430 Works

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘The Influence of Climate State Variables on Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Occurrence Rates’ (Sabbatelli and Mann 2007)

T.A. Sabatelli & M.E. Mann
We analyzed annual North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) counts from 1871-2004, considering three climate state variables—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), peak (August-October or ‘ASO’) Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) over the main development region (‘MDR’: 6-18N latitude, 20-60W), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)—thought to influence variations in annual TC counts on interannual and longer timescales. The unconditional distribution of TC counts is observed to be inconsistent with the null hypothesis of a fixed rate random...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Robustness of Proxy-Based Climate Field Reconstruction Methods’ (Mann et al. 2007)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford, E. Wahl & C. Ammann
We present results from continued investigations into the fidelity of covariance-based climate field reconstruction (CFR) approaches used in proxy-based climate reconstruction. Our experiments employ synthetic ‘‘pseudoproxy’’ data derived from simulations of forced climate changes over the past millennium. Using networks of these pseudoproxy data, we investigate the sensitivity of CFR performance to signal-to-noise ratios, the noise spectrum, the spatial sampling of pseudoproxy locations, the statistical representation of predictors used, and the diagnostic used to quantify...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Extreme Weather Events: The Case For an Alternative (Bayesian) Approach’ (Mann et al. 2017)

M.E. Mann, E.A. Lloyd & N. Oreskes
The conventional approach to detecting and attributing climate change impacts on extreme weather events is generally based on frequentist statistical inference wherein a null hypothesis of no influence is assumed, and the alternative hypothesis of an influence is accepted only when the null hypothesis can be rejected at a sufficiently high (e.g., 95% or p = 0.05) level of confidence. Using a simple conceptual model for the occurrence of extreme weather events, we show that...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Long-term variability in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and associated teleconnections’

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
We analyze global patterns of reconstructed surface temperature for insights into the behavior of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and related climatic variability during the past three centuries. The global temperature reconstructions are based on calibrations of a large set of globally distributed proxy records, or “multiproxy” data, against the dominant patterns of surface temperature during the past century. These calibrations allow us to estimate large-scale surface temperature patterns back in time. The reconstructed eastern...

Model Input, Analysis Code, and Select Model Output for the Murdzek et al. (2021) Inflow Layer Study

S. Murdzek, P. Markowski, Y.P. Richardson & M.R. Kumjian
This dataset contains all relevant Cloud Model 1 (CM1) input files, python analysis code, and select CM1 output for the Murdzek et al. (2021, JAS) study that examines whether reversible or pseudoadiabatic convective inhibition should be used when determining the effective inflow layer of a convective storm. Enough CM1 output is provided to recreate all the figures from Murdzek et al. (2021), and the rest of the output can be recreated using the supplied input...

Investigating axisymmetric and asymmetric signals of secondary eyewall formation using observations-based modeling of the tropical cyclone boundary layer

C. Yu, A.C. Didlake,Jr. , J.D. Kepert & F. Zhang
This study examines axisymmetric and asymmetric aspects of secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in tropical cyclones (TCs) by applying a nonlinear boundary layer model to tangential wind composites of observed TCs with and without SEF. SEF storms were further analyzed at times prior to and after SEF, as defined by the emergence of a secondary maximum in axisymmetric tangential wind. The model is used to investigate the steady-state boundary layer response to the free-tropospheric pressure forcing...

TEC - Anthea Coster, MIT/Haystack Observatory. (2013)

L. R. Dinsmore
Our raw global Global Positioning System (GPS) data were taken and archived at MH. The GPS-Total Electron Content (TEC) dataset contains the time of observation, the slant-path TEC (sTEC) in TECU (10^16 e-/m^2), and the longitude and latitude of the propagation path pierce point at 325 km in altitude. The GPS-TEC dataset effectively detects F region activity, since the peak electron density in the F region and ionosphere is also around 300 km. Using the...

