93 Works

Identifying and classifying shared selective sweeps from multilocus data

Alexandre Harris & Michael DeGiorgio
Positive selection causes beneficial alleles to rise to high frequency, resulting in a selective sweep of the diversity surrounding the selected sites. Accordingly, the signature of a selective sweep in an ancestral population may still remain in its descendants. Identifying signatures of selection in the ancestor that are shared among its descendants is important to contextualize the timing of a sweep, but few methods exist for this purpose. We introduce the statistic SS-H12, which can...

Disentangling the mechanisms underpinning disturbance-mediated invasion data

Luke Lear, Elze Hesse, Katriona Shea & Angus Buckling
Disturbances can play a major role in biological invasions: by destroying biomass, they alter habitat and resource abundances. Previous field studies suggest that disturbance-mediated invader success is a consequence of resource influxes, but the importance of other potential covarying causes, notably the opening up of habitats, have yet to be directly tested. Using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens we determined the relative importance of disturbance-mediated habitat opening and resource influxes, plus any interaction...

Data from: Friction of Longmaxi shale gouges and implications for seismicity during hydraulic fracturing

Mengke An, Fengshou Zhang, Derek Elsworth, Zhengyu Xu, Zhaowei Chen & Lianyang Zhang
Longmaxi formation shales are the major target reservoir for shale gas extraction in the Sichuan Basin, southwest China. Swarms of earthquakes accompanying hydraulic fracturing are observed at depths typified by the Longmaxi formation. Mineral composition varies broadly through the stratigraphic section due to different depositional environments. The section is generally tectosilicate-poor and phyllosilicate-rich with a minor portion (~5 wt.%) the converse. We measure the frictional and stability properties of shale gouges taken from the full...

Configurational crop heterogeneity increases within-field plant diversity

Audrey Alignier, Xavier Solé-Senan, Irene Robleño, Barbara Baraibar, Fahrig Lenore, David Giralt, Nicolas Gross, Jean-Louis Martin, Jordi Recasens, Clelia Sirami, Gavin Siriwardena, Aliette Bosem Baillod, Colette Bertrand, Romain Carrie, Annika Hass, Laura Henckel, Paul Miguet, Isabelle Badenhausser, Jacques Baudry, Gerard Bota, Vincent Bretagnolle, Lluis Brotons, Francoise Burel, François Calatayud, Yann Clough … & Péter Batáry
1. Increasing landscape heterogeneity by restoring semi-natural elements to reverse farmland biodiversity declines is not always economically feasible or acceptable to farmers due to competition for land. We hypothesized that increasing the heterogeneity of the crop mosaic itself, hereafter referred to as crop heterogeneity, can have beneficial effects on within-field plant diversity. 2. Using a unique multi-country dataset from a cross-continent collaborative project covering 1451 agricultural fields within 432 landscapes in Europe and Canada, we...

Selection on a small genomic region underpins differentiation in multiple color traits between two warbler species

Silu Wang, Sievert Rohwer, Devin De Zwaan, David Toews, Irby Lovette, Jacqueline Mackenzie & Darren Irwin
Speciation is one of the most important processes in biology, yet the study of the genomic changes underlying this process is in its infancy. North American warbler species Setophaga townsendi and S. occidentalis hybridize in a stable hybrid zone, following a period of geographic separation. Genomic differentiation accumulated during geographic isolation can be homogenized by introgression at secondary contact, while genetic regions that cause low hybrid fitness can be shielded from such introgression. Here we...

Long-term evidence shows crop-rotation diversification increases agricultural resilience to adverse growing conditions in North America

Timothy Bowles, Maria Mooshammer, Yvonne Socolar, Franciso Calderón, Michel Cavigelli, Steve Culman, William Dean, Axel Garcia Y Garcia, Amélie Gaudin, W Scott Harkom, Michael Lehman, Shannon Osborne, G Philip Robertson, Jonathan Salerno, Marty Schmer, Jeffrey Strock, A Stuart Grandy & Craig Drury
A grand challenge facing humanity is how to produce food for a growing population in the face of a changing climate and environmental degradation. Though empirical evidence remains sparse, management strategies that increase environmental sustainability, like increasing agroecosystem diversity through crop rotations, may also increase resilience to weather extremes without sacrificing yields. We used multilevel regression analyses of long-term crop yield datasets across a continental precipitation gradient to assess how temporal crop diversification affects maize...

The influence of feeding behaviour and temperature on the capacity of mosquitoes to transmit malaria

Eunho Suh, Marissa Grossman, Jessica Waite, Nina Dennington, Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Thomas Churcher & Matthew Thomas
Insecticide-treated bed nets reduce malaria transmission by limiting contact between mosquito vectors and human hosts when mosquitoes feed during the night. However, malaria vectors can also feed in the early evening and in the morning when people are not protected. Here, we explored how timing of blood feeding interacts with environmental temperature to influence the capacity of Anopheles mosquitoes to transmit the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. In laboratory experiments, we found no effect of...

