298 Works

The direct and indirect effects of environmental toxicants on the health of bumble bees and their microbiomes

Jason Rothman, Kaleigh Russell, Laura Leger, Quinn McFredderick & Peter Graystock
Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important and widespread insect pollinators, but the act of foraging on flowers can expose them to harmful pesticides and chemicals such as oxidizers and heavy metals. How these compounds directly influence bee survival and indirectly affect bee health via the gut microbiome is largely unknown. As toxicants in floral nectar and pollen take many forms, we explored the genomes of bee-associated microbes for their potential to detoxify cadmium, copper, selenate,...

Identifying mechanisms for successful ecological restoration with salvaged topsoil in coastal sage scrub communities

Mia Maltz & Katharina Schmid
Although above-ground metrics remain the standard, restoring functional ecosystems should promote both above- and belowground biotic communities. Restoration using salvaged soil — removal and translocation of topsoil from areas planned for development, with subsequent deposition at degraded sites — is an alternative to traditional methods. Salvaged soil contains both seed and spore banks, which may holistically augment restoration. Salvaged soil methods may reduce non-native germination by burying non-native seeds, increase native diversity by adding native...

Data from: Evapotranspiration response to multiyear dry periods in the semiarid western United States

Joseph Rungee, Roger Bales, Michael Goulden, Gerald Flerchinger, Greg Barron-Gafford & Xiande Meng
Analysis of measured evapotranspiration shows that subsurface plant‐accessible water storage (PAWS) can sustain evapotranspiration through multiyear dry periods. Measurements at 25 flux tower sites in the semiarid western United States, distributed across five land cover types, show both resistance and vulnerability to multiyear dry periods. Average (±standard deviation) evapotranspiration ranged from 660 ± 230 mm yr−1 (October–September) in evergreen needleleaf forests to 310 ± 200 mm yr−1 in grasslands and shrublands. More than 52% of...

H2 in firn air from Megadunes, Antarctica

Eric Saltzman
This dataset contains two items: 1) firn air measurements of H2 from Megadunes, Antarctica. 2) atmospheric surface flask air measurements of H2 from NOAA GML, CSIRO, and AGAGE from 1991-2003 adjusted to a common calibration scale. Firn air was sampled at the Megadunes site in central Antarctica (80.78 °S, 124.49 °E, Alt: 2,283 m) Antarctica during January of 2004. A 3” diameter hole was bored to a depth of 70 m using an ice core...

Data from: Selection of floral traits by pollinators and seed predators during sequential life history stages

Diane Campbell, Mascha Bischoff, Robert Raguso, Heather Briggs & Paula Sosenski
Organismal traits often influence fitness via interactions with multiple species. That selection is not necessarily predictable from pairwise interactions, such as when interactions occur during different lifecycle stages. Theoretically, directional selection during two sequential episodes, e.g., pollination and seed survival, can generate quadratic or correlational selection for a set of traits that passes both selective filters. We compared strength of selection during pollination versus seed predation in the field and tested whether interactions with multiple...

Data from: Unraveling the ecological and evolutionary impacts of a plant invader on the pollination of a native plant

Wilnelia Recart & Diane Campbell
Interactions between a native plant species and its pollinators, herbivores, or microbiome can be affected by the presence of non-native plant species. Non-native plant species are altering plant-pollinator interactions, yet we know little about how these non-native species influence natural selection. In addition, year-to-year variation in flowering could influence the impacts of non-native species on reproductive success in native plants and the strength and direction of pollinator-mediated selection. We examined whether the presence of the...

Data from: True UV color vision in a female butterfly with two UV opsins

Adriana D. Briscoe & Susan D. Finkbeiner
In true color vision animals discriminate between light wavelengths, regardless of intensity, using at least two photoreceptors with different spectral sensitivity peaks. Heliconius butterflies have duplicate UV opsin genes, which encode ultraviolet and violet photoreceptors, respectively. In H. erato, only females express the ultraviolet photoreceptor, suggesting females (but not males) can discriminate between UV wavelengths. We tested the ability of H. erato, and two species lacking the violet receptor, H. melpomene and Eueides isabella, to...

Data from: Accounting for variation in temperature and oxygen availability when quantifying marine ecosystem metabolism

Matthew Bracken, Luke Miller, Sarah Mastroni, Stephany Lira & Cascade Sorte
Given human modification of Earth’s ecosystems, it is essential to understand how these changes are influencing ecosystem functioning, including net and gross community production and community respiration. These responses are often estimated by measuring oxygen production in the light (net community production) and consumption in the dark (community respiration). These values can then be combined to estimate gross community production. However, the method used to create “dark” conditions – either experimental darkening during the day...

Climate-driven limits to future carbon storage in California's wildland ecosystems

Shane Coffield, Kyle Hemes, Charles Koven, Michael Goulden & James Randerson
Enhanced ecosystem carbon storage is a key component of many climate mitigation pathways. The State of California has set an ambitious goal of carbon neutrality by 2045, relying in part on enhanced carbon sequestration in natural and working lands. We used statistical modeling, including random forests and climate analogues, to explore the climate-driven challenges and uncertainties associated with the goal of long-term carbon sequestration in forests and shrublands. We found that seasonal patterns of temperature...

