298 Works

An electrophysiological marker of arousal level in humans

Janna Lendner, Randolph Helfrich, Bryce Mander, Luis Romundstad, Jack Lin, Matthew Walker, Pal Larsson & Robert Knight
Deep non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and general anesthesia with propofol are prominent states of reduced arousal linked to the occurrence of synchronized oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Although rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is also associated with diminished arousal levels, it is characterized by a desynchronized, 'wake-like' EEG. This observation implies that reduced arousal states are not necessarily only defined by synchronous oscillatory activity. Using intracranial and surface EEG recordings in four independent data...

Figures for \"California forest die-off linked to multi-year deep soil drying in 2012-2015 drought\"

Michael Goulden
Data underlying main figures in "California forest die-off linked to multi-year deep soil drying in 2012-2015 drought", published in Nature-Geoscience, July 2019, ML Goulden and RC Bales. Abstract of paper: Widespread episodes of recent forest die-off have been tied to the occurrence of anomalously warm droughts, though the underlying mechanisms remain inadequately understood. California’s 2012-2015 drought, with exceptionally low precipitation and warmth and widespread conifer death, provides an opportunity to explore the chain of events...

Environmental drivers of adult locomotion and reproduction in a symbiont-hosting sea anemone

Samuel Bedgood
This data was collected from the sea anemone species Exaiptasia diaphana collected in the Florida Keys in January 2016. Anemones were brought into the lab where they were exposed to feeding treatments (fed or starved) and algal symbiont manipulations (high or low symbiont denisties). We collected data on movement via time lapse photography, reproduction via counting of pedal lacerates, and anemone size via photography and analysis in the program ImageJ. We found that feeding treatments...

Rhythm of Attention

Haleh Farahbod, Kourosh Saberi & Gregory Hickok
Modulation patterns are known to carry critical predictive cues to signal detection in complex acoustic environments. The current study investigated the persistence of masker modulation effects on post-modulation detection of probe signals. Hickok et al. (2015) demonstrated that thresholds for a tone pulse in stationary noise follow a predictable periodic pattern when preceded by a 3-Hz amplitude modulated masker. They found entrainment of detection patterns to the modulation envelope lasting for approximately 2 cycles after...

Solar-J and Cloud-J models version 7.6c

Michael Prather & Juno Hsu
This dataset includes the models (fortran code, matlab code, data) used to simulate the heating and photolysis rates in a spherical atmosphere. Both Solar-J v7.5 and Cloud-J v7.3c have been published previously, but with the publication of Prather and Hsu, "A round Earth for climate models" in PNAS (2019) both models have been merged in terms of overlapping subroutines and both now include option for (0) a flat-Earth atmosphere, (1) solar ray tracing through a...

Grounding line of Denman Glacier, East Antarctica from satellite radar interferometry

Virginia Brancato, Eric Rignot, Pietro Milillo, Mathieu Morlighem, Jeremie Mouginot, Lu An, Bernd Scheuchl, Seong Su Jeong, Paola Rizzoli, Jose Luiz Bueso Bello & Pau Prats-Iraola
Grounding line, elevation changes, and melt rates maps of Denman Glacier, East Antarctica. Using satellite radar interferometry from the COSMO-SkyMed mission we map the grounding line of Denman Glacier, East Antarctica. We complement these data with some historical interferometric radar acquisition from the European satellite ERS-1/2. We present new maps of elevation changes on the grounded and floating portions of Denman Glacier obtained by temporally differencing TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Models.

Striated myocyte structural integrity: automated analysis of sarcomeric z-discs

Tessa Altair Morris, Jasmine Naik, Kirby Sinclair Fibbin, Xiangdu Kong, Tohru Kiyono, Kyoko Yokomori & Anna Grosberg
As sarcomeres produce the force necessary for contraction, assessment of sarcomere order is paramount in evaluation of cardiac and skeletal myocytes. The uniaxial force produced by sarcomeres is ideally perpendicular to their z-lines, which couple parallel myofibrils and give cardiac and skeletal myocytes their distinct striated appearance. Accordingly, sarcomere structure is often evaluated by staining for z-line proteins such as alpha-actinin. However, due to limitations of current analysis methods, which require manual or semi-manual handling...

Data from: Complementarity in spatial subsidies of carbon associated with resource partitioning along multiple niche axes

Matthew Bracken
Data support analyses describing the potential for niche partitioning and complementarity in a guild of suspension-feeding rocky shore invertebrates. I focused on the mussels Perna canaliculus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Aulacomya maoriana, and Xenostrobus pulex, all of which coexist along the coastline of the South Island of New Zealand. I quantified the mussel species’ distributions, both vertically on the shore and within the three-dimensional mussel bed matrix, and used carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) stable isotope ratios...

