256 Works

Wallace v2.0 Animalia: Habitat suitability distribution modelling for Animalia worldwide

Erin Graham, Jeremy VanDerWal & Ian Atkinson
Climate change scenarios were sourced from the UK Met Office Hadley Centre for CMIP5 global climate models and scaled to 20km resolution. Species occurrence records were downloaded from GBIF. Maxent was used to model the habitat suitability distributions. https://wallaceinitiative.org/

Wallace v2.0: Helix climate based habitat suitabililty models for selected plants and animals

Erin Graham, Jeremy VanDerWal & Ian Atkinson
Wallace 2.0 uses new temperature time-series data for four RCPs provided by the UK Met Office Hadley Centre UK to model the distributions of plants and animals worldwide. Here we compared our projections to a small subset of plants and animals modelled with the High End Climate Impacts and Extremes (HELIX) projections to provide scientific rigour.

INCREASING CORAL RESILIENCE TO BLEACHING THROUGH MICROBIOME MANIPULATION

Raquel Peixoto, Phillipe Rosado, Deborah Leite, Gustavo Duarte, Ricardo Chaloub, Guillaume Jospin, Jonathan Eisen, David Bourne, Ulisses Da Rocha, João Saraiva & Francisco Dini-Andreote
Although the early coral reef-bleaching warning system (NOAA/USA) is established, there is no feasible treatment that can minimize temperature bleaching and/or disease impacts on corals in the field. Here, we present the first attempts to extrapolate the widespread and well-established use of bacterial consortia to protect or improve health in other organisms (e.g., humans and plants) to corals. Manipulation of the coral-associated microbiome was facilitated through addition of a consortium of native (isolated from Pocillopora...

Data from: Comparative multi-locus phylogeography confirms multiple vicariance events in co-distributed rainforest frogs

Rayna C Bell, Jason B MacKenzie, Michael J Hickerson, Krystle L Chavarría, Michael Cunningham, Stephen Williams, Craig Moritz & K. L. Chavarria
Though Pleistocene refugia are frequently cited as drivers of species diversification, comparisons of molecular divergence among sister species typically indicate a continuum of divergence times from the late Miocene, rather than a clear pulse of speciation events at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Community-scale inference methods that explicitly test for multiple vicariance events, and account for differences in ancestral effective population size and gene flow, are well suited for detecting heterogeneity of species’ responses to...

Data from: Long-term panmixia in a cosmopolitan Indo-Pacific coral reef fish and a nebulous genetic boundary with its broadly sympatric sister species

John B. Horne & Lynne Van Herwerden
Phylogeographical studies have shown that some shallow-water marine organisms, such as certain coral reef fishes, lack spatial population structure at oceanic scales, despite vast distances of pelagic habitat between reefs and other dispersal barriers. However, whether these dispersive widespread taxa constitute long-term panmictic populations across their species ranges remains unknown. Conventional phylogeographical inferences frequently fail to distinguish between long-term panmixia and metapopulations connected by gene flow. Moreover, marine organisms have notoriously large effective population sizes...

Data from: Hierarchical behaviour, habitat use and species size differences shape evolutionary outcomes of hybridization in a coral reef fish.

Ashton Gainsford, Lynne Van Herwerden & Geoffrey P. Jones
Hybridization is an important evolutionary process, with ecological and behavioural factors influencing gene exchange between hybrids and parent species. Patterns of hybridization in anemonefishes may result from living in highly specialized habitats and breeding status regulated by size-based hierarchal social groups. Here morphological, ecological and genetic analyses in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea examine the hybrid status of Amphiprion leucokranos, a nominal species and presumed hybrid between Amphiprion sandaracinos and Amphiprion chrysopterus. We test the...

Data from: Maternal investment increases with altitude in a frog on the Tibetan plateau

Wei Chen
Reproducing females can allocate energy between the production of eggs or offspring of different size or number, both of which can strongly influence fitness. The physical capacity to store developing offspring imposes constraints on maximum clutch volume, but individual females and populations can trade off whether more or fewer eggs or offspring are produced, and their relative sizes. Harsh environments are likely to select for larger egg or offspring size, and many vertebrate populations compensate...

