349 Works

TEC - Anthea Coster, MIT/Haystack Observatory. (2013)

L. R. Dinsmore
Our raw global Global Positioning System (GPS) data were taken and archived at MH. The GPS-Total Electron Content (TEC) dataset contains the time of observation, the slant-path TEC (sTEC) in TECU (10^16 e-/m^2), and the longitude and latitude of the propagation path pierce point at 325 km in altitude. The GPS-TEC dataset effectively detects F region activity, since the peak electron density in the F region and ionosphere is also around 300 km. Using the...

Utilizing field collected insects for next generation sequencing: effects of sampling, storage, and DNA extraction methods

Kimberly Ballare, Nathaniel Pope, Antonio Castilla, Sarah Cusser, Richard Metz & Shalene Jha
DNA sequencing technologies continue to advance the biological sciences, expanding opportunities for genomic studies of non-model organisms for basic and applied questions. Despite these opportunities, many next-generation sequencing protocols have been developed assuming a substantial quantity of high molecular weight DNA (>100 ng), which can be difficult to obtain for many study systems. In particular, the ability to sequence field-collected specimens that exhibit varying levels of DNA degradation remains largely unexplored. In this study we...

Simulation Data of Early-Warning of Binary Neutron Star Systems

Sk, J. Rana & C. Hanna
Binary neutron stars will spend ~ 10-15 minutes in the sensitivity band of Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors as they achieve their design sensitivity. Time-domain filtering of gravitational-wave data could, in principle, accumulate enough signal-to-noise ratio to identify an imminent event tens of seconds before the companions collide and merge. Early warning alerts can be produced for sources that are close enough so that the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio from the time the signal enters the...

An efficient bi-Gaussian ensemble Kalman filter for satellite infrared radiance data assimilation

M. Chan, J.L. Anderson & X. Chen
The introduction of infrared water vapor channel radiance ensemble data assimilation (DA) has improved numerical weather forecasting at operational centers. Further improvements might be possible through extending ensemble data assimilation methods to better assimilate infrared satellite radiances. Here, we will illustrate that ensemble statistics under clear-sky conditions are different from cloudy conditions. This difference suggests that extending the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to handle bi-Gaussian prior distributions may yield better results than the standard EnKF....

Manure decreases herbivore performance but increases early-season damage on corn in the greenhouse and field

E. Rown & J.F. Tooker
Many farmers use manure as an alternative to inorganic fertilizer. Previous research has shown that manure can decrease plant susceptibility to herbivores, but the mechanisms remain unclear. To determine how manure affects herbivore performance in a greenhouse setting, we fertilized corn with stacked cow manure or an equivalent amount of NPK fertilizer and measured caterpillar development, plant nutritional content, and defenses. After four weeks of growth, we allowed fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) or black cutworm...

Island Rainfall Enhancement in the Maritime Continent

J.H. Ruppert & X. Chen
The hypothesis that the islands of the Maritime Continent (MC) enhance total rainfall and time-mean upward motion is tested using a convection-permitting regional model. Sensitivity experiments with the islands removed greatly diminish both rainfall and upward motion, supporting the hypothesis. We examine the individual factors in this enhancement, isolating the impacts of the diurnal cycle from those of basic-state (i.e., constant) forcing of orography and the land surface. We find that the basic-state forcing by...

Numerical Simulation Output for Markowski (2020) Study of Supercell Intrinsic Predictability

Paul Markowski
This dataset contains the numerical simulation output created and analyzed by Markowski (2020) in his study of supercell intrinsic predictability. A 25-member ensemble of relatively high-resolution (75-m horizontal grid spacing) numerical simulations of tornadic supercell storms was used to obtain insight on their intrinsic predictability. Small random temperature perturbations present in the initial conditions trigger turbulence within the boundary layers. The turbulent boundary layers are given 12 h to evolve to a quasi-steady state before...

A wave-relative framework analysis of AEW-MCS interactions leading to tropical cyclogenesis

K.M. Núñez Ocasio, J.L. Evans & G.S. Young
An African easterly wave and associated MCSs dataset has been created and used to evaluate the propagation of MCSs, AEWs, and especially, the propagation of MCSs relative to the AEW they are associated with (i.e., wave-relative framework). The thermodynamic characteristics of AEW-MCS systems are also analyzed. The analysis is done for both AEW-MCS systems that develop into at least a tropical depression and those that do not to quantify significant differences between waves that undergo...

Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica: Character and Origin

R.B. Alley, N. Holschuh, D.R. MacAyea, B.R. Parizek, L. Zoet, K. Riverman, A. Muto, K. Christianson, E. Clyne, S. Anandakrishnan & N.T. Stevens
Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica both record and affect ice flow. Thwaites Glacier flows across the tectonic fabric of the West Antarctic rift system with its bedrock highs and sedimentary basins. Swath radar and seismic surveys of the glacier bed have revealed soft-sediment flutes 100 m or more high extending 15 km or more across basins downglacier from bedrock highs, and ending at prominent hard-bedded moats on stoss sides of the next topographic highs....

