24 Works

Nitrous oxide emissions in a landscape transitioning from Conservation Reserve Program grassland to energy crops switchgrass and Miscanthus

A.R. Kemanian, D. Shaha, B.M. Rau, J.P. Kaye, F.R. Montes & P.R. Adler
uture liquid fuel demand from renewable sources may, in part, be met by converting the seasonally wet portions of the landscape currently managed for soil and water conservation to perennial energy crops. However, this shift may increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, thus limiting the carbon (C) benefits of energy crops. Particularly high emissions may occur during the transition period when the soil is disturbed, plants are establishing, and nitrate and water accumulation may favor emissions....

Data from: The geography of spatial synchrony

Jonathan A. Walter, Lawrence W. Sheppard, Thomas L. Anderson, Jude H. Kastens, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Andrew M. Liebhold & Daniel C. Reuman
Spatial synchrony, defined as correlated temporal fluctuations among populations, is a fundamental feature of population dynamics, but many aspects of synchrony remain poorly understood. Few studies have examined detailed geographical patterns of synchrony; instead most focus on how synchrony declines with increasing linear distance between locations, making the simplifying assumption that distance decay is isotropic. By synthesising and extending prior work, we show how geography of synchrony, a term which we use to refer to...

Data from: Wolbachia infection alters the relative abundance of resident bacteria in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, but not larvae

Michelle D. Audsley, Andrei Seleznev, D. Albert Joubert, Megan Woolfit, Scott L. O'Neill & Elizabeth A. McGraw
Insect-symbiont interactions are known to play key roles in host functions and fitness. The common insect endosymbiont Wolbachia can reduce the ability of several human pathogens, including arboviruses and the malaria parasite, to replicate in insect hosts. Wolbachia does not naturally infect Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus, but transinfected Ae. aegypti have anti-dengue virus properties and are currently being trialled as a dengue biocontrol strategy. Here, we assess the impact of Wolbachia...

Data from: Fear and lethality in snowshoe hares: the deadly effects of non-consumptive predation risk

Kirsty J. MacLeod, Charles J. Krebs, Rudy Boonstra & Michael J. Sheriff
Predators play a critical, top-down role in shaping ecosystems, driving prey population and community dynamics. Traditionally, studies of predator-prey interactions have focused on direct effects of predators, namely the killing of prey. More recently, the non-consumptive effects of predation risk are being appreciated; e.g., the Ecology of Fear. Prey responses to predation risk can be morphological, behavioural, and physiological, and are assumed to come at a cost to prey fitness. However, few studies have examined...

Data from: The role of frugivory in plant diversity maintenance- a simulation approach

Teresa Morán-López, Tomás A. Carlo & Juan Manuel Morales
Frugivores may play a key role in plant species coexistence by equalizing the species’ representation in the seed rain. Rare species may benefit from enhanced dispersal if frugivores prefer locally scarce fruits, or if rare plants are found in neighborhoods of high fruit density. Using a simulation model of frugivorous birds foraging on landscapes we tested if increased diversity in the seed rain could emerge from rare-biased fruit selection, from the spatial configuration of plants,...

Data from: A phylogenomic analysis of Marek's disease virus (MDV) reveals independent paths to virulence in Eurasia and North America

Jakob Trimpert, Nicole Groenke, Maria Jenckel, Shulin He, Dusan Kunec, Moriah L. Szpara, Stephen J. Spatz, Nikolaus Osterrieder & Dino P. McMahon
Virulence determines the impact a pathogen has on the fitness of its host, yet current understanding of the evolutionary origins and causes of virulence of many pathogens is surprisingly incomplete. Here, we explore the evolution of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a herpesvirus commonly afflicting chickens and rarely other avian species. The history of MDV in the 20th century represents an important case study in the evolution of virulence. The severity of MDV infection in chickens...

Data from: Resource limitation prevents the emergence of drug resistance by intensifying within-host competition

Nina Wale, Derek G. Sim, Matthew J. Jones, Rahel Salathe, Troy Day & Andrew F. Read
Slowing the evolution of antimicrobial resistance is essential if we are to continue to successfully treat infectious diseases. Whether a drug-resistant mutant grows to high densities, and so sickens the patient and spreads to new hosts, is determined by the competitive interactions it has with drug-susceptible pathogens within the host. Competitive interactions thus represent a good target for resistance management strategies. Using an in vivo model of malaria infection, we show that limiting a resource...

Data from: Physiological thermal limits predict differential responses of bees to urban heat-island effects

April L. Hamblin, Elsa Youngsteadt, Margarita M. López-Uribe & Steven D. Frank
Changes in community composition are an important, but hard to predict, effect of climate change. Here, we use a wild-bee study system to test the ability of critical thermal maxima (CTmax, a measure of heat tolerance) to predict community responses to urban heat-island effects in Raleigh, NC, USA. Among 15 focal species, CTmax ranged from 44.6 to 51.3°C, and was strongly predictive of population responses to urban warming across 18 study sites (r2 = 0.44)....

Data from: Sibling species of mutualistic Symbiodinium clade G from bioeroding sponges in the western Pacific and western Atlantic oceans

Blake D. Ramsby, Malcolm S. Hill, Daniel J. Thornhill, Sieuwkje F. Steenuizen, Michelle Achlatis, Allison M. Lewis, Todd C. LaJeunesse & Sieuwkje F. Steenhuizen
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium associate with a broad array of metazoan and protistian hosts. Symbiodinium-based symbioses involving bioeroding sponge hosts have received less attention than those involving scleractinian hosts. Certain species of common Cliona harbor high densities of an ecologically restricted group of Symbiodinium, referred to as Clade G. The relationships of these unusual Clade G Symbiodinium with Foraminifera, sponges, and black coral (Antipatharia) are rarely studied. Nonetheless, analyses of genetic evidence indicate that...

Data from: Non-glandular trichomes of Solanum carolinense deter feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars and cause damage to the gut peritrophic matrix

Rupesh R. Kariyat, Jason D. Smith, Andrew G. Stephenson, Consuelo M. De Moraes & Mark C. Mescher
Plant trichomes constitute a first line of defence against insect herbivores. The pre- and post-ingestive defensive functions of glandular trichomes are well documented and include direct toxicity, adhesion, antinutrition and defence gene induction. By contrast, the defensive functions of non-glandular trichomes are less well characterized, although these structures are thought to serve as physical barriers that impede herbivore feeding and movement. We experimentally varied the density of stellate non-glandular trichomes in several ways to explore...

Data from: Internet blogs, polar bears, and climate-change denial by proxy

Jeffrey A. Harvey, Daphne Van Den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J. M. Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C. Amstrup & Michael E. Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a “poster species” for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence....

Data from: Contact and contagion: bighorn sheep demographic states vary in probability of transmission given contact

Kezia R. Manlove, E. Frances Cassirer, Raina K. Plowright, Paul C. Cross & Peter J. Hudson
1. Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here we present a first step toward empirically investigating probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife. 2. We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility...

Data from: A new framework for analysing automated acoustic species detection data: occupancy estimation and optimization of recordings post-processing

Thierry Chambert, J. Hardin Waddle, David A.W. Miller, Susan C. Walls, James D. Nichols & David A. W. Miller
The development and use of automated species detection technologies, such as acoustic recorders, for monitoring wildlife are rapidly expanding. Automated classification algorithms provide cost- and time-effective means to process information-rich data, but often at the cost of additional detection errors. Appropriate methods are necessary to analyse such data while dealing with the different types of detection errors. We developed a hierarchical modelling framework for estimating species occupancy from automated species detection data. We explore design...

Data from: Evaluation and comparison of classical interatomic potentials through a user-friendly interactive web-interface

Kamal Choudhary, Faical Yannick P. Congo, Tao Liang, Chandler Becker, Richard G. Hennig & Francesca Tavazza
Classical empirical potentials/force-fields (FF) provide atomistic insights into material phenomena through molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Despite their wide applicability, a systematic evaluation of materials properties using such potentials and, especially, an easy-to-use user-interface for their comparison is still lacking. To address this deficiency, we computed energetics and elastic properties of variety of materials such as metals and ceramics using a wide range of empirical potentials and compared them to density functional theory (DFT)...

Data from: Spatial and temporal components of induced plant responses in the context of herbivore life history and impact on host

Charles J. Mason, Caterina Villari, Ken Keefover-Ring, Stephanie Jagemann, Jun Zhu, Pierluigi Bonello & Kenneth F. Raffa
Plants defend against herbivores and pathogens through integrated constitutive and induced defenses. Induced responses may be expressed locally or tissue/plant-wide, i.e. systemically, and may also be primed for subsequent attack. Although the elicitation and efficacy of induced responses are increasingly well-characterized, we have little understanding of how timing and within-plant spatial patterns of induced defenses relate to different herbivore behaviors and selective pressures. We used interactions between pines and their major mortality agents, native bark...

Data from: Individual and non-additive effects of exotic sap-feeders on root functional and mycorrhizal traits of a shared conifer host

Robert N. Schaeffer, Claire M. Wilson, Laura Radville, Mauri Barrett, Elizabeth Whitney, Sofia Roitman, Esther R. Miller, Benjamin E. Wolfe, Carol S. Thornber, Colin M. Orians & Evan L. Preisser
Forest pests drive tree mortality through disruption of functional traits linked to nutrient acquisition, growth, and reproduction. The impacts of attack by individual or multiple aboveground herbivores on root functional traits critical to tree health have received little attention. This is especially true for exotic herbivores, organisms often found in disturbed forests. We excavated whole-root systems from eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) individuals experimentally infested with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA: Adelges tsugae) and elongate hemlock scale...

