115 Works

Data from: Culture moderates changes in linguistic self-presentation and detail provision when deceiving others

Paul J. Taylor, Samuel Larner, Stacey M. Conchie & Tarek Menacere
Change in our language when deceiving is attributable to differences in the affective and cognitive experience of lying compared to truth telling, yet these experiences are also subject to substantial individual differences. On the basis of previous evidence of cultural differences in self-construal and remembering, we predicted and found evidence for cultural differences in the extent to which truths and lies contained self (versus other) references and perceptual (versus social) details. Participants (N = 320)...

Data from: Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States

Samuel M. Simkin, Edith B. Allen, William D. Bowman, Christopher M. Clark, Jayne Belnap, Matthew L. Brooks, Brian S. Cade, Scott L. Collins, Linda H. Geiser, Frank S. Gilliam, Sarah E. Jovan, Linda H. Pardo, Bethany K. Schulz, Carly J. Stevens, Katharine N. Suding, Heather L. Throop & Donald M. Waller
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional deposition gradients in Europe and in experimental manipulations. However, the general response of species richness to N deposition across different vegetation types, soil conditions, and climates remains largely unknown even though responses may be contingent on these environmental factors. We assessed the effect of N deposition on herbaceous richness for 15,136 forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland sites across the continental United...

Data from: Quantifying and reducing uncertainties in estimated soil CO2 fluxes with hierarchical data-model integration

Kiona Ogle, Edmund Ryan, Fieke A. Dijkstra, Elise Pendall & Feike A. Dijkstra
Non-steady state chambers are often employed to measure soil CO2 fluxes. CO2 concentrations (C) in the headspace are sampled at different times (t), and fluxes (f) are calculated from regressions of C versus t based a limited number of observations. Variability in the data can lead to poor fits and unreliable f estimates; groups with too few observations or poor fits are often discarded, resulting in “missing” f values. We solve these problems by fitting...

Data from: Trade-offs and mixed infections in an obligate-killing insect pathogen

Elizabeth M. Redman, Ken Wilson, Jenny S. Cory & Kenneth Wilson
Natural populations of pathogens are frequently composed of numerous interacting strains. Understanding what maintains this diversity remains a key focus of research in disease ecology. In addition, within-host pathogen dynamics can have a strong impact on both infection outcome and the evolution of pathogen virulence and thus understanding the impact of pathogen diversity is important for disease management. We compared eight genetically distinguishable variants from Spodoptera exempta nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpexNPV) isolated from the African armyworm, Spodoptera...

Data from: Tree functional diversity affects litter decomposition and arthropod community composition in a tropical forest

Benita C. Laird-Hopkins, Laëtitia M. Bréchet, Biancolini C. Trujillo & Emma J. Sayer
Disturbance can alter tree species and functional diversity in tropical forests, which in turn could affect carbon and nutrient cycling via the decomposition of plant litter. However, the influence of tropical tree diversity on forest floor organisms and the processes they mediate are far from clear. We investigated the influence of different litter mixtures on arthropod communities and decomposition processes in a 60-year-old lowland tropical forest in Panama, Central America. We used litter mixtures representing...

Data from: Measuring the success of reforestation for restoring biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

Mia A. Derhé, Helen Murphy, Geoff Monteith & Rosa Menéndez
Effective assessment of the success of ecological restoration projects is critical in justifying the use of restoration in natural resource management as well as improving best practice. One of the main goals of ecological restoration is the recovery of ecosystem function, yet most researchers assume that increasing species and or functional diversity equates with restoration of ecosystem function, rather than empirically demonstrating these mechanistic relationships. In this study, we assess how dung beetle species diversity,...

Data from: Sugar provisioning maximizes the biocontrol service of parasitoids

Alejandro Tena, Apostolos Pekas, Dalmert Cano, Felix L. Wäckers & Alberto Urbaneja
There is increasing interest in the use of food supplements in agriculture to enhance the performance of parasitoids as part of conservation biological control. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of this approach, and this shortage of successful examples raises doubt regarding the validity of this approach. The use of sugar sources relies on tiered premises that: (i) parasitoids are sugar limited and (ii) this limitation is alleviated through the provision of sugar...

Data from: Linking species thermal tolerance to elevational range shifts in upland dung beetles

Ali J. Birkett, George Alan Blackburn & Rosa Menendez
Climate warming has been proposed as the main cause of the recent range shifts seen in many species. Although species' thermal tolerances are thought to play a key role in determining responses to climate change, especially in ectotherms, empirical evidence is still limited. We investigate the connection between species' thermal tolerances, elevational range and shifts in the lower elevational limit of dung beetle species (Coleoptera, Aphodiidea) in an upland region in the northwest of England....

Data from: Tropical forest restoration: fast resilience of plant biomass contrasts with slow recovery of stable soil C stocks

Faming Wang, Yongzhen Ding, Emma Sayer, Qinlu Li, Bi Zou, Qifeng Mo, Yingwen Li, Xiaoliang Lu, Jianwu Tang, Weixing Zhu, Zhian Li & Emma J. Sayer
1. Due to intensifying human disturbance, over half of the world’s tropical forests are reforested or afforested secondary forests or plantations. Understanding the resilience of carbon (C) stocks in these forests, and estimating the extent to which they can provide equivalent carbon (C) sequestration and stabilization to the old growth forest they replace, is critical for the global C balance. 2. In this study, we combined estimates of biomass C stocks with a detailed assessment...

Data from: More salt, please: global patterns, responses, and impacts of foliar sodium in grasslands

Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric M. Lind, Jennifer Firn, Eric W. Seabloom, T. Michael Anderson, Elizabeth S. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew S. MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schutz & Carly J. Stevens
Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically...

Dominant native and non-native graminoids differ in key leaf traits irrespective of nutrient availability

Arthur Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James McGree, Elizabeth Borer, Yvonne Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrew MacDougall, Kate Orwin, Nicholas Ostle, Eric Seabloom, Jonathan Bakker, Lori Biedermann, Maria Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo Peri, Anita Risch, Christiane Roscher, Martin Schuetz & Carly Stevens
Aim Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate 1) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, 2) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and 3) whether responses are consistent across functional groups. Location Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa Time period 2007...

Species co-occurrence shapes spatial variability in plant diversity–biomass relationships in natural rangelands under different grazing intensities

Anvar Sanaei, Emma J. Sayer, Hugo Saiz, Zuoqiang Yuan & Arshad Ali
Grazing can alter plant species interactions in natural rangelands, which in turn might influence the productivity of the ecosystem but we do not fully understand how spatial variability in plant diversity-biomass relationships are modulated by grazing intensity. Here, we hypothesized that plant species co-occurrence in rangelands is mainly driven by niche segregation due to grazing and heterogeneity in local resources, and that grazing therefore modulates diversity–biomass relationships. We tested our hypothesis across 35 rangeland sites...

Invertebrate community structure predicts natural pest control resilience to insecticide exposure

Arran Greenop, Sam Cook, Andrew Wilby, Richard Pywell & Benjamin Woodcock
Biological pest control has become one of the central principles of ecological intensification in agriculture. However, invertebrate natural enemies within agricultural ecosystems are exposed to a myriad of different pesticides at both lethal and sub-lethal doses, that may limit their capacity to carry out pest control. An important question is how underlying diversity in invertebrate predator species, linked to their unique susceptibility to insecticides, can act to increase the resilience of natural pest control. We...

Home-based exercise for people living with frailty and chronic kidney disease: a mixed-methods pilot randomised controlled trial

Andrew Nixon, Theodoros Bampouras, Helen Gooch, Hannah Young, Kenneth Finlayson, Neil Pendleton, Sandip Mitra, Mark Brady & Ajay Dhaygude
Background and Aims: Frailty is highly prevalent in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, exercise training may improve physical function leading to associated improvements in outcomes. The EX-FRAIL CKD trial (ISRCTN87708989) aimed to inform the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigates the efficacy of a progressive home-based exercise programme in pre-frail and frail older adults with CKD. Methods: Patients aged ≥65 years with CKD...

How butterflies keep their cool: physical and ecological traits influence thermoregulatory ability and population trends.

Andrew Bladon, Matthew Lewis, Eleanor Bladon, Sam Buckton, Stuart Corbett, Steven Ewing, Matthew Hayes, Gwen Hitchcock, Richard Knock, Colin Lucas, Adam McVeigh, Rosa Menendez, Jonah Walker, Tom Fayle & Edgar Turner
Understanding which factors influence the ability of individuals to respond to changing temperatures is fundamental to species conservation under climate change. We investigated how a community of butterflies responded to fine-scale changes in air temperature, and whether species-specific responses were predicted by ecological or morphological traits. Using data collected across a UK reserve network, we investigated the ability of 29 butterfly species to buffer thoracic temperature against changes in air temperature. First, we tested whether...

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