Gridded influence functions for NOAA tall towers for January 2010

D. Wesloh & T. Lauvaux
The data provides influence functions, also called tower concentration footprints, for nine towers in the NOAA Greenhouse Gas tall tower reference network. The influence functions are five dimensional arrays: the first two correspond to the mole fraction observations, the third to the time before the observation, and the last two to the spatial extent of the fluxes. Coordinates and transform parameters are provided to express the spatial locations of the fluxes in latitude and longitude...

Favorable monsoon environment over eastern Africa for subsequent tropical cyclogenesis of African easterly waves

K.M. Núñez Ocasio, A. Brammer, J.L. Evans, G.S. Young & Z.L. Moon

Meteorological fields over Indianapolis, IN from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.5.1)

A. Deng, T. Lauvaux, N.L. Miles & K.J. Davis
The data set contains hourly meteorological variables over Indianapolis, IN and its surroundings (nine counties around the metropolitan area) at 1-km horizontal resolution and 60 vertical levels (up to 50hPa), as simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.5.1) using Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA - observation nudging) of measurement stations from the World Meteorological Organization. Additional technical information about the model configuration have been documented in Deng et al. (2017). In short, the...

Data from: Genotypic diversity and spatial-temporal distribution of Symbiodinium clones in an abundant reef coral

Daniel T. Pettay, Jorge H. Pinzón, Drew C. Wham & Todd C. LaJeunesse
Genetic data are rapidly advancing our understanding of various biological systems including the ecology and evolution of coral-algal symbioses. The fine-scale interactions between individual genotypes of host and symbiont remain largely unstudied and constitute a major gap in knowledge. By applying microsatellite markers developed for both host and symbiont, we investigated the intra-colony diversity, prevalence and stability of Symbiodinium glynni (type D1) multilocus genotypes in association with dense populations of Pocillopora at two sites in...

Data from: Ecological effects on metabolic scaling amphipod responses to fish predators in freshwater springs

Douglas S. Glazier, Eric M. Butler, Sara A. Lombardi, Travis J. Deptola, Andrew J. Reese & Erin V. Satterthwaite
Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass to the 3/4-power as a result of universal body-design constraints. However, recent comparative work has shown that the metabolic scaling slope may vary significantly among species and higher taxa, apparently in response to different lifestyles and ecological conditions, though the precise mechanisms involved are not well understood. To better understand these under-appreciated ecological effects and their causes, it is important to control for extraneous phylogenetic...

Data from: Phylogenomic analysis of transcriptome data elucidates co-occurrence of a paleopolyploid event and the origin of bimodal karyotypes in Agavoideae (Asparagaceae)

Michael R. McKain, Norman Wickett, Yeting Zhang, Saravanaraj Ayyampalayam, W. Richard McCombie, Mark W. Chase, J. Chris Pires, Claude W. DePamphilis, Jim Leebens-Mack & Claude W. De Pamphilis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The stability of the bimodal karyotype found in Agave and closely related species has long interested botanists. The origin of the bimodal karyotype has been attributed to allopolyploidy, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Next Generation transcriptome sequence data were used to test whether a paleopolyploid event occurred on the same branch of the Agavoideae phylogenetic tree as the origin of the Yucca-Agave bimodal karyotype. METHODS: Illumina RNAseq data were...

Data from: Adaptive, convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype in African rainforest hunter-gatherers

George H. Perry, Matthieu Foll, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Etienne Patin, Yohann Nédélec, Alain Pacis, Maxime Barakatt, Simon Gravel, Xiang Zhou, Sam L. Nsobya, Laurent Excoffier, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Nathaniel J. Dominy & Luis B. Barreiro
The evolutionary history of the human pygmy phenotype (small body size), a characteristic of African and Southeast Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers, is largely unknown. Here we use a genome-wide admixture mapping analysis to identify 16 genomic regions that are significantly associated with the pygmy phenotype in the Batwa, a rainforest hunter-gatherer population from Uganda (east central Africa). The identified genomic regions have multiple attributes that provide supporting evidence of genuine association with the pygmy phenotype, including...

Data from: Cascading effects of host plant inbreeding on the larval growth, muscle molecular composition, and flight capacity of an adult herbivorous insect.

Scott L. Portman, Rupesh R. Kariyat, Michelle A. Johnston, Andrew G. Stephenson & James H. Marden
A primary function of adult winged insects is dispersal. Limiting larval dietary intake (partial starvation) has been shown to affect the flight muscle metabolism of adult moths reared on artificial diet, but a more ecologically relevant question is whether natural variation in host plant quality can lead to differences in the flight capacity of adult insects. Recent studies have shown that inbreeding compromises plant anti-herbivore defenses. We created inbred and outbred progeny from locally collected...

Data from: ‘Manipulation’ without the parasite: altered feeding behaviour of mosquitoes is not dependent on infection with malaria parasites

Lauren J. Cator, Justin George, Simon Blanford, Courtney C. Murdock, Thomas C. Baker, Andrew F. Read & Matthew B. Thomas
Previous studies have suggested that Plasmodium parasites can manipulate mosquito feeding behaviours such as probing, persistence and engorgement rate in order to enhance transmission success. Here, we broaden analysis of this ‘manipulation phenotype’ to consider proximate foraging behaviours, including responsiveness to host odours and host location. Using Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium yoelii as a model system, we demonstrate that mosquitoes with early stage infections (i.e. non-infectious oocysts) exhibit reduced attraction to a human host, whereas...

