58 Works

Data for Coco et al. 2022 Oecologia, More phylogenetically diverse polycultures inconsistently suppress insect herbivore populations

A.M. Coco, E.C. Yip, I. Kaplan & J.F. Tooker
Because the diet of many herbivorous insects is restricted to closely related taxa with similar chemistry, intercropping with diverse plant communities may reduce both pest populations and reliance on chemical pesticides in agroecosystems. We tested whether the effectiveness of intercropping against herbivorous insects depends on the phylogenetic relatedness of neighboring crops, using butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) as a focal crop species in a series of different intercropping combinations. We found that increased phylogenetic divergence of...

Seesaw production and pollution associated with COVID-19-like supply chain disruptions in an agroecosystem model, Cycles Data

R. Rozum
Sudden global disruptions in agricultural commodities demand or input supply have local immediate effects on the economy and the environment. Recognizing these patterns can help society and agricultural stakeholders prepare and react to these disruptions. This research addresses the use of agricultural decision support systems (DSS) to quickly assess the impacts of disruptions like the COVID-19 pandemic on agroecosystem production output and pollution. We diagnosed the effect of assumed labor and agrochemical supply disruptions on...

Assessing a century of maize and soybean polyculture for silage production: Data

A.B. Burton & A.R. Kemanian
This dataset and accompanying supplemental materials are companion pieces to the journal article “Assessing a century of maize and soybean polyculture for silage production” published in Agronomy Journal in 2022 by Burton & Kemanian. Maize (Zea mays L.) silage is an important source of feed for ruminant animals. However, maize monocultures are exposed to both abiotic and biotic stresses that can reduce yield and contribute to environmental degradation. Over the past century, maize + soy...

Prodigious amounts of hydrogen oxides generated by corona discharges on tree leaves

J.M. Jenkins, G.A. Olson, P.J. McFarland & W.H. Brune
Prodigious amounts of the hydroxyl radical (OH) are generated by weak electrical discharges, such as corona discharges induced on trees during thunderstorms. As was observed in studies of sparks and subvisible discharges, corona discharges on leaves produce OH and hydroperoxyl (HO2) amounts that are several orders of magnitude larger than usual. Our laboratory studies demonstrate that production rates of OH and HO2 depend on the applied electric field that generates the corona discharge, leaf dryness,...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Global Temperature Patterns in Past Centuries: An interactive presentation’ (Earth Interactions, Mann et al. 2000)

M. Mann, E. Gille, R. Bradley, M. Hughes, J. Overpeck, F. Keimig & W. Gross
The recent availability of global networks of annual or seasonal resolution proxy data, combined with the few long instrumental and historical climate records available during the past few centuries, make it possible now to reconstruct annual and seasonal spatial patterns of temperature variation, as well as hemispheric, global-mean, and regional temperature trends, several centuries back in time. Reconstructions of large-scale global or hemispheric trends during centuries past can place the instrumental assessments of climate during...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Global surface temperature over the past two millennia’

M. Mann & P. Jones
We present reconstructions of Northern and Southern Hemisphere mean surface temperature over the past two millennia based on high-resolution ‘proxy’ temperature data which retain millennial-scale variability. These reconstructions indicate that late 20th century warmth is unprecedented for at least roughly the past two millennia for the Northern Hemisphere. Conclusions for the Southern Hemisphere and global mean temperature are limited by the sparseness of available proxy data in the Southern Hemisphere at present.

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Climate over Past Millennia’

P. Jones & M. Mann
We review evidence for climate change over the past several millennia from instrumental and high-resolution climate ‘‘proxy’’ data sources and climate modeling studies. We focus on changes over the past 1 to 2 millennia. We assess reconstructions and modeling studies analyzing a number of different climate fields, including atmospheric circulation diagnostics, precipitation, and drought. We devote particular attention to proxy-based reconstructions of temperature patterns in past centuries, which place recent large-scale warming in an appropriate...

Ignoring species availability biases occupancy estimates in single-scale occupancy models

Graziella DiRenzo, David Miller & Evan Grant
1. Most applications of single-scale occupancy models do not differentiate between availability and detectability, even though species availability is rarely equal to one. Species availability can be estimated using multi-scale occupancy models, and the availability process includes elements of species movement, behavior, and phenology. However, for the practical application of multi-scale occupancy models, it can be unclear what a robust sampling design looks like and what the statistical properties of the multi-scale and single-scale occupancy...

Genetic diversity and relatedness among African Painted dogs in North America

Cassandra Miller-Butterworth, Karen Vacco, Amy Russell & Joseph Gaspard
African painted dogs (Lycaon pictus, APD) are highly endangered, with fewer than 7,000 remaining in nature. Captive breeding programs can preserve a genetically diverse population and provide a source of individuals for re-introductions. However, most programs are initiated from few founders and suffer from low genetic diversity and inbreeding. The aims of this study were to use molecular markers to assess genetic variation, inbreeding, and relatedness among APDs in the North American captive population, to...

Little Appleton Pasteuria epidemic dataset

Meghan Duffy, Camden Gowler, Haley Essington, Bruce O'Brien, Clara Shaw, Rebecca Bilich & Patrick Clay
Virulence, the degree to which a pathogen harms its host, is an important but poorly understood aspect of host-pathogen interactions. However it is not a static trait, instead depending on ecological context and potentially evolving over short periods of time (e.g., during the course of an epidemic). At the start of an epidemic, when susceptible hosts are plentiful, pathogens may evolve increased virulence, maximizing their intrinsic growth rate. However, if host density declines during an...

Dataset: A global synthesis of human impacts on the multifunctionality of streams and rivers

Mario Brauns, Daniel C. Allen, Iola G. Boëchat, Wyatt F. Cross, Verónica Ferreira, Daniel Graeber, Christopher J. Patrick, Marc Peipoch, Daniel Von Schiller & Björn Gücker
Human impacts, particularly nutrient pollution and land-use change, have caused significant declines in the quality and quantity of freshwater resources. Most global assessments have concentrated on species diversity and composition, but effects on the multifunctionality of streams and rivers remain unclear. Here, we analyse the most comprehensive compilation of stream ecosystem functions to date to provide an overview of the responses of nutrient uptake, leaf litter decomposition, ecosystem productivity, and food web complexity to six...

Competing controls of fluid overpressurization and chloritization on strength and instability of faults in granite: Implications for seismicity triggered by fluid-injection

Fengshou Zhang, Rui Huang, Mengke An, Ki-Bok Min, Derek Elsworth, Hannes Hofmann & Xiