78 Works

Eddy Covariance measurements of carbon dioxide, energy and water flux at an intensively cultivated lowland deep peat soil, East Anglia, UK, 2012 to 2020

A.M.J. Cumming, T.R. Newman, S.J. Benson, H. Balzter, C. Evans, D. Jones, J. Kaduk, R.D. Morrison & S.E. Page
This dataset contains time series observations of surface-atmosphere exchanges of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE), sensible heat (H) and latent heat (LE), and momentum (τ) for a managed lowland deep peat soil in the East Anglian Fens, England, UK. The site is managed for the production of horticultural salad crops. Measurements were made between the 22nd June 2012 and 1st January 2020 during which lettuce, leek, celery, sugar beet and potatoes crops were grown...

Data from: Good parenting may not increase reproductive success under environmental extremes

Rebecca J. Fox, Megan L. Head & Iain Barber
For species exhibiting parental care, the way in which parents adjust care behaviour to compensate for environmental change potentially influences offspring survival and, ultimately, population viability. Using the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) – a species in which males provide parental care by building and tending a nest and fanning the eggs – we examined how low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels affect paternal care, embryo development and survival. While levels of nest tending were unaffected by...

Data from: Assembly mechanisms determining high species turnover in aquatic communities over regional and continental scales

Duarte S. Viana, Jordi Figuerola, Klaus Schwenk, Marina Manca, Anders Hobæk, Marit Mjelde, Christopher D. Preston, Richard J. Gornall, Jane M. Croft, Robert A. King, Andy J. Green & Luis Santamaría
Niche and neutral processes drive community assembly and metacommunity dynamics, but their relative importance might vary with the spatial scale. The contribution of niche processes is generally expected to increase with increasing spatial extent at a higher rate than that of neutral processes. However, the extent to what community composition is limited by dispersal (usually considered a neutral process) over increasing spatial scales might depend on the dispersal capacity of composing species. To investigate the...

Data from: The Bantu expansion revisited: a new analysis of Y chromosome variation in Central Western Africa

Valeria Montano, Gianmarco Ferri, Veronica Marcari, Chiara Batini, Okorie Anyaele, Giovanni Destro-Bisol & David Comas
The current distribution of Bantu languages is commonly considered to be a consequence of a relatively recent population expansion (3-5 kya) in Central Western Africa. While there is a substantial consensus regarding the centre of origin of Bantu languages (the Benue River Valley, between South East Nigeria and Western Cameroon), the identification of the area from where the population expansion actually started, the relation between the processes leading to the spread of languages and peoples...

A survey of small-scale waves and wave-like phenomena in Jupiter's atmosphere detected by JunoCam

Glenn Orton, Fachreddin Tabataba-Vakili, Gerald Eichstaedt, John Rogers, Candice Hansen, Thomas Momary, Andrew Ingersoll, Shawn Brueshaber, Michael H. Wong, Amy Simon, Leigh Fletcher, Michael Ravine, Michael Caplinger, Dakota Smith, Scott Bolton, Stephen Levin, James Sinclair, Chloe Thepenier, Hamish Nicholson & Abigail Anthony
In the first 20 orbits of the Juno spacecraft around Jupiter, we have identified a variety of wave-like features in images made by its public-outreach camera, JunoCam. Because of Juno’s unprecedented and repeated proximity to Jupiter’s cloud tops during its close approaches, JunoCam has detected more wave structures than any previous surveys. Most of the waves appear in long wave packets, oriented east-west and populated by narrow wave crests. Spacing between crests were measured as...

Data from: Failure to reproduce period-dependent song cycles in Drosophila is due to poor automated pulse-detection and low-intensity courtship

Charalambos P. Kyriacou, Edward W. Green, Arianna Piffer & Harold B. Dowse
Stern has criticized a body of work from several groups that have independently studied the so-called “Kyriacou and Hall” courtship song rhythms of male Drosophila melanogaster, claiming that these ultradian ∼60-s cycles in the interpulse interval (IPI) are statistical artifacts that are not modulated by mutations at the period (per) locus [Stern DL (2014) BMC Biol 12:38]. We have scrutinized Stern’s raw data and observe that his automated song pulse-detection method identifies only ∼50% of...