Impact assessment of coastal marine range shifts to support proactive management

Amy Henry & Cascade Sorte
Climate change is reshuffling Earth’s biota as species ranges shift to track increasing habitat temperatures. While redistribution may be necessary for species persistence, there can also be impacts on existing communities upon arrival of novel, range-shifting species. Anticipating the beneficial versus deleterious impacts of range-shifting species is essential for determining whether active management is needed, which could include employing strategies from facilitation (eg managed relocation) to suppression (eg prevention/control). We employ an impact assessment protocol...

Fatigue resistant jaw muscles facilitate long-lasting courtship behavior in the southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata)

A. Kristopher Lappin, Allyn Nguyen, Jordan Balaban, Emanuel Azizi & Robert Talmadge
The southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata) exhibits a courtship behavior during which the male firmly grips the female’s head in his jaws for many hours at a time. This extreme behavior counters the conventional wisdom that reptile muscles are fast to fatigue and incapable of powering high endurance behaviors. We conducted in situ experiments in which the jaw-adductor muscles of lizards were stimulated directly while bite force was measured simultaneously with a force transducer. Fatigue...

Best-practice forestry management delivers diminishing returns for coral reefs with increased land-clearing

Amelia Wenger, Daniel Harris, Samuel Weber, Ferguson Vaghi, Yashika Nand, Waisea Naisilisili, Alec Hughes, Jade Delevaux, Carissa Klein, James Watson, Peter Mumby & Stacy Jupiter
Protection of coastal ecosystems from deforestation may be the best way to protect coral reefs from sediment runoff. However, given the importance of generating economic activities for coastal livelihoods, the prohibition of development is often not feasible. In light of this, logging codes-of-practice have been developed to mitigate the impacts of logging on downstream ecosystems. However, no studies have assessed whether managed land-clearing can occur in tandem with coral reef conservation goals. This study quantifies...

More than meets the eye: syntopic and morphologically similar mangrove killifish species show different mating systems and patterns of genetic structure along the Brazilian coast

Waldir Berbel-Filho, Andrey Tatarenkov, Helder Espírito-Santo, Mateus Lira, Carlos De Leaniz, Sergio Lima & Sofia Consuegra
Different mating systems can strongly affect the extent of genetic diversity and population structure among species. Given the increased effects of genetic drift on reduced population size, theory predicts that species undergoing self-fertilization should have greater population structure than outcrossed species, however demographic dynamics may affect this scenario. The mangrove killifish clade is composed of the two only known examples of self-fertilising species among vertebrates (Kryptolebias marmoratus and K. hermaphroditus). A third species in this...

Spatiotemporal analysis of wildfires in California from 2000 to 2019

Shu Li & Tirtha Banerjee
The environmental pollution, property losses and casualties caused by wildfires in California are getting worse by the year. To minimize the interference of wildfires on economic and social development, and formulate targeted mitigation strategies, it is imperative to understand the scale and extent of previous wildfire occurrences. In this study, we first investigated the temporal distributions of past wildfires in California divided by size and causes and analyzed the changes observed in the past two...

Hamiltonian patterns of age-dependent adaptation to novel environments

Grant Rutledge, Larry Cabral, Brandon Kuey, Joshua Lee, Laurence Mueller & Michael Rose
Our intuitive understanding of adaptation by natural selection is dominated by the power of selection at early ages in large populations. Yet, as the forces of natural selection fall with adult age, we expect adaptation to be attenuated with age. Explicit simulations of age-dependent adaptation suggest that populations adapt to a novel environment quickly at early ages, but only slowly and incompletely at later adult ages. Experimental tests for age-dependent adaptation to a novel diet...

Permeability of H2 in ice Ih

John Patterson & Eric Saltazman
Reconstructions of paleoatmospheric H2 using polar firn air and ice cores would lead to a better understanding of the H2 biogeochemical cycle and how it is influenced by climate change and human activity. H2 is a small, highly diffusive molecule, and its mobility in the ice matrix must be accounted for when intepreting polar firn air and ice core measurements. Previous work on the mobility of H2 in ice has focused on warm (272-273 K),...

Model code for reconstructing biomass burning emissions from ice core records of acetylene, ethane, and methane

Melinda Nicewonger, Murat Aydin & Eric Saltzman
Biomass burning emissions of trace gases are inferred from ice core levels of acetylene, ethane, methane and its stable isotopes over the last 1,000 years (Nicewonger et al., 2018, 2020). In Nicewonger et al. 2020 JGR-A, we attempt to reconcile the individual biomass burning records from each trace gas into a single fire history of dry matter burned over the last 1,000 years. We find that temporal trends in fire inferred from the three trace...