Data from: Plant functional groups within a tropical forest exhibit different wood functional anatomy

Deborah M. G. Apgaua, David Y. P. Tng, Lucas A. Cernusak, Alexander W. Cheesman, Rubens M. Santos, Will J. Edwards & Susan G. W. Laurance
Understanding the anatomical basis of plant water transport in forest ecosystems is crucial for contextualizing community-level adaptations to drought, especially in life-form-rich tropical forests. To provide this context, we explored wood functional anatomy traits related to plant hydraulic architecture across different plant functional groups in a lowland tropical rain forest. We measured wood traits in 90 species from six functional groups (mature-phase, understorey and pioneer trees; understorey and pioneer shrubs; vines) and related these traits...

Data from: Phylogenetic diversity is a better measure of biodiversity than taxon counting

Joseph T. Miller, Garry Jolley-Rogers, Brent D. Mishler & Andrew H. Thornhill
Biodiversity is most commonly measured in taxonomic richness. For example, it is common to describe how diverse a genus or a geographic area is by counting the number of species within them. Phylogenetic diversity (PD), a measurement of the branch lengths in a phylogenetic tree, is a better measure of biodiversity that provides a comparable, evolutionary measure of biodiversity not possible with species counts. Despite its advantages, PD is rarely used as the primary measure...

Data from: Natal philopatry increases relatedness within groups of coral reef cardinalfish

Theresa Rueger, Hugo Harrison, Peter Buston, Naomi Gardiner, Michael Berumen & Geoffrey Jones
A central issue in evolutionary ecology is how patterns of dispersal influence patterns of relatedness in populations. In terrestrial organisms, limited dispersal of offspring leads to groups of related individuals. In contrast, for most marine organisms, larval dispersal in open waters is thought to minimise kin associations within populations. However, recent molecular evidence and theoretical approaches have shown that limited dispersal, sibling cohesion, and/or differential reproductive success can lead to kin-association and elevated relatedness. Here,...

An endangered bird calls less when invasive birds are calling

Jaimie Hopkins, Will Edwards, Juan Mula-Laguna & Lin Schwarzkopf
Novel noises can affect various animal behaviours, and changes to vocal behaviour are some of the most documented. The calls of invasive species are an important source of novel noise, yet their effects on native species are poorly understood. We examined the effects of invasive bird calls on the vocal activity of an endangered Australian finch to investigate whether: (i) native finch calling behaviour was affected by novel invasive bird calls, and (ii) the calls...

Data from: Gene expression correlates of social evolution in coral reef butterflyfishes

Jessica Nowicki, Morgan Pratchett, Stefan Walker, Darren Coker & Lauren O'Connell
Animals display remarkable variation in social behavior. However, outside of rodents, little is known about the neural mechanisms of social variation, and whether they are shared across species and sexes, limiting our understanding of how sociality evolves. Using coral reef butterflyfishes, we examined gene expression correlates of social variation (i.e., pair bonding vs. solitary living) within and between species and sexes. In several brain regions, we quantified gene expression of receptors important for social variation...

Data from: Fishes alleviate the impacts of sediments on host corals

Tory J. Chase, Morgan S. Pratchett, Michael J. McWilliam, Margaux Y. Hein, Sterling B. Tebbett & Mia O. Hoogenboom
Mutualisms play a critical role in ecological communities, however the importance and prevalence of mutualistic associations can be modified by external stressors. On coral reefs, elevated sediments are a major stressor, reducing the health of corals and damaging reef resilience. Here, we investigated the influence of sediment stress on the mutualistic relationship between small damselfishes (Dascyllus aruanus and Pomacentrus moluccensis) and their coral host (Pocillopora damicornis). In an aquaria experiment, corals were exposed to sedimentation...

