil nutrients across unlogged and logged tropical forests in Sabah, Malaysia. Soil properties (ID, Site, Land_Use, Plot_Name, Subplot, Horizon, pH, Total_C, Total_N, Total_P, inorganic_P, C:N, Sand, Silt, Clay) measured in soil samples and soil nutrients (Identifier, Site, Land_Use, Plot_Name, Subplot, NO3_N, NH4_N, Total_N, Ca, Mg, K, P, Fe, Mn Cu, Zn, B, S, Pb, Al, Cd) extracted from buried ion exchange membranes sampled between March and April 2015 and measured...

Hampshire Avon: Daily discharge, stage and water chemistry data from four tributaries (Sem, Nadder, West Avon, Ebble)

C. M. Heppell & A. Binley
This dataset contains discharge and surface water chemistry for the six river reaches of contrasting geology (clay, sand, chalk) in the Hampshire Avon. Manual measurements of discharge by the velocity-area method enabled construction of a stage-discharge relationship for each site. Stream stage was measured using pressure transducers from Summer 2013 to Summer 2015. River water samples were collected at 48-hr intervals from Summer 2013 to Summer 2014 and samples were analysed for selected solutes and...

Soil respiration in human-modified forests of Eastern Amazonia

E. Berenguer, L.C. Rossi, M.M.M. Seixas & J. Barlow
This dataset includes measurements of soil respiration in 20 plots (250 x 10 m each) in the Brazilian Amazon. Study plots were distributed across a gradient of forest disturbance, including: undisturbed primary forests , logged primary forests, logged-and-burned primary forests, and secondary forests. Data were collected from January 2015 until November 2017. In December 2015, during the El Niño-mediated drought, eight of our study plots were affected by understory fires.

Measurements of respiration and microbial assimilation of carbon substrates and priming of soil organic matter mineralisation in tropical lowland and montane forest soils

J. Whitaker, N. Ostle, N. McNamara, A.T. Nottingham, A.W. Stott, R.D. Bardgett, N. Salinas, A.J.Q. Ccahuana & P. Meir
This dataset includes measurements of microbial community composition by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, soil respiration (Carbon dioxide (CO2)), soil physico-chemical properties and 13C enrichment in CO2 samples and microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFAs). Data were produced for an investigation of the effects of carbon (C) substrate addition on soil carbon cycling processes in ten tropical soils from the Peruvian Andes. Soils were amended with 13C labelled substrates (xylose, glycine, vanillin and hemicellulose) and incubated...

Atmospheric gas and vegetation survey data from Parsonage Down, UK, in 2014

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock & S. Oakley
This dataset contains greenhouse gas flux data and vegetation survey data from an experiment based at Parsonage Down, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. The greenhouse gas flux data comprises net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide data measured using gas chromatography; and nitrate and...

Soil biodiversity, carbon cycling and crop plant biomass responses to experimental biochar amendment of agricultural soil (Dundee, UK)

S. McCormack, N. Ostle, R.D. Bardgett, D.W. Hopkins, G.M. Pereira & A.J. Vanbergen
These data describe the results of a three year (2011-2013) factorial experiment using plant-soil mesocosms testing the effects of biochar on soil biodiversity and soil carbon fluxes. The experimental design comprised three treatments: (1) biochar (absence or presence at 2% w/w); (2) plant type (barley, perennial ryegrass, or unvegetated); and (3) soil texture (sandy clay, sandy silt loam, clay loam). Ecosystem responses measured were net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) & ecosystem respiration (both g...

Derived annual statistics of rainfall, streamflow and acidity for the Nant Esgair Garn catchment, Llyn Brianne, Mid Wales, UK. (1982 to 2012)

N.A. Chappell, T.D. Jones & C. Broderick
This dataset comprises of derived annual statistics for measures of rainfall, streamflow, temperature and stream acidity (pH) for a stream, draining a small, approximately 0.6 square kilometres, upland grassland catchment. The stream, Nant Esgair Garn, drains into the Llyn Brianne reservoir, Powys, United Kingdom. The data are for a 31 year period covering 1st April 1982 to 1st April 2012. The streamflow and acidity data are derived from 15 minute resolution observations throughout the calendar...

Data from: Do space-for-time assessments underestimate the impacts of logging on tropical biodiversity? An Amazonian case study using dung beetles

Filipe França, Júlio Louzada, Vanesca Korasaki, Hannah Griffiths, Juliana M. Silveira & Jos Barlow
Human alteration of the global environment is leading to a pervasive loss of biodiversity. Most studies evaluating human impacts on biodiversity occur after the disturbance has taken place using spatially distinct sites to determine the undisturbed reference condition. This approach is known as a space-for-time (SFT) substitution. However, SFT substitution could be underestimating biodiversity loss if spatial controls fail to provide adequate inferences about pre-disturbance conditions. We compare the SFT substitution with a before–after control–impact...

Data from: Characterising demographic contributions to observed population change in a declining migrant bird

Jennifer A. Border, Ian G. Henderson, Dominic Ash & Ian R. Hartley
Populations of Afro-Palearctic migrant birds have shown severe declines in recent decades. To identify the causes of these declines, accurate measures of both demographic rates (seasonal productivity, apparent survival, immigration) and environmental parameters will allow conservation and research actions to be targeted effectively. We used detailed observations of marked breeding birds from a ‘stronghold’ population of whinchats Saxicola rubetra in England (stable against the declining European trend) to reveal both on-site and external mechanisms that...

Data from: Simple measures of climate, soil properties and plant traits predict national scale grassland soil carbon stocks

Peter Manning, Franciska T. De Vries, Jerry R. B. Tallowin, Roger Smith, Simon R. Mortimer, Emma S. Pilgrim, Kate A. Harrison, Daniel G. Wright, Helen Quirk, Joseph Benson, Bill Shipley, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bönisch, Christian Wirth & Richard D. Bardgett
1. Soil carbon (C) storage is a key ecosystem service. Soil C stocks play a vital role in soil fertility and climate regulation, but the factors that control these stocks at regional and national scales are unknown, particularly when their composition and stability are considered. As a result, their mapping relies on either unreliable proxy measures or laborious direct measurements. 2. Using data from an extensive national survey of English grasslands, we show that surface...

Data from: Honeybee nutrition is linked to landscape composition

Philip Donkersley, Glenn Rhodes, Roger W. Pickup, Kevin C. Jones & Kenneth Wilson
Declines in insect pollinators in Europe have been linked to changes in land use. Pollinator nutrition is dependent on floral resources (i.e., nectar and pollen), which are linked to landscape composition. Here, we present a stratified analysis of the nutritional composition of beebread in managed honeybee hives with a view to examining potential sources of variation in its nutritional composition. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that beebread composition correlates with local land use and therefore...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

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