Proposed managed aquifer recharge projects in California groundwater sustainability plans

Nicola Ulibarri & Nataly Escobedo Garcia
This dataset contains the text description of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) projects proposed by Groundwater Sustainability Agencies in California to comply with the requirements of the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA). The dataset includes projects proposed in the Groundwater Sustainability Plans submitted in 2020 for critically-overdrafted basins.

Antagonistic effects of temperature and dissolved organic carbon on fish growth in California mountain lakes

Celia C. Symons, Marika A. Schulhof, Hamanda B. Cavalheri & Jonathan B. Shurin
Resources and temperature play major roles in determining biological production in lake ecosystems. Lakes have been warming and ‘browning’ over recent decades due to climate change and increased loading of terrestrial organic matter. Conflicting hypotheses and evidence have been presented about whether these changes will increase or decrease fish growth within lakes. Most studies have been conducted in low-elevation lakes where terrestrially derived carbon tends to dominate over carbon produced within lakes. Understanding how fish...

Evapotranspiration data from eddy-covariance flux-tower measurements and Landsat imagery in California’s Sierra Nevada from 1985 to 2019

Qin Ma, Roger Bales, Joseph Rungee, Martha Conklin, Xiande Meng & Michael Goulden
The gridded annual evapotranspiration (ET) from 1985 to 2019 were calculated based on the correlations between eddy-covariance flux-tower measurements of annual evapotranspiration and satellite imagery derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Annual ET observations from 12 flux-towers across the Sierra Nevada and Southern California were collected from 2001 to 2016, resulting 97 site-years of ET observations in five main vegetation types (Evergreen Needleleaf Forest, Grasslands, Mixed Forest, Open Shrublands, and Woody Savannas). The NDVI was...

Data from: Testing trade-offs and the dominance-impoverishment rule among ant communities

Julie K. Sheard, Annika S. Nelson, Jeppe Berggreen, Raphael Boulay, Robert R. Dunn & Nathan J. Sanders
Aim: Ant communities are believed to be structured by competition, with dominant species competitively excluding subordinates (the dominance-impoverishment rule). However, a high number of seemingly similar species coexist, possibly due to interspecific trade-offs. Here, we examine the evidence for the dominance-impoverishment rule across a broad latitudinal gradient and explore whether trade-offs explain coexistence within and among ant communities. Location: 40 sites in 19 countries across Europe, western North America and northern South America. Taxon: Formicidae....

Coastal urbanization influences human pathogens and microdebris contamination in seafood

Raechel Littman, Evan Fiorenza, Amelia Wenger, Kathryn Berry, Jeroen Van De Water, Lily Nguyen, Soe Tint Aung, Daniel Parker, Douglas Rader, C. Drew Harvell & Joleah Lamb
Seafood is one of the leading imported products implicated in foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Coastal marine environments are being increasingly subjected to reduced water quality from urbanization and leading to contamination of important fishery species. Given the importance of seafood exchanged as a global protein source, it is imperative to maintain seafood safety worldwide. To illustrate the potential health risks associated with urbanization in a coastal environment, we use next-generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S...

A compilation of canopy leaf inclination angle measurements across plant species and biome types

César Hinojo-Hinojo & Michael Goulden
The inclination angle of leaves in plant canopies is important for a range of land ecosystem processes, including radiation absorption from vegetation, land surface reflectance, microclimate, and photosynthetic CO2 uptake. While inclination angles of leaves have been measured for decades, such measurements remain scattered in the scientific literature, and the actual variation of leaf inclination angles across land ecosystems remains poorly understood and quantified. We compiled a dataset of previously published field measurements of mean...

The effects of adaptation to urea on feeding rates and growth in Drosophila larvae

Laurence Mueller, Kathreen Bitner, Grant Rutledge & James Kezos
A collection of forty populations were used to study the phenotypic adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to urea laced food. A long-term goal of this research is to map genes responsible for these phenotypes. This mapping requires large numbers of populations. Thus, we studied fifteen populations subjected to direct selection for urea tolerance and five controls. In addition, we studied another twenty populations which had not been exposed to urea but were subjected to stress...

Global Ocean particulate organic phosphorus, carbon, oxygen for respiration, and nitrogen (GO-POPCORN) data from Bio-GO-SHIP cruises

Tatsuro Tanioka, Alyse Larkin, Allison Moreno, Catherine Garcia, Nathan Garcia, Jenna Lee, Adam Fagan, Melissa Brock, Skylar Gerace & Adam Martiny
Here, we present the Global Ocean Particulate Organic Phosphorus, Carbon, Oxygen for Respiration, and Nitrogen (GO-POPCORN) dataset from recent Bio-GO-SHIP cruises between 2011 and 2020. The combined dataset contains 2109 paired surface measurements of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from 70°S to 55°N across all major ocean basins. The dataset also includes 933 measurements of oxygen demand for organic carbon respiration. This new dataset is valuable for improving our understanding of how biological elemental...

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