Data from: Calcareous nannoplankton ecology and community change across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

Leah J. Schneider, Timothy J. Bralower, Lee R. Kump & Mark E. Patzkowsky
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ca. 55.8 Ma) is thought to coincide with a profound but entirely transient change among nannoplankton communities throughout the ocean. Here we explore the ecology of nannoplankton during the PETM by using multivariate analyses of a global data set that is based upon the distribution of taxa in time and space. We use these results, coupled with stable isotope data and geochemical modeling, to reinterpret the ecology of key genera....

Data from: Neonicotinoid insecticide travels through a soil food chain, disrupting biological control of non-target pests and decreasing soya bean yield

Margaret R. Douglas, Jason R. Rohr & John F. Tooker
1. Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides world-wide, but their fate in the environment remains unclear, as does their potential to influence non-target species and the roles they play in agroecosystems. 2. We investigated in laboratory and field studies the influence of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, applied as a coating to soya bean seeds, on interactions among soya beans, non-target molluscan herbivores and their insect predators. 3. In the laboratory, the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum...

Data from: Host-specialist lineages dominate the adaptive radiation of reef coral endosymbionts

Daniel James Thornhill, Allison M. Lewis, Drew C. Wham & Todd Christopher LaJeunesse
Bursts in species diversification are well documented among animals and plants, yet few studies have assessed recent adaptive radiations of eukaryotic microbes. Consequently, we examined the radiation of the most ecologically dominant group of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates found in reef-building corals, Symbiodinium Clade C, using nuclear ribosomal (ITS2), chloroplast (psbAncr), and multilocus microsatellite genotyping. Through a hierarchical analysis of high-resolution genetic data, we assessed whether ecologically distinct Symbiodinium, differentiated by seemingly equivocal rDNA sequence differences, are...

Long-term evidence shows crop-rotation diversification increases agricultural resilience to adverse growing conditions in North America

Timothy Bowles, Maria Mooshammer, Yvonne Socolar, Franciso Calderón, Michel Cavigelli, Steve Culman, William Dean, Axel Garcia Y Garcia, Amélie Gaudin, W Scott Harkom, Michael Lehman, Shannon Osborne, G Philip Robertson, Jonathan Salerno, Marty Schmer, Jeffrey Strock, A Stuart Grandy & Craig Drury
A grand challenge facing humanity is how to produce food for a growing population in the face of a changing climate and environmental degradation. Though empirical evidence remains sparse, management strategies that increase environmental sustainability, like increasing agroecosystem diversity through crop rotations, may also increase resilience to weather extremes without sacrificing yields. We used multilevel regression analyses of long-term crop yield datasets across a continental precipitation gradient to assess how temporal crop diversification affects maize...

Data from: Real-time decision-making during emergency disease outbreaks

William J. M. Probert, Chris P. Jewell, Marleen Werkman, Christopher J. Fonnesbeck, Yoshitaka Goto, Michael C. Runge, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Katriona Shea, Matt J. Keeling, Matthew J. Ferrari & Michael J. Tildesley
In the event of a new infectious disease outbreak, mathematical and simulation models are commonly used to inform policy by evaluating which control strategies will minimize the impact of the epidemic. In the early stages of such outbreaks, substantial parameter uncertainty may limit the ability of models to provide accurate predictions, and policymakers do not have the luxury of waiting for data to alleviate this state of uncertainty. For policymakers, however, it is the selection...

Data from: Quantification of gene expression patterns to reveal the origins of abnormal morphogenesis

Neus Martinez-Abadias, Roger Mateu Estivill, Jaume Sastre Tomas, Susan Motch Perrine, Melissa Yoon, Alex Robert-Moreno, Jim Swoger, Lucia Russo, Kazuhiko Kawasaki, Joan Richtsmeier, James Sharpe & Alexandre Robert-Moreno
The earliest developmental origins of dysmorphologies are poorly understood in many congenital diseases. They often remain elusive because the first signs of genetic misregulation may initiate as subtle changes in gene expression, which are hard to detect and can be obscured later in development by secondary effects. Here, we develop a method to trace the origins of phenotypic abnormalities by accurately quantifying the 3D spatial distribution of gene expression domains in developing organs. By applying...

Data from: Opening the door to the past: accessing phylogenetic, pathogen, and population data from museum curated bees

Anthony D. Vaudo, Megan L. Fritz & Margarita M. López-Uribe
Tens of thousands of insects are deposited in collections every year as a result of survey-based studies that aim to investigate ecological questions. DNA-based techniques can expand the utility of these collections to explore their demographic and evolutionary history, temporal changes in their abundance, and pathogen dynamics. Using museum collections of the non-model bee species Eucera (Peponapis) pruinosa Say 1837 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini), we developed a standard minimally-destructive and budget-friendly protocol to extract DNA and...

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