Simulation Data of Early-Warning of Binary Neutron Star Systems

Sk, J. Rana & C. Hanna
Binary neutron stars will spend ~ 10-15 minutes in the sensitivity band of Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors as they achieve their design sensitivity. Time-domain filtering of gravitational-wave data could, in principle, accumulate enough signal-to-noise ratio to identify an imminent event tens of seconds before the companions collide and merge. Early warning alerts can be produced for sources that are close enough so that the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio from the time the signal enters the...

An efficient bi-Gaussian ensemble Kalman filter for satellite infrared radiance data assimilation

M. Chan, J.L. Anderson & X. Chen
The introduction of infrared water vapor channel radiance ensemble data assimilation (DA) has improved numerical weather forecasting at operational centers. Further improvements might be possible through extending ensemble data assimilation methods to better assimilate infrared satellite radiances. Here, we will illustrate that ensemble statistics under clear-sky conditions are different from cloudy conditions. This difference suggests that extending the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to handle bi-Gaussian prior distributions may yield better results than the standard EnKF....

Manure decreases herbivore performance but increases early-season damage on corn in the greenhouse and field

E. Rown & J.F. Tooker
Many farmers use manure as an alternative to inorganic fertilizer. Previous research has shown that manure can decrease plant susceptibility to herbivores, but the mechanisms remain unclear. To determine how manure affects herbivore performance in a greenhouse setting, we fertilized corn with stacked cow manure or an equivalent amount of NPK fertilizer and measured caterpillar development, plant nutritional content, and defenses. After four weeks of growth, we allowed fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) or black cutworm...

Island Rainfall Enhancement in the Maritime Continent

J.H. Ruppert & X. Chen
The hypothesis that the islands of the Maritime Continent (MC) enhance total rainfall and time-mean upward motion is tested using a convection-permitting regional model. Sensitivity experiments with the islands removed greatly diminish both rainfall and upward motion, supporting the hypothesis. We examine the individual factors in this enhancement, isolating the impacts of the diurnal cycle from those of basic-state (i.e., constant) forcing of orography and the land surface. We find that the basic-state forcing by...

Numerical Simulation Output for Markowski (2020) Study of Supercell Intrinsic Predictability

Paul Markowski
This dataset contains the numerical simulation output created and analyzed by Markowski (2020) in his study of supercell intrinsic predictability. A 25-member ensemble of relatively high-resolution (75-m horizontal grid spacing) numerical simulations of tornadic supercell storms was used to obtain insight on their intrinsic predictability. Small random temperature perturbations present in the initial conditions trigger turbulence within the boundary layers. The turbulent boundary layers are given 12 h to evolve to a quasi-steady state before...

A wave-relative framework analysis of AEW-MCS interactions leading to tropical cyclogenesis

K.M. Núñez Ocasio, J.L. Evans & G.S. Young
An African easterly wave and associated MCSs dataset has been created and used to evaluate the propagation of MCSs, AEWs, and especially, the propagation of MCSs relative to the AEW they are associated with (i.e., wave-relative framework). The thermodynamic characteristics of AEW-MCS systems are also analyzed. The analysis is done for both AEW-MCS systems that develop into at least a tropical depression and those that do not to quantify significant differences between waves that undergo...

Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica: Character and Origin

R.B. Alley, N. Holschuh, D.R. MacAyea, B.R. Parizek, L. Zoet, K. Riverman, A. Muto, K. Christianson, E. Clyne, S. Anandakrishnan & N.T. Stevens
Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica both record and affect ice flow. Thwaites Glacier flows across the tectonic fabric of the West Antarctic rift system with its bedrock highs and sedimentary basins. Swath radar and seismic surveys of the glacier bed have revealed soft-sediment flutes 100 m or more high extending 15 km or more across basins downglacier from bedrock highs, and ending at prominent hard-bedded moats on stoss sides of the next topographic highs....