Microbiome assembly and maintenance across the lifespan of bumble bee workers

Tobin Hammer, August Easton-Calabria & Nancy A. Moran
How a host’s microbiome changes over its lifespan can influence development and aging. As these temporal patterns have only been described in detail for humans and a handful of other hosts, an important next step is to compare microbiome dynamics across a broader array of host-microbe symbioses, and to investigate how and why they vary. Here we characterize the temporal dynamics and stability of the bumblebee worker gut microbiome. Bumblebees are a useful symbiosis model...

Data from: Size-resolved chemical composition of sub-20 nm particles from methanesulfonic acid reactions with methylamine and ammonia

Veronique Perraud, Xiaoxiao Li, JingKun Jiang, Barbara Finlayson-Pitts & James Smith
Particle formation in the atmosphere from gas-phase precursors has been observed around the world; however, our fundamental understanding of the key species responsible and mechanisms involved remains uncertain. Recent laboratory studies demonstrated that acid−base reactions involving methanesulfonic acid (CH3SO3H, MSA) and small alkylamines may contribute significantly to new particle formation. To date, most of the investigations have been focused on particle number concentration and size distribution measurements in combination with quantum chemistry predictions of the...

Effects of dominance and female presence on secondary sexual characteristics in male tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella)

Annika Paukner, Emily Slonecker & Lauren Wooddell
Alpha status may lead to physiological changes that enhance secondary sexual characteristics, which may serve as competitive signals to conspecific males, sexual signals to females, or possibly a combination of both. Here we report measurements of secondary sexual characteristics in captive dominant and subordinate male tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) with varying access to females. An adult male (who had previously been subordinate while housed with other males) was paired with an adult female, and...

Dataset for: Vibrometry as a noncontact alternative to dynamic and viscoelastic mechanical testing in cartilage

Gabriela Espinosa, Gaston Otarola, Jerry Hu & Kyriacos Athanasiou
Physiological loading of knee cartilage is highly dynamic and may contribute to the progression of osteoarthritis. Thus, an understanding of cartilage’s dynamic mechanical properties is crucial in cartilage research. In this study, vibrometry was used as a fast (2 hours), noncontact, and novel alternative to the slower (30 hours), traditional mechanical and biochemical assays for characterization of cartilage from the condyle, patella, trochlear groove, and meniscus. Finite-element models predicted tissue resonant frequencies and bending modes,...

Surface CO2 variability from the stratosphere, or not

Michael Prather
Fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 can be measured with great precision and are used to identify human-driven sources as well as natural cycles of ocean and land carbon. One source of variability is the stratosphere, where the influx of aged CO2-depleted air can produce fluctuations at the surface. This process has been speculated a potential source of interannual variability (IAV) in CO2 that might obscure the quantification of other sources of IAV. Given the recent success...

Data from: Willing or unwilling to share primary biodiversity data: results and implications of an international survey

Xiaolei Huang, Bradford A. Hawkins, Fumin Lei, Gary L. Miller, Colin Favret, Ruiling Zhang & Gexia Qiao
Biodiversity science and conservation increasingly depend on the sharing and integration of large amounts of data, but many researchers resist sharing their primary biodiversity data. We recently conducted an international survey to ascertain the attitudes, experiences, and expectations regarding biodiversity data sharing and archiving of researchers. The results show that whereas most respondents are willing to share paper-related biodiversity data, more than sixty percent of respondents are unwilling to share primary data before publishing. Results...

Data from: Fine-mapping nicotine resistance loci in Drosophila using a multiparent advanced generation inter-cross population

Tara N. Marriage, Elizabeth G. King, Anthony D. Long & Stuart J. Macdonald
Animals in nature are frequently challenged by toxic compounds, from those that occur naturally in plants as a defense against herbivory, to pesticides used to protect crops. On exposure to such xenobiotic substances, animals mount a transcriptional response, generating detoxification enzymes and transporters that metabolize and remove the toxin. Genetic variation in this response can lead to variation in the susceptibility of different genotypes to the toxic effects of a given xenobiotic. Here we use...

Data from: Tritrophic interactions at a community level: effects of host-plant species quality on bird predation of caterpillars

Michael S. Singer, Timothy E. Farkas, Christian M. Skorik & Kailen A. Mooney
Effects of plant traits on herbivore-carnivore interactions are well documented in component communities, but are not well understood at the level of large, complex communities. We report on a two-year field experiment testing mechanisms by which variation in food quality among eight temperate forest tree species alters avian suppression of an assemblage of dietary generalist caterpillars. Plant quality and bird effects varied dramatically among tree species; high quality plants yielded herbivores of 50% greater mass...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism and retinal mosaic diversification following the evolution of a violet receptor in butterflies

Kyle J. McCulloch, Furong Yuan, Ying Zhen, Matthew L. Aardema, Gilbert Smith, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Peter Andolfatto & Adriana D. Briscoe
Numerous animal lineages have expanded and diversified the opsin-based photoreceptors in their eyes underlying color vision behavior. However, the selective pressures giving rise to new photoreceptors and their spectral tuning remain mostly obscure. Previously, we identified a violet receptor (UV2) that is the result of a UV opsin gene duplication specific to Heliconius butterflies. At the same time the violet receptor evolved, Heliconius evolved UV-yellow coloration on their wings, due to the pigment 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK)...