Simulation Data of Early-Warning of Binary Neutron Star Systems

Sk, J. Rana & C. Hanna
Binary neutron stars will spend ~ 10-15 minutes in the sensitivity band of Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors as they achieve their design sensitivity. Time-domain filtering of gravitational-wave data could, in principle, accumulate enough signal-to-noise ratio to identify an imminent event tens of seconds before the companions collide and merge. Early warning alerts can be produced for sources that are close enough so that the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio from the time the signal enters the...

An efficient bi-Gaussian ensemble Kalman filter for satellite infrared radiance data assimilation

M. Chan, J.L. Anderson & X. Chen
The introduction of infrared water vapor channel radiance ensemble data assimilation (DA) has improved numerical weather forecasting at operational centers. Further improvements might be possible through extending ensemble data assimilation methods to better assimilate infrared satellite radiances. Here, we will illustrate that ensemble statistics under clear-sky conditions are different from cloudy conditions. This difference suggests that extending the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to handle bi-Gaussian prior distributions may yield better results than the standard EnKF....

Numerical Simulation Output for Markowski (2020) Study of Supercell Intrinsic Predictability

Paul Markowski
This dataset contains the numerical simulation output created and analyzed by Markowski (2020) in his study of supercell intrinsic predictability. A 25-member ensemble of relatively high-resolution (75-m horizontal grid spacing) numerical simulations of tornadic supercell storms was used to obtain insight on their intrinsic predictability. Small random temperature perturbations present in the initial conditions trigger turbulence within the boundary layers. The turbulent boundary layers are given 12 h to evolve to a quasi-steady state before...

A wave-relative framework analysis of AEW-MCS interactions leading to tropical cyclogenesis

K.M. Núñez Ocasio, J.L. Evans & G.S. Young
An African easterly wave and associated MCSs dataset has been created and used to evaluate the propagation of MCSs, AEWs, and especially, the propagation of MCSs relative to the AEW they are associated with (i.e., wave-relative framework). The thermodynamic characteristics of AEW-MCS systems are also analyzed. The analysis is done for both AEW-MCS systems that develop into at least a tropical depression and those that do not to quantify significant differences between waves that undergo...

Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica: Character and Origin

R.B. Alley, N. Holschuh, D.R. MacAyea, B.R. Parizek, L. Zoet, K. Riverman, A. Muto, K. Christianson, E. Clyne, S. Anandakrishnan & N.T. Stevens
Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica both record and affect ice flow. Thwaites Glacier flows across the tectonic fabric of the West Antarctic rift system with its bedrock highs and sedimentary basins. Swath radar and seismic surveys of the glacier bed have revealed soft-sediment flutes 100 m or more high extending 15 km or more across basins downglacier from bedrock highs, and ending at prominent hard-bedded moats on stoss sides of the next topographic highs....

Favorable monsoon environment over eastern Africa for subsequent tropical cyclogenesis of African easterly waves

K.M. Núñez Ocasio, A. Brammer, J.L. Evans, G.S. Young & Z.L. Moon

Meteorological fields over Indianapolis, IN from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.5.1)

A. Deng, T. Lauvaux, N.L. Miles & K.J. Davis
The data set contains hourly meteorological variables over Indianapolis, IN and its surroundings (nine counties around the metropolitan area) at 1-km horizontal resolution and 60 vertical levels (up to 50hPa), as simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.5.1) using Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA - observation nudging) of measurement stations from the World Meteorological Organization. Additional technical information about the model configuration have been documented in Deng et al. (2017). In short, the...

Data from: Archaeological Central American maize genomes suggest ancient gene flow from South America

Logan Kistler, Heather B. Thakar, Amber M. VanDerwarker, Alejandra Domic, Anders Bergström, Richard J. George, Thomas K. Harper, Robin G. Allaby, Kenneth Hirth & Douglas J. Kennett
Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) domestication began in southwestern Mexico ~9,000 calendar years before present (cal. BP) and humans dispersed this important grain to South America by at least 7000 cal. BP as a partial domesticate. South America served as a secondary improvement center where the domestication syndrome became fixed and new lineages emerged in parallel with similar processes in Mesoamerica. Later, Indigenous cultivators carried a second major wave of maize southward from Mesoamerica, but...

Impacts of the Opioid Epidemic

Sterner Glenn
This is a place and name redacted dataset of 60 qualitative interviews of those who have been affected by the opioid crisis. Individuals fit into one of four categories: (1) individuals in recovery from an opioid use disorder; (2) individuals who have lost a loved one due to an opioid overdose; (3) individuals who have supported a loved one through their opioid use; and (4) individuals who are pain management patients who have faced obstacles...