Permian Basin: in-situ tower greenhouse gas data

V. Monteiro, N.L. Miles, S.J. Richardson, Z.R. Barkley, B.J. Haupt & K.J. Davis
The Permian Basin in-situ greenhouse gas network was designed to measure atmospheric mole fractions of methane to be used in conjunction with transport modeling to determine methane emissions from the Permian Basin oil and natural gas extraction area in Texas/New Mexico. The current network includes 5 measurement sites with continuous measurements of CH4, 4 sites with measurements of CO2, 2 sites with measurements of the isotopic ratio of methane, and 1 site with measurements of...

Light and temperature niches of ground-foraging Amazonian insectivorous birds

Vitek Jirinec, Patricia Rodrigues, Bruna Amaral & Philip Stouffer
Insectivores of the tropical rainforest floor are consistently among the most vulnerable birds to forest clearing and fragmentation. Several hypotheses attempt to explain this pattern, including sensitivity to extreme microclimates found near forest borders—particularly brighter and warmer conditions. Importantly, this “microclimate hypothesis” has additional implications for intact forest under global climate change that could be evaluated through direct assessment of the light and temperature environment of terrestrial insectivores. In this study, we harness novel technology...

Long-term evidence shows crop-rotation diversification increases agricultural resilience to adverse growing conditions in North America

Timothy Bowles, Maria Mooshammer, Yvonne Socolar, Franciso Calderón, Michel Cavigelli, Steve Culman, William Dean, Axel Garcia Y Garcia, Amélie Gaudin, W Scott Harkom, Michael Lehman, Shannon Osborne, G Philip Robertson, Jonathan Salerno, Marty Schmer, Jeffrey Strock, A Stuart Grandy & Craig Drury
A grand challenge facing humanity is how to produce food for a growing population in the face of a changing climate and environmental degradation. Though empirical evidence remains sparse, management strategies that increase environmental sustainability, like increasing agroecosystem diversity through crop rotations, may also increase resilience to weather extremes without sacrificing yields. We used multilevel regression analyses of long-term crop yield datasets across a continental precipitation gradient to assess how temporal crop diversification affects maize...

Selection on a small genomic region underpins differentiation in multiple color traits between two warbler species

Silu Wang, Sievert Rohwer, Devin De Zwaan, David Toews, Irby Lovette, Jacqueline Mackenzie & Darren Irwin
Speciation is one of the most important processes in biology, yet the study of the genomic changes underlying this process is in its infancy. North American warbler species Setophaga townsendi and S. occidentalis hybridize in a stable hybrid zone, following a period of geographic separation. Genomic differentiation accumulated during geographic isolation can be homogenized by introgression at secondary contact, while genetic regions that cause low hybrid fitness can be shielded from such introgression. Here we...

Data from: Friction of Longmaxi shale gouges and implications for seismicity during hydraulic fracturing

Mengke An, Fengshou Zhang, Derek Elsworth, Zhengyu Xu, Zhaowei Chen & Lianyang Zhang
Longmaxi formation shales are the major target reservoir for shale gas extraction in the Sichuan Basin, southwest China. Swarms of earthquakes accompanying hydraulic fracturing are observed at depths typified by the Longmaxi formation. Mineral composition varies broadly through the stratigraphic section due to different depositional environments. The section is generally tectosilicate-poor and phyllosilicate-rich with a minor portion (~5 wt.%) the converse. We measure the frictional and stability properties of shale gouges taken from the full...

The influence of feeding behaviour and temperature on the capacity of mosquitoes to transmit malaria

Eunho Suh, Marissa Grossman, Jessica Waite, Nina Dennington, Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Thomas Churcher & Matthew Thomas
Insecticide-treated bed nets reduce malaria transmission by limiting contact between mosquito vectors and human hosts when mosquitoes feed during the night. However, malaria vectors can also feed in the early evening and in the morning when people are not protected. Here, we explored how timing of blood feeding interacts with environmental temperature to influence the capacity of Anopheles mosquitoes to transmit the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. In laboratory experiments, we found no effect of...