Data from: Anaesthetic interventions for prevention of awareness during surgery

Anthony G. Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J. Ward, Chase C. Wilker, Brett B. Smith, Daniel P. Vezina, Nathan Pace & Nathan Leon Pace
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness: - anaesthetic drug regimens; and - intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled...

Data from: Simulated annealing approach to vascular structure with application to the coronary arteries

Jonathan Keelan, James P. Hague & Emma M. L. Chung
Do the complex processes of angiogenesis during organism development ultimately lead to a near optimal coronary vasculature in the organs of adult mammals? We examine this hypothesis using a powerful and universal method, built on physical and physiological principles, for the determination of globally energetically optimal arterial trees. The method is based on simulated annealing, and can be used to examine arteries in hollow organs with arbitrary tissue geometries. We demonstrate that the approach can...

Data from: A three-dimensionally preserved lobopodian from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK

Derek J. Siveter, Derek E.G. Briggs, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton, David Legg & Derek E. G. Briggs
The Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte (c. 430 MYr BP) has yielded, amongst many exceptionally preserved invertebrates, a wide range of new genera belonging to crown-group Panarthropoda. Here we increase this panarthropod diversity with the lobopodian Thanahita distos, a new total-group panarthropod genus and species. This new lobopodian preserves at least nine paired, long, slender appendages, the anterior two in the head region and the posterior seven representing trunk lobopods. The body ends in a short post-appendicular...

Data from: A new ophiocistioid with soft-tissue preservation from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, and the evolution of the holothurian body plan

Imran Rahman, Jeffrey Thompson, Derek Briggs, David Siveter, Derek Siveter & Mark Sutton
Reconstructing the evolutionary assembly of animal body plans is challenging when there are large morphological gaps between extant sister taxa, as in the case of echinozoans (echinoids and holothurians). However, the inclusion of extinct taxa can help bridge these gaps. Here we describe a new species of echinozoan, Sollasina cthulhu, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, UK. S. cthulhu belongs to the ophiocistioids, an extinct group that shares characters with both echinoids and holothurians. Using physical-optical...

Data from: Dietary specializations and diversity in feeding ecology of the earliest stem mammals

Pamela G. Gill, Mark A. Purnell, Nick Crumpton, Kate Robson Brown, Neil J. Gostling, Marco Stampanoni & Emily J. Rayfield
Morganucodon mandible CT slice videoMorganucodon.mpgKuehneotherium mandible CT scan videoKuehneotherium.mpg

Data from: Microtopographic specialization and flexibility in tropical peat swamp forest tree species

Cathryn A. Freund, Fransiskus A. Harsanto, Ari Purwanto, Hidenori Takahashi & Mark E. Harrison
Tropical tree species distributions are determined by a wide range of biotic and abiotic factors, including topography and hydrology. Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSFs) are characterized in part by small-scale variations in topography (‘hummocks’ and ‘hollows’) that create distinct microhabitats and thus may contribute to niche diversification among TPSF tree species. Using tree elevations calibrated to daily peat water levels collected using a data logger and a permutation test, we evaluated topographical microhabitat preferences for...

Data from: A new exceptionally preserved Cambrian priapulid from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte

Xiaoya Ma, Richard J. Aldridge, David J. Siveter, Derek J. Siveter, Xianguang Hou & Gregory D. Edgecombe
A fossil priapulid, Eximipriapulus globocaudatus new genus new species, is described from the Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte of Yunnan, China. The exceptional preservation of the animal reveals morphological details that allow direct comparison with extant priapulids. The body is divisible into a partially eversible pharynx, a smooth collar, a scalid-bearing introvert, a neck with triangular scalids, an unsegmented trunk with annulations, and a distinctly expanded terminal region. Several specialized regions of the alimentary canal are recognized:...

Data from: Differential activation of serotonergic neurones during short- and long-term gregarisation of desert locusts

Stephen M. Rogers & Swidbert R. Ott
Serotonin is a neurochemical with evolutionarily conserved roles in orchestrating nervous system function and behavioural plasticity. A dramatic example is the rapid transformation of desert locusts from cryptic asocial animals into gregarious crop pests that occurs when drought forces them to accumulate on dwindling resources, triggering a profound alteration of behaviour within just a few hours. The onset of crowding induces a surge in serotonin within their thoracic ganglia that is sufficient and necessary to...

Urination data for Welsh Mountain ewes grazing upland and lowland pastures in North Wales, 2016

K.A. Marsden, L. Lush, J.A. Holmberg, M.J. Whelan, A.J. King, R.P. Wilson, A.F. Charteris, L.M. Cardenas, D.L. Jones & D.R. Chadwick
The data contains urination metrics including frequency, volume, chemical composition, estimated urine patch N loading rates and metabolomics profile of individual urine events from sheep (Welsh Mountain ewe) grazing a semi-improved upland pasture and a lowland improved pasture located in North Wales, UK. Urine collection studies were run in the spring, summer and autumn of 2016 for the semi-improved site and in autumn of 2016 on the lowland improved pasture. Sheep were housed in urine...

Data from: Environmental change mediates mate choice for an extended phenotype, but not for mate quality

Megan L. Head, Rebecca J. Fox & Iain Barber
Sexual cues, including extended phenotypes, are expected to be reliable indicators of male genetic quality and/or provide information on parental quality. However, the reliability of these cues may be dependent on stability of the environment, with heterogeneity affecting how selection acts on such traits. Here we test how environmental change mediates mate choice for multiple sexual traits, including an extended phenotype – the structure of male-built nests – in stickleback fish. First, we manipulated the...

Data from: Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a UK wetland

Francine M. R. Hughes, Kelvin S. H. Peh, Andrew Balmford, Rob H. Field, Anthony Lamb, Jennifer C. Birch, Richard B. Bradbury, Claire Brown, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Martin Lester, Ross Morrison, Isabel Sedgwick, Chris Soans, Alison J. Stattersfield, Peter A. Stroh, Ruth D. Swetnam, David H. L. Thomas, Matt Walpole, Stuart Warrington & Kelvin S.-H. Peh
Restoration of degraded land is recognized by the international community as an important way of enhancing both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but more information is needed about its costs and benefits. In Cambridgeshire, U.K., a long-term initiative to convert drained, intensively farmed arable land to a wetland habitat mosaic is driven by a desire both to prevent biodiversity loss from the nationally important Wicken Fen National Nature Reserve (Wicken Fen NNR) and to increase the...

Data from: Reproductive workers show queen-like gene expression in an intermediately eusocial insect, the buff-tailed bumble bee Bombus terrestris

Mark C. Harrison, Rob L. Hammond, Eamonn B. Mallon & Robert L. Hammond
Bumble bees represent a taxon with an intermediate level of eusociality within Hymenoptera. The clear division of reproduction between a single founding queen and the largely sterile workers is characteristic for highly eusocial species, whereas the morphological similarity between the bumble bee queen and the workers is typical for more primitively eusocial hymenopterans. Also, unlike other highly eusocial hymenopterans, division of labour among worker subcastes is plastic and not predetermined by morphology or age. We...

Data from: Genetic analysis of circadian responses to low frequency electromagnetic fields in Drosophila melanogaster

Giorgio Fedele, Matthew D. Edwards, Supriya Bhutani, John M. Hares, Manuel Murbach, Edward W. Green, Stephane Dissel, Michael H. Hastings, Ezio Rosato, Charalambos P. Kyriacou & Mathew D. Edwards
The blue-light sensitive photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY) may act as a magneto-receptor through formation of radical pairs involving a triad of tryptophans. Previous genetic analyses of behavioral responses of Drosophila to electromagnetic fields using conditioning, circadian and geotaxis assays have lent some support to the radical pair model (RPM). Here, we describe a new method that generates consistent and reliable circadian responses to electromagnetic fields that differ substantially from those already reported. We used the Schuderer...

