51 Works

Data from: Seed size predicts global effects of small mammal seed predation on plant recruitment

Yvette Ortega, Łukasz Dylewski, Michał Bogdziewicz & Dean Pearson
We conducted a global literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether seed size could predict post-dispersal seed predator effects on seed removal and plant recruitment, respectively. Datasets were built using data extracted from published studies focusing on seed predation by small mammals (see Methods for criteria and data extraction protocol). We found that seed size predicted small mammal seed removal rates and their impacts on plant recruitment consistent with optimal foraging theory, with intermediate seed...

Flowering synchrony drives reproductive success in a wind-pollinated tree

Michał Bogdziewicz, Mario Pesendorfer, Elizabeth Crone, Carlos Pérez-Izquierdo & Raul Bonal
Synchronized and quasi-periodic production of seeds by plant populations, known as masting, is implicated in many ecological processes, but how it arises remains poorly understood. Flowering and pollination dynamics are hypothesized to provide the mechanistic link for the observed relationship between weather and population‐level seed production. We report the first experimental test of the phenological synchrony hypotheses as a driver of pollen limitation in mast seeding oaks (Quercus ilex). Higher flowering synchrony yielded greater pollination...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

Data from: Sexual and ecological selection on a sexual conflict gene

Agata Plesnar-Bielak, Anna Skwierzyńska & Jacek Radwan
Sexual selection and conflict can act on genes with important metabolic functions, potentially shaping standing genetic variance in such genes, and thus evolutionary potential of populations. Here, using experimental evolution, we show how reproductive competition intensity and thermal environment affect selection on phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6Pgdh) – a metabolic gene involved in sexual selection and conflict in the bulb mite. The S allele of 6Pgdh increases male success in reproductive competition, but is detrimental to S-bearing...

Data from: Masting increases seedling recruitment near and far: predator satiation and improved dispersal in a fleshy-fruited tree

Barbara Seget, Michał Bogdziewicz, Jan Holeksa, Mateusz Ledwoń, Łukasz Piechnik, Fiona Milne-Rostkowska, Katarzyna Kondrat & Magdalena Żywiec
The animal dispersal hypothesis predicts that mast seeding can increase dispersal rate of seeds by dispersers and enhance reproductive success of plants. However, in contrast to pollination efficiency and predator satiation hypothesis, the animal dispersal hypothesis has received mixed support. Using 12-year data on fruit production and seedling recruitment of a fleshy-fruited tree rowan (Sorbus aucuparia, Rosaceae), we tested if an increase in the fruit production at the population level results in higher proportion of...

Long-term shifts in the functional diversity of abandoned wet meadows – Impacts of historical disturbance and successional pathways

Patryk Czortek, Lidia Borkowska & Marlena Lembicz
Investigating the direction of changes in functional diversity involving successional pathways and historical disturbances may be a promising tool for predictions of the effectiveness of the semi-natural meadows conservation, with great emphasis on formulation of more cost-effective restoration strategies. The goal of this research was to assess the differences in long-term shifts in the functional diversity of plant species in semi-natural wet meadows unmanaged for the last 40 years, under the influence of different successional...

Ku modelowi polskiej paradyplomacji

Igor Ksenicz
Zbiór danych zawiera transkrypcje wywiadów z przedstawicielami środowisk odpowiedzialnych za kreowanie polskiej paradyplomacji: samorządowcami, pracownikami administracji rządowej oraz ekspertami. Hipoteza, którą prowadzący postanowił wstępnie zweryfikować w badaniu, zakładała, że rezygnacja z mechanizmu wymiaru samorządowego i obywatelskiego wpływa negatywnie na rozwój polskiej paradyplomacji i realizację polskiej polityki zagranicznej w ogóle.

Data from: Effective specialist or jack of all trades? Experimental evolution of a crop pest in fluctuating and stable environments

Lechosław Kuczyński, Anna Skoracka, Alicja Laska, Jacek Radwan, Mateusz Konczal, Kamila Karpicka-Ignatowska, Anna Przychodzka, Jarosław Raubic, Mariusz Lewandowski & Ewa Puchalska
Understanding pest evolution in agricultural systems is crucial for developing effective and innovative pest control strategies. Types of cultivation, such as crop monocultures versus polycultures or crop rotation, may act as a selective pressure on pests’ capability to exploit the host’s resources. In this study, we examined the herbivorous mite Aceria tosichella (commonly known as wheat curl mite), a widespread wheat pest, to understand how fluctuating versus stable environments influence its niche breadth and ability...