Disentangling the mechanisms underpinning disturbance-mediated invasion data

Luke Lear, Elze Hesse, Katriona Shea & Angus Buckling
Disturbances can play a major role in biological invasions: by destroying biomass, they alter habitat and resource abundances. Previous field studies suggest that disturbance-mediated invader success is a consequence of resource influxes, but the importance of other potential covarying causes, notably the opening up of habitats, have yet to be directly tested. Using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens we determined the relative importance of disturbance-mediated habitat opening and resource influxes, plus any interaction...

Enhanced and unified anatomical labeling for a common mouse brain atlas

Uree Chon, Daniel Vanselow, Keith Cheng & Yongsoo Kim
Anatomical atlases in standard coordinates are necessary for the interpretation and integration of research findings in a common spatial context. However, the two most-used mouse brain atlases, the Franklin and Paxinos (FP) and the common coordinate framework (CCF) from the Allen Institute for Brain Science, have accumulated inconsistencies in anatomical delineations and nomenclature, creating confusion among neuroscientists. To overcome these issues, here we adopt the FP labels into the CCF to merge two labels in...

Substantial genetic divergence and lack of recent gene flow support cryptic speciation in a colour polymorphic bumble bee (Bombus bifarius) species complex

Guillaume Ghisbain, Jeffrey D. Lozier, Sarthok Rasique Rahman, Briana D. Ezray, Li Tian, Jonah M. Ulmer, Sam D. Heraghty, James P. Strange, Pierre Rasmont & Heather M. Hines
Phenotypic polymorphism can constitute an inherent challenge for species delimitation. This issue is exemplified in bumble bees (Bombus), where species can exhibit high colour variation across their range, but otherwise exhibit little morphological variation to distinguish them from close relatives. We examine the species status of one of the most abundant North American bumble bees, Bombus bifarius Cresson, which historically was comprised of two major taxa, bifarius s.s. (sensu stricto) and nearcticus. These sublineages are...

Configurational crop heterogeneity increases within-field plant diversity

Audrey Alignier, Xavier Solé-Senan, Irene Robleño, Barbara Baraibar, Fahrig Lenore, David Giralt, Nicolas Gross, Jean-Louis Martin, Jordi Recasens, Clelia Sirami, Gavin Siriwardena, Aliette Bosem Baillod, Colette Bertrand, Romain Carrie, Annika Hass, Laura Henckel, Paul Miguet, Isabelle Badenhausser, Jacques Baudry, Gerard Bota, Vincent Bretagnolle, Lluis Brotons, Francoise Burel, François Calatayud, Yann Clough … & Péter Batáry
1. Increasing landscape heterogeneity by restoring semi-natural elements to reverse farmland biodiversity declines is not always economically feasible or acceptable to farmers due to competition for land. We hypothesized that increasing the heterogeneity of the crop mosaic itself, hereafter referred to as crop heterogeneity, can have beneficial effects on within-field plant diversity. 2. Using a unique multi-country dataset from a cross-continent collaborative project covering 1451 agricultural fields within 432 landscapes in Europe and Canada, we...

Data from: Physiological thermal limits predict differential responses of bees to urban heat-island effects

April L. Hamblin, Elsa Youngsteadt, Margarita M. López-Uribe & Steven D. Frank
Changes in community composition are an important, but hard to predict, effect of climate change. Here, we use a wild-bee study system to test the ability of critical thermal maxima (CTmax, a measure of heat tolerance) to predict community responses to urban heat-island effects in Raleigh, NC, USA. Among 15 focal species, CTmax ranged from 44.6 to 51.3°C, and was strongly predictive of population responses to urban warming across 18 study sites (r2 = 0.44)....

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  • Pennsylvania State University
  • Cornell University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • United States Geological Survey
  • University of Minnesota
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Arizona
  • North Carolina State University
  • Duke University