We studied ptyctimous moss mites, which are characteristic of forest habitats, in Norwegian broadleaf forests considered as biodiversity hotspot areas in Fennoscandia. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different factors (regional locality, annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, forest type, forest wetness and microhabitat) on the ptyctimous mites and on discovering their richness in broadleaf forests. Samples were collected from nine broadleaf forests in western, southern and eastern Norway, in different climatic conditions, six...
Sexual selection is predicted to influence population persistence because skew in male reproductive success may facilitate the purging of mutation load. We manipulated the strength of sexual selection in populations of Indian meal moths, Plodia interpunctella, by biasing adult sex ratios to be either male- or female-biased, leading to strong and weak sexual selection in males, respectively. After between 19 and 22 generations of experimental evolution we examined whether mutation load differed between these populations...
Female preferences for male ornamental traits can arise from indirect benefits, such as increased attractiveness or better viability of progeny, but empirical evidence for such benefits is inconsistent. Artificial selection offers a powerful way to investigate indirect effects of male ornaments. Here, we selected for the area of orange spots on male guppies, a trait subject to female preferences in our population, in replicated up- and down-selected lines. We found a significant direct response to...
Speciation mechanisms, including the role of interspecific gene flow and introgression in emergence of new species, are the major focus of evolutionary studies. Inference of taxonomic relationship between closely related species maybe challenged by past hybridization events, but at the same time it may provide new knowledge about mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of species integrity despite interspecific gene flow. Here, using nucleotide sequence variation and utilizing a coalescent modelling framework, we tested the role...
The role of bracket fungi in creating alpha diversity of invertebrates in the Białowieża National Park, PolandAnna K. Gdula, Dariusz J. Gwiazdowicz, Szymon Konwerski, Izabella Olejniczak, Tomasz Rutkowski, Piotr Skubała & Bogna Zawieja
Bracket fungi are seen mainly as the cause of economic losses in forestry and their role as creators of biodiversity is relatively poorly understood. The effect of this group of fungi on the modification of biodiversity of invertebrates (spiders – Aranae, Opiliones – Opiliones, pseudoscorpions – Pseudoscorpionida, two groups of mites – Mesostigmata, and Oribatida, springtails – Collembola, and insects – Insecta) was investigated by analyzing 100 fruiting bodies of 10 species of bracket fungi...
One key event in insect evolution was the development of mandibles with two joints, which allowed powerful biting, but restricted their movement to a single degree of freedom. These mandibles define the Dicondylia, which constitute over 99 percent of all extant insect species. It was common doctrine that the dicondylic articulation of chewing mandibles remained unaltered for more than 400 million years. We report highly modified mandibles overcoming the restrictions of a single degree of...
Data from: Song type and song type matching are important for joint territorial defense in a duetting songbirdTomasz S. Osiejuk, Amie Wheeldon, Paweł Szymański & Adrian Surmacki
Birds have a diverse acoustic communication system, with species specific repertoires facilitating more complex behaviors in terms of both within- and between-pair communications. Certain song types are produced for specific functions, such as aggressive encounters. In addition, song matching behaviors, whereby neighboring individuals match song types, can be used in aggressive interactions as a sophisticated acoustic behavior. In this study, we examined the functions of song types, in a duet context, of male yellow-breasted boubous...
The study in three coal mining regions: Lower Silesia, Upper Silesia and Lublin (each N=500) was conducted using Computer Assisted Web Interview (CAWI). The questionnaire includes the block of questions concerning mine water awareness, climate change and local/place attachment. The survey online took 15 to 20 minutes and was prepared after in-depth pilot research among participants with different education level from the mining regions. We used the uninformed approach to the survey, so there were...
Implementing social network analysis to understand the socio-ecology of wildlife co-occurrence and joint interactions with humans in anthropogenic environmentsKrishna Balasubramaniam, Stefano Kaburu, Pascal Marty, Brianne Beisner, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Malgorzata Arlet, Nadine Ruppert, Ahmad Ismail, Sahrul Anuar Mohd Sah, Lalith Mohan, Sandeep Rattan, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah & Brenda McCowan
1. Human population expansion into wildlife habitats has increased interest in the behavioral ecology of human-wildlife interactions. To date, however, the socio-ecological factors that determine whether, when or where wild animals take risks by interacting with humans and anthropogenic factors still remains unclear. 2. We adopt a comparative approach to address this gap, using social network analysis (SNA). SNA, increasingly implemented to determine human impact on wildlife ecology, can be a powerful tool to understand...
Small mammals impact plant recruitment globally via size-dependent seed predation, generating a unimodal pattern across ecosystems. Chen et al. (2021) critiqued our seed removal analysis, advocating corrections for exposure time. We show in our rebuttal that such manipulations are unwarranted and argue for increased emphasis on plant recruitment metrics. This archive holds the updated seed removal dataset used for our rebuttal.
Predictability of temporal variation in climate and the evolution of seasonal polyphenism in tropical butterfliesSridhar Halali, Dheeraj Halali, Henry S. Barlow, Freerk Molleman, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Paul M. Brakefield & Oskar Brattström
Phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments can provide tight environment-phenotype matching. However, the pre-requisite is a reliable environmental cue(s) that enables organisms to use current environmental information to induce the development of a phenotype with high fitness in a forthcoming environment. Here we quantify predictability in the timing of precipitation and temperature change to examine how this is associated with seasonal polyphenism in tropical Mycalesina butterflies. Seasonal precipitation in the tropics typically results in distinct selective...
Zbiór danych zawiera transkrypcje wywiadów z przedstawicielami środowisk odpowiedzialnych za kreowanie polskiej paradyplomacji: samorządowcami, pracownikami administracji rządowej oraz ekspertami. Hipoteza, którą prowadzący postanowił wstępnie zweryfikować w badaniu, zakładała, że rezygnacja z mechanizmu wymiaru samorządowego i obywatelskiego wpływa negatywnie na rozwój polskiej paradyplomacji i realizację polskiej polityki zagranicznej w ogóle.
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań11
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram2
University of the Basque Country1
University of Padua1
University of Silesia1
University of Cambridge1
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz1
Polish Academy of Sciences1
University of Wolverhampton1
University of New Hampshire1