Genomic evidence that a sexually selected trait captures genome-wide variation and facilitates the purging of genetic load

Jonathan Parrett, Sebastian Chmielewski, Eylem Aydogdu, Aleksandra Łukasiewicz, Stephane Rombauts, Agnieszka Szubert-Kruszyńska, Wiesław Babik, Mateusz Konczal & Jacek Radwan
The evolution of costly traits like deer antlers and peacock trains, which drove the formation of Darwinian sexual selection theory, has been hypothesised to both reflect and affect patterns of genetic variance across the genome, but direct tests are missing. Here, we used an evolve and re-sequence approach to reveal patterns of genome-wide diversity associated with the expression of a sexually-selected weapon that is dimorphic among males of the bulb mite, Rhizoglyphus robini. Populations selected...

Data from: Last Glacial Maximum environmental conditions at Andøya, northern Norway; evidence for a northern ice-edge ecological “hotspot”

Inger Alsos, Per Sjögren, Antony Brown, Ludovic Gielly, Marie Merkel, Aage Paus, Youri Lammers, Mary Edwards, Torbjørn Alm, Melanie Leng, Tomasz Goslar, Catherine Langdon, Jostein Bakke & Willem Van Der Bilt
Andøya on the NW coast of Norway is a key site for understanding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in northern Europe. Controversy has arisen concerning the local conditions, especially about the timing and extent of local glacial cover, maximum July temperatures and whether pine and/or spruce could have grown there. We reviewed all existing data and add newly analysed ancient sedimentary DNA, pollen, macrofossils, geochemistry and stable isotopes from three lake sediment cores from Øvre...

Metabolic and behavioral adaptations of greater white-toothed shrews to urban conditions

Flávio Oliveira, Maria Mathias, Leszek Rychlik, Joaquim Tapisso & Sophie Von Merten
The global trend of urbanization is creating novel challenges to many animal species. Studies investigating behavioral differences between rural and urban populations often report a general increase in risk-taking behaviors in urban populations. According to the most common energy management model (the performance model), behaviors that increase access to resources, such as aggression and boldness, and behaviors that consume net energy, like locomotion and stress responses, are both positively correlated to resting metabolic rate (RMR)....

Quantifying the effects of species traits on predation risk in nature: a comparative study of butterfly wing damage

Freerk Molleman, Juhan Javoiš, Robert Davis, Melissa Whitaker, Toomas Tammaru, Andreas Prinzing, Erki Õunap, Niklas Wahlberg, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Ants Kaasik & James Carey
1) Evading predators is a fundamental aspect of the ecology and evolution of all prey animals. In studying the influence of prey traits on predation risk, previous researchers have shown that crypsis reduces attack rates on resting prey, predation risk increases with increased prey activity, and rapid locomotion reduces attack rates and increases chances of surviving predator attacks. However, evidence for these conclusions is nearly always based on observations of selected species under artificial conditions....

Mating preferences can drive expansion or contraction of major histocompatibility complex gene family

Piotr Bentkowski & Jacek Radwan
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-based mating rules can evolve as a way to avoid inbreeding or to increase offspring immune competence. While the role of mating preference in shaping the MHC diversity in vertebrates has been acknowledged, its impact on individual MHC diversity has not been considered. Here, we use computer simulations to investigate how simple mating rules favouring MHC-dissimilar partners affect the evolution of the number of MHC variants in individual genomes, accompanying selection for...

Data from: Competition-driven niche segregation on a landscape scale: evidence for escaping from syntopy toward allotopy in two coexisting sibling passerine species

Jiří Reif, Radka Reifova, Anna Skoracka & Lechosław Kuczyński
1. The role of interspecific competition for generating patterns in species’ distribution is hotly debated and studies taking into account processes occurring at both large and small spatial scales are almost missing. Theoretically, competition between species with overlapping niches should result in divergence of their niches in sympatry to reduce the costs of competition. Many species show a mosaic distribution within sympatric zones, with the syntopic sites occupied by both species, and allotopic sites where...

Circum-Arctic distribution of chemical anti-herbivore compounds arctic shrubs

Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Ilka Abreu, Thomas Moritz, Maja Sundqvist, Isabel C Barrio, Julia Boike, John Bryant, Kari Anne Bråthen, Agata Buchwal, Guillermo Bueno, Alain Cuerrier, Dagmar Egelkraut, Bruce Forbes, Martin Hallinger, Monique Heijmans, Luise Hermanutz, David S Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Diane C Huebner, Toke Hoye, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Emilie Kissler … & Johan Olofsson
Spatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top-down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non-resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements limit our current understanding of how much of the circum-Arctic variation in defence compounds is explained by taxa or defence functional groups (resinous/non-resinous). We measured circum-Arctic...