Integrating dynamic processes into waterfowl conservation prioritization tools

Kaylan Kemink, Vanessa Adams & Bob Pressey
Aim: Traditional approaches for including species’ distributions in conservation planning have presented them as long-term averages of variation. Like these approaches, the main waterfowl conservation targeting tool in the United States Prairie Pothole Region (US PPR) is based primarily on long-term averaged distributions of breeding pairs. While this tool has supported valuable conservation, it does not explicitly consider spatiotemporal changes in spring wetland availability and does not assess wetland availability during the brood rearing period....

Data from: Strategies for understanding and reducing the Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoite reservoir in Papua New Guinean children: a randomised placebo-controlled trial and mathematical model

Leanne J. Robinson, Rahel Wampfler, Inoni Betuela, Stephan Karl, Michael T. White, Connie S. N. Li Wai Suen, Natalie E. Hofmann, Benson Kiniboro, Andreea Waltmann, Jessica Brewster, Lina Lorry, Nandao Tarongka, Lornah Samol, Mariabeth Silkey, Quique Bassat, Peter M. Siba, Louis Schofield, Ingrid Felger, Ivo Mueller & Benson Kinboro
Background: The undetectable hypnozoite reservoir for relapsing Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale malarias presents a major challenge for malaria control and elimination in endemic countries. This study aims to directly determine the contribution of relapses to the burden of P. vivax and P. ovale infection, illness, and transmission in Papua New Guinean children. Methods and Findings: From 17 August 2009 to 20 May 2010, 524 children aged 5–10 y from East Sepik Province in Papua...

Data from: The effects of background risk on behavioural lateralization in a coral reef fish

Maud C. O. Ferrari, Mark I. McCormick, Bridie J. M. Allan, Rebecca B. Choi, Ryan Ramasamy, Douglas P. Chivers, Ryan A. Ramasamy & Maud C.O. Ferrari
Behavioural lateralization – the preferential use of one side of the body or either of the bilateral organs or limbs – has been well documented in many species, in a number of contexts. While the benefits reported are numerous, existing latent variability in the degree of lateralization within and across populations, species and taxa indicates that existing costs may modulate its expression. Few studies have reported changes in the degree of lateralization at the individual...

Data from: Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae)

Rebecca J. Fox, David R. Bellwood & Michael D. Jennions
Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed...

Data from: Warming has a greater effect than elevated CO2 on predator–prey interactions in coral reef fish

Bridie J.M. Allan, Paolo Domenici, Sue Ann Watson, Philip L. Munday, Mark I. McCormick & Bridie J. M. Allan
Ocean acidification and warming, driven by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, are considered to be among the greatest threats facing marine organisms. While each stressor in isolation has been studied extensively, there has been less focus on their combined effects, which could impact key ecological processes. We tested the independent and combined effects of short-term exposure to elevated CO2 and temperature on the predator–prey interactions of a common pair of coral reef fishes (Pomacentrus wardi and its...

Data from: Rare long-distance dispersal of a marine angiosperm across the Pacific Ocean

Timothy M. Smith, Paul H. York, Bernardo R. Broitman, Martin Thiel, Graeme C. Hays, Erik Van Sebille, Nathan F. Putman, Peter I. Macreadie & Craig D. H. Sherman
Aim: Long-distance dispersal (LDD) events occur rarely but play a fundamental role in shaping species biogeography. Lying at the heart of island biogeography theory, LDD relies on unusual events to facilitate colonisation of new habitats and range expansion. Despite the importance of LDD, it is inherently difficult to quantify due to the rarity of such events. We estimate the probability of LDD of the seagrass Heterozostera nigricaulis, a common Australian species, across the Pacific Ocean...

Data from: Impact of an ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies prevalence in a remote Australian Aboriginal community

Therese M. Kearns, Linda Ward, Deborah C. Holt, Bart J. Currie, Roslyn Gundjirryirr, Leanne Bundhala, Mark Chatfield, Ross M. Andrews, Richard Speare, Allen C. Cheng, James McCarthy, Jonathan R. Carapetis & Jennifer Shield
Background: Scabies is endemic in many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with 69% of infants infected in the first year of life. We report the outcomes against scabies of two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods: Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured scabies prevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and...