Data from: Predatory birds and ants partition caterpillar prey by body size and diet breadth

Michael S. Singer, Robert E. Clark, Isaac H. Lichter-Marck, Emily R. Johnson, Kailen A. Mooney & Issac H. Lichter-Marck
1.The effects of predator assemblages on herbivores are predicted to depend critically on predator-predator interactions and the extent to which predators partition prey resources. The role of prey heterogeneity in generating such multiple predator effects has received limited attention. 2.Vertebrate and arthropod insectivores constitute two co-dominant predatory taxa in many ecosystems, and the emergent properties of their joint effects on insect herbivores inform theory on multiple predator effects as well as biological control of insect...

Data from: Fine-scale analysis of parasite resistance genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

Daibin Zhong, Aditi Pai, Mei-Hui Wang, Naomi Keech & Guiyun Yan
Parasite infection impacts population dynamics through effects on fitness and fecundity of the individual host. In addition to the known roles of environmental factors, host susceptibility to parasites has a genetic basis that has not been well characterized. We previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for susceptibility to rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection in Tribolium castaneum using dominant AFLP markers, but the resistance genes were not identified. In the current study, we refined the QTL...

Data from: Natural hybridization between divergent lineages in a selfing hermaphroditic fish

Andrey Tatarenkov, Ryan L. Earley, D.S. Taylor, William P. Davis & John C. Avise
By definition, mating between individuals is infrequent in highly selfing organisms, and so too, therefore, hybridization should be rare between genetically divergent lineages in predominantly self-fertilizing species. Notwithstanding these expectations, here we report a remarkable case of natural hybridization between highly diverged phylogeographic lineages of the mangrove rivulus, a small killifish that reproduces predominantly by self-fertilization and typically is found as highly homozygous lines in most parts of its extensive geographic range. Two distinctive genetic...

Data from: Pollution-tolerant invertebrates enhance greenhouse gas flux in urban wetlands

Andrew S. Mehring, Perran L.M. Cook, Victor Evrard, Stanley B. Grant, Lisa A. Levin & Perran L. M. Cook
One of the goals of urban ecology is to link community structure to ecosystem function in urban habitats. Pollution-tolerant wetland invertebrates have been shown to enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in controlled laboratory experiments, suggesting that they may influence urban wetland roles as sources or sinks of GHG. However, it is unclear if their effects can be detected in highly variable conditions in a field setting. Here we use an extensive dataset on carbon dioxide...

Data from: Bottom-up effects of host-plant species diversity and top-down effects of ants interactively increase plant performance

Xoaquín Moreira, Kailen A. Mooney, Rafael Zas & Luis Sampedro
While plant diversity is well known to increase primary productivity, whether these bottom-up effects are enhanced by reciprocal top-down effects from the third trophic level is unknown. We studied whether pine tree species diversity, aphid-tending ants and their interaction determined plant performance and arthropod community structure. Plant diversity had a positive effect on aphids, but only in the presence of mutualistic ants, leading to threefold greater number of both groups in the tri-specific cultures than...

Data from: Patterns of male fitness conform to predictions of evolutionary models of late-life

Parvin Shahrestani, Xuan Tran & Laurence D. Mueller
We studied lifetime male virility, a male fitness component, in five populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Virility was measured as the number of females, out of eight total, that a male could fertilize in 24 hours. Individual males were measured at weekly intervals until they died. Virility declined in an approximately linear fashion for the first three weeks of adult life. It then stayed low but relatively constant for another three weeks, exhibiting a clear plateau....

Data from: Traits underlying community consequences of plant intra-specific diversity

Luis Abdala-Roberts, Riley Pratt, Jessica D. Pratt & Kailen A. Mooney
A plant’s performance and interactions with other trophic levels are recorgnized to be contingent upon plant diversity and underlying associational dynamics, but far less is known about the plant traits driving such phenomena. We manipulated diversity in plant traits using pairs of plant and a substitutive design to elucidate the mechanisms underlying diversity effects operating at a fine spatial scale. Specifically, we measured the effects of diversity in sex (sexual monocultures vs. male and female...

Data from: Environmental filtering by pH and soil nutrients drives community assembly in fungi at fine spatial scales

Sydney I. Glassman, Ian J. Wang & Thomas D. Bruns
Whether niche processes, like environmental filtering, or neutral processes, like dispersal limitation, are the primary forces driving community assembly is a central question in ecology. Here, we use a natural experimental system of isolated tree “islands” to test whether environment or geography primarily structures fungal community composition at fine spatial scales. This system consists of isolated pairs of two distantly-related, congeneric pine trees established at varying distances from each other and the forest edge, allowing...

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