X-ray diffraction data for the Z-DNA in complex with putrescinium and potassium cations

Pawel Drozdzal, Miroslaw Gilski & Mariusz Jaskolski

Type of broadleaf forest matters most for ptyctimous mite communities (Acari, Oribatida) in Norway

Anna Seniczak, Wojciech Niedbała, J. Carlos Iturrondobeitia, Stanisław Seniczak, Steffen Roth & Bjarte H. Jordal
We studied ptyctimous moss mites, which are characteristic of forest habitats, in Norwegian broadleaf forests considered as biodiversity hotspot areas in Fennoscandia. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different factors (regional locality, annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, forest type, forest wetness and microhabitat) on the ptyctimous mites and on discovering their richness in broadleaf forests. Samples were collected from nine broadleaf forests in western, southern and eastern Norway, in different climatic conditions, six...

Selection experiment on guppy ornamental traits

Magdalena Herdegen-Radwan, Silvia Cattelan, Jakub Buda, Jarosław Raubic & Jacek Radwan
Female preferences for male ornamental traits can arise from indirect benefits, such as increased attractiveness or better viability of progeny, but empirical evidence for such benefits is inconsistent. Artificial selection offers a powerful way to investigate indirect effects of male ornaments. Here, we selected for the area of orange spots on male guppies, a trait subject to female preferences in our population, in replicated up- and down-selected lines. We found a significant direct response to...

A test of the role of associative learning in originating sexual preferences in the guppy

Magdalena Herdegen-Radwan
How do female sexual preferences for male ornamental traits arise? The developmental origins of female preferences are still an understudied area, with most explanations pointing to genetic mechanisms. One intriguing, little-explored, alternative focuses on the role of associative learning in driving this process. According to this hypothesis, a preference learned in an ecological context can be transferred into a sexual context, resulting in changes in mating preferences as a by-product. I tested this hypothesis by...

Strong sexual selection fails to protect against inbreeding-driven extinction in a moth

Jonathan Parrett, Veroncia Ghobert, Fenn Cullen & Robert Knell
Sexual selection is predicted to influence population persistence because skew in male reproductive success may facilitate the purging of mutation load. We manipulated the strength of sexual selection in populations of Indian meal moths, Plodia interpunctella, by biasing adult sex ratios to be either male- or female-biased, leading to strong and weak sexual selection in males, respectively. After between 19 and 22 generations of experimental evolution we examined whether mutation load differed between these populations...

Data from: Molecular signatures of reticulate evolution within the complex of European pine taxa

Bartosz Łabiszak & Witold Wachowiak
Speciation mechanisms, including the role of interspecific gene flow and introgression in emergence of new species, are the major focus of evolutionary studies. Inference of taxonomic relationship between closely related species maybe challenged by past hybridization events, but at the same time it may provide new knowledge about mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of species integrity despite interspecific gene flow. Here, using nucleotide sequence variation and utilizing a coalescent modelling framework, we tested the role...

Data from: Paternity analysis of wild-caught females shows that sperm package size and placement influence fertilization success in the bushcricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera

Darren James Parker, Julia Zaborowska, Michael Gordon Ritchie & Karim Vahed
In species where females store sperm, males may try to influence paternity by the strategic placement of sperm within the female's sperm storage organ. Sperm may be mixed or layered in storage organs, and this can influence sperm use beyond a ‘fair raffle’. In some insects, sperm from different matings is packaged into discrete packets (spermatodoses), which retain their integrity in the female's sperm storage organ (spermatheca), but little is known about how these may...

Data from: A nocturnal rail with a simple territorial call eavesdrops on interactions between rivals

Lucyna Ewa Wojas, Paweł Wojciech Podkowa & Tomasz Stanislaw Osiejuk
The behaviour of most animals has evolved in a communication network environment, in which signals produced by senders are perceived by many intended and unintended receivers. In this study, we tested whether the corncrake (Crex crex), a nocturnal rail species with innate (non-learned) calls, is able to eavesdrop on the interactions of conspecific males and how this eavesdropping affects subsequent responses by the eavesdropper to territorial intrusion. In the first step, simulated aggressive or neutral...

Data from: Genomic response to selection for predatory behavior in a mammalian model of adaptive radiation

Mateusz Konczal, Paweł Koteja, Patrycja Orlowska-Feuer, Jacek Radwan, Edyta T. Sadowska & Wieslaw Babik
If genetic architectures of various quantitative traits are similar, as studies on model organisms suggest, comparable selection pressures should produce similar molecular patterns for various traits. To test this prediction, we used a laboratory model of vertebrate adaptive radiation to investigate the genetic basis of the response to selection for predatory behavior and compare it with evolution of aerobic capacity reported in an earlier work. After 13 generations of selection, the proportion of bank voles...

Survey on mine-water geothermal in Poland

K Iwinska, K Maczka & A Lis
The study in three coal mining regions: Lower Silesia, Upper Silesia and Lublin (each N=500) was conducted using Computer Assisted Web Interview (CAWI). The questionnaire includes the block of questions concerning mine water awareness, climate change and local/place attachment. The survey online took 15 to 20 minutes and was prepared after in-depth pilot research among participants with different education level from the mining regions. We used the uninformed approach to the survey, so there were...

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