Data from: Patient and staff perceptions of intradialytic exercise before and after implementation: a qualitative study

Hannah M. L. Young, Nicky Hudson, Amy L. Clarke, Maurice Dungey, John Feehally, James O. Burton & Alice C. Smith
Introduction: Despite guidance and evidence for the beneficial effects of intradialytic exercise (IDE), such programmes are rarely adopted within practice and little is known about how they may best be sustained. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was used to guide the understanding of the barriers and facilitators to initial and ongoing IDE participation and to understand how these are influential at each stage. Materials and Methods: Focus groups explored patient (n=24) and staff (n=9) perceptions...

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

Data from: Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic

Carl Smith, André Phillips & Martin Reichard
The ability to attract mates, acquire resources for reproduction, and successfully outcompete rivals for fertilizations may make demands on cognitive traits—the mechanisms by which an animal acquires, processes, stores and acts upon information from its environment. Consequently, cognitive traits potentially undergo sexual selection in some mating systems. We investigated the role of cognitive traits on the reproductive performance of male rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), a freshwater fish with a complex mating system and alternative mating...

Data from: Epigenome-wide association study of lung function level and its change

Medea Imboden, Matthias Wielscher, Faisal I Rezwan, Andre F S Amaral, Emmanuel Schaffner, Ayoung Jeong, Anna Beckmeyer-Borowko, Sarah E Harris, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Claudia Flexeder, Melanie Waldenberger, Annette Peters, Holger Schulz, Su Chen, Shadia KHan Sunny, Wilfried J J Karmaus, Yu Jiang, Gertraud Erhart, Florian Kronenberg, Ryan Arathimos, Gemma C Sharp, Alexander John Henderson, Yu Fu, Paivi Piirila … & Nicole M Probst-Hensch
Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures which are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is however limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults. In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, six-to-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2,043). Associated DNAme markers (P<5x10-7) were tested...

Data from: The molecular evolution of spiggin nesting glue in sticklebacks

Paul J. Seear, Ezio Rosato, William P. Goodall-Copestake & Iain Barber
Gene duplication and subsequent divergence can lead to the evolution of new functions and lineage-specific traits. In sticklebacks, the successive duplication of a mucin gene (MUC19) into a tandemly arrayed, multigene family has enabled the production of copious amounts of ‘spiggin’, a secreted adhesive protein essential for nest construction. Here, we examine divergence between spiggin genes among three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from ancestral marine and derived freshwater populations, and propose underpinning gene duplication mechanisms. Sanger...

Data from: Molecular insights into genome-wide association studies of chronic kidney disease-defining traits

Xiaoguang Xu, James M. Eales, Artur Akbarov, Hui Guo, Lorenz Becker, David Talavera, Fezhan Ashraf, Jabran Nawaz, Sanjeev Pramanik, John Bowes, Xiao Jiang, John Dormer, Matthew Denniff, Andrzej Antczak, Monika Szulinska, Ingrid Wise, Priscilla R. Prestes, Maciej Glyda, Pawel Bogdanski, Ewa Zukowska-Szczechowska, Carlo Berzuini, Adrian S. Woolf, Nilesh J. Samani, Fadi J. Charchar & Maciej Tomaszewski
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 loci of chronic kidney disease-defining traits (CKD-dt). Molecular mechanisms underlying these associations remain elusive. Using 280 kidney transcriptomes and 9958 gene expression profiles from 44 non-renal tissues we uncover gene expression partners (eGenes) for 88.9% of CKD-dt GWAS loci. Through epigenomic chromatin segmentation analysis and variant effect prediction we annotate functional consequences to 74% of these loci. Our colocalisation analysis and Mendelian randomisation in >130,000 subjects demonstrate causal...

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