Data from: Maternal effects and Symbiodinium community composition drive differential patterns in juvenile survival in the coral Acropora tenuis

Kate M. Quigley, Bette L. Willis & Line K. Bay
Coral endosymbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium are known to impact host physiology and have led to the evolution of reef-building, but less is known about how symbiotic communities in early life-history stages and their interactions with host parental identity shape the structure of coral communities on reefs. Differentiating the roles of environmental and biological factors driving variation in population demographic processes, particularly larval settlement, early juvenile survival and the onset of symbiosis is key...

Data from: Social complexity influences brain investment and neural operation costs in ants

J. Frances Kamhi, Wulfila Gronenberg, Simon K.A. Robson, James F.A. Traniello, Simon K. A. Robson & James F. A. Traniello
The metabolic expense of producing and operating neural tissue required for adaptive behaviour is considered a significant selective force in brain evolution. In primates, brain size correlates positively with group size, presumably owing to the greater cognitive demands of complex social relationships in large societies. Social complexity in eusocial insects is also associated with large groups, as well as collective intelligence and division of labour among sterile workers. However, superorganism phenotypes may lower cognitive demands...

Data from: Plastic waste associated with disease on coral reefs

Joleah B. Lamb, Bette L. Willis, Evan A. Fiorenza, Courtney S. Couch, Robert Howard, Douglas N. Rader, James D. True, Lisa A. Kelly, Awaludinnoer Ahmad, Jamaluddin Jompa & C. Drew Harvell
Plastic waste can promote microbial colonization by pathogens implicated in outbreaks of disease in the ocean. We assessed the influence of plastic waste on disease risk in 124,000 reef-building corals from 159 reefs in the Asia-Pacific region. The likelihood of disease increases from 4% to 89% when corals are in contact with plastic. Structurally complex corals are eight times more likely to be affected by plastic, suggesting that microhabitats for reef-associated organisms and valuable fisheries...

Data from: Spatial dynamics and mixing of bluefin tuna in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea revealed using next generation sequencing

Gregory Neils Puncher, Alessia Cariani, Gregory E. Maes, Jeroen Van Houdt, Koen Herten, Rita Cannas, Naiara Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Aitor Albaina, M. Andone Estonba, Molly Lutcavage, Alex Hanke, Jay Rooker, James S. Franks, Joseph M. Quattro, Gualtiero Basilone, Igaratza Fraile, Urtzi Laconcha, Nicolas Goñi, Ai Kimoto, A. David Macías, Francisco Alemany, Simeon Deguara, Salem W. Zgozi, Fulvio Garibaldi, Isik K. Oray … & Fausto Tinti
The Atlantic bluefin tuna is a highly migratory species emblematic of the challenges associated with shared fisheries management. In an effort to resolve the species’ stock dynamics, a genome-wide search for spatially informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was undertaken, by way of sequencing reduced representation libraries. An allele frequency approach to SNP discovery was used, combining the data of 555 larvae and young-of-the-year (LYOY) into pools representing major geographical areas and mapping against a newly...

Data from: Does genetic distance between parental species influence outcomes of hybridisation among coral reef butterflyfishes?

Stefano R. Montanari, Jean-Paul A. Hobbs, Morgan S. Pratchett, Line K. Bay & Lynne Van Herwerden
Christmas Island is located at the overlap of the Indian and Pacific Ocean marine provinces and is a hot spot for marine hybridization. Here, we evaluate the ecological framework and genetic consequences of hybridization between butterflyfishes Chaetodon guttatissimus and Chaetodon punctatofasciatus. Further, we compare our current findings to those from a previous study of hybridization between Chaetodon trifasciatus and Chaetodon lunulatus. For both species groups, habitat and dietary overlap between parental species facilitate frequent heterospecific...

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