Modeled dataset for the estimation of atmospheric transport errors using a Multi-Physics and Analysis Ensemble on the Midwest US

L.I. Diaz-Isaac, T. Lauvaux & K.J. Davis
Atmospheric inversions are used to assess biosphere-atmosphere CO2 surface exchanges. However, large uncertainties exist among inverse flux estimates independent of the spatial scales. Atmospheric transport model errors are one of the main contributors to the uncertainty affecting CO2 inverse flux estimates but have not been quantified thoroughly. The model dataset archived here were used to evaluate atmospheric transport errors over the US upper Midwest with an ensemble of simulations created with the Weather Research and...

One-way nested (27km, 9km and 3km) model output of North American atmospheric CO2 simulation (full WRF-chem output)

A. Samaddar, S. Feng, T. Lauvaux, Z.R. Barkley, S. Pal & K.J. Davis
Synoptic weather systems are a major driver of spatial gradients in atmospheric CO2 mole fractions. During frontal passages air masses from different regions meet at the frontal boundary creating significant gradients in CO2 mole fractions. This study quantitatively describes the atmospheric transport of CO2 mole fractions during a mid-latitude cold front passage and explores the impact of various sources of CO2. We focus here on a cold front passage over Lincoln, Nebraska on August 4th,...

Implications of electron detachment in associative collisions of atomic oxygen anion with molecular nitrogen for modeling of transient luminous events

R. Janalizadeh & V.P. Pasko
Electron detachment from negative ion of atomic oxygen, O-, is important for understanding of lightning-induced upper atmospheric discharges. Contrary to previous studies, Rayment and Moruzzi [1978] argue that the associative detachment reaction of O- with molecular nitrogen, N2, proceeds with N2 in its ground state, and calculate the reaction rate coefficient as a function of the reduced electric field. In this work we analyze the experimental setup in [Rayment and Moruzzi, 1978] and demonstrate that...

Compact Spherical Loudspeaker Array Instrument Directivity Database

M.C. Vigeant & M. Neal
This data set contains full three-dimensional turntable measurements of a compact spherical loudspeaker array used to reconstruct the frequency-dependent radiation patterns of musical instruments. Included in this data set are array radiation control filters, driver equalization filters, measured turntable data, and simulations of the compact spherical loudspeaker array's performance using both a spherical-cap and a point-source model. For more information on the details of this data set, please refer to the paper: M. Neal, "A...

Dataset of Constraining fossil fuel CO2 emissions from urban area using OCO-2 observations of total column CO2

X. Ye, T. Lauvaux, E.A. Kort, T. Oda, S. Feng, J.C. Lin, E.G. Yang & D. Wu
Satellite observations of the total column dry-air CO2 (XCO2) are expected to support the quantification and monitoring of fossil fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions from urban areas. We evaluate the utility of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) XCO2 retrievals to optimize whole-city emissions, using a Bayesian inversion system and high-resolution transport modeling. The uncertainties of constrained emissions related to transport model, satellite measurements, and local biospheric fluxes are quantified. For the first two uncertainty sources,...

Output and Data from Semi-Analytic Functions to Calculate the Deposition Coefficients for Ice Crystal Vapor Growth in Bin and Bulk Microphysical Models.

Harrington J., G. Sokolowski & H. Morrison
This data set comprises fitting coefficients needed to calculate supersaturation-dependent deposition coefficients, along with output from model simulations. The coefficients are used in semi-analytic functions that allows fast and accurate calculations of the surface supersaturations needed for the deposition coefficients. Output are provided for test simulations that reveal the accuracy of the approximate calculations for individual crystals. Model output are also provided from test simulations using Eulerian bin and bulk cloud microphysical schemes.

Simulations and Analysis Code for the Automated Issuance of Tornado Warnings in Simulated Convective Storms

D. Steinkruger, P. Markowski & G.S. Young
These data and Python scripts were used to develop an artificially intelligent system capable of issuing tornado warnings in simulated convective storms. Contained in the dataset are 128 CM1 simulations for which the output of the simulations have been saved in netCDF format. Additionally, the Python code used to visualize the simulations, extract data from the simulations, train machine learning models, and set the AI system warning thresholds is included.

Data and analysis code for the 26 May 2010 supercell intercepted by VORTEX2 near Prospect Valley, Colorado

S. Murdzek , P. Markowski, Y.P. Richardson & R. Tanamachi
These data and computer codes contained in this zip file were used in an analysis of a supercell on 26 May 2010 near Prospect Valley, Colorado, that was intercepted by the Second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX2). The results from this analysis are discussed in the following journal article: Murdzek, S. S., P. M. Markowski, Y. P. Richardson, R.L. Tanamachi, 2020: Processes preventing the development of a significant tornado in...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    93

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    93

Affiliations

  • Pennsylvania State University
    93
  • Cornell University
    5
  • University of Washington
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    3
  • Agricultural Research Service
    3
  • United States Geological Survey
    3
  • Colorado State University
    3
  • Temple University
    2
  • Goddard Space Flight Center
    2