Data from: Functional preservation and variation in the cone opsin genes of nocturnal tarsiers

Gillian L. Moritz, Perry S. Ong, George H. Perry & Nathaniel J. Dominy
The short-wavelength sensitive (S-) opsin gene OPN1SW is pseudogenized in some nocturnal primates and retained in others, enabling dichromatic colour vision. Debate on the functional significance of this variation has focused on dark conditions, yet many nocturnal species initiate activity under dim (mesopic) light levels that can support colour vision. Tarsiers are nocturnal, twilight-active primates and exemplary visual predators; they also express different colour vision phenotypes, raising the possibility of discrete adaptations to mesopic conditions....

Data from: Body size variation in aquatic consumers causes pervasive community effects, independent of mean body size

Bradley Carlson, Tracy Langkilde & Bradley E. Carlson
Intraspecific phenotypic variation is a significant component of biodiversity. Body size, for example, is variable and critical for structuring communities. We need to understand how homogenous and variably-sized populations differ in their ecological responses or effects if we are to have a robust understanding of communities. We manipulated body size variation in consumer (tadpole) populations in mesocosms (both with and without predators), keeping mean size and density of these consumers constant. Size-variable consumer populations exhibited...

Data from: Population structure and connectivity of the mountainous star coral, Orbicella faveolata, throughout the wider Caribbean region

John P. Rippe, Mikhail V. Matz, Elizabeth A. Green, Mónica Medina, Nida Z. Khawaja, Thanapat Pongwarin, Jorge H. Pinzón C., Karl D. Castillo & Sarah W. Davies
As coral reefs continue to decline worldwide, it becomes ever more necessary to understand the connectivity between coral populations to develop efficient management strategies facilitating survival and adaptation of coral reefs in the future. Orbicella faveolata is one of the most important reef-building corals in the Caribbean and has recently experienced severe population reductions. Here, we utilize a panel of nine microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure of O. faveolata and to infer connectivity...

Data from: A nutrient mediates intraspecific competition between rodent malaria parasites in vivo

Nina Wale, Derek G. Sim & Andrew F. Read
Hosts are often infected with multiple strains of a single parasite species. Within-host competition between parasite strains can be intense and has implications for the evolution of traits that impact patient health, such as drug resistance and virulence. Yet the mechanistic basis of within-host competition is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a parasite nutrient, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), mediates competition between a drug resistant and drug susceptible strain of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. We...

Data from: Age-specific infectious period shapes dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

Raina K. Plowright, Kezia R. Manlove, Thomas E. Besser, David J. Páez, Kimberly R. Andrews, Patrick E. Matthews, Lisette P. Waits, Peter J. Hudson & E. Frances Cassirer
Superspreading, the phenomenon where a small proportion of individuals contribute disproportionately to new infections, has profound effects on disease dynamics. Superspreading can arise through variation in contacts, infectiousness or infectious periods. The latter has received little attention, yet it drives the dynamics of many diseases of critical public health, livestock health and conservation concern. Here, we present rare evidence of variation in infectious periods underlying a superspreading phenomenon in a free-ranging wildlife system. We detected...

Data from: Root morphology and mycorrhizal type strongly influence root production in nutrient hot spots of mixed forests

Weile Chen, Roger T. Koide & David M. Eissenstat
1. Plants compete for nutrients using a range of strategies. We investigated nutrient foraging within nutrient hot-spots simultaneously available to plant species with diverse root traits. We hypothesized that there would be more root proliferation by thin-root species than by thick-root species, and that root proliferation by thin-root species would limit root proliferation by thick-root species. 2. We conducted a root ingrowth experiment in a temperate forest in eastern USA where root systems of different...

Data from: Scatterhoarders drive long- and short-term population dynamics of a nut-producing tree, while pre-dispersal seed predators and herbivores have little effect

Elise C. Elwood, Nathanael I. Lichti, Sara F. Fitzsimmons & Harmony J. Dalgleish
1.Both seed predators and herbivores can have profound effects on individual plant growth, reproduction and survival, but their population level effects are less well understood. While most plants interact with a suite of seed predators and herbivores over their life cycle, few studies incorporate the effects of multiple interacting partners and multiple life stages on plant population growth. 2.We constructed a matrix model using six years of data from a rare, seed-producing population of American...

Data from: Empirical and theoretical investigation into the potential impacts of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets

Katey D. Glunt, Maureen Coetzee, Silvie Huijben, A. Alphonsine Koffi, Penelope A. Lynch, Raphael N'Guessan, Welbeck A. Oumbouke, Eleanore D. Sternberg & Matthew B. Thomas
In spite of widespread insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes throughout Africa, there is limited evidence that long lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are failing to protect against malaria. Here, we showed that LLIN contact in the course of host-seeking resulted in higher mortality of resistant Anopheles spp. mosquitoes than predicted from standard laboratory exposures with the same net. We also found that sub-lethal contact with an LLIN caused a reduction in blood feeding and subsequent...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    24

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    24

Affiliations

  • Pennsylvania State University
    24
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    2
  • Montana State University
    2
  • Idaho Department of Fish and Game
    2
  • University of Kansas
    1
  • VU University Amsterdam
    1
  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
    1
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    1
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    1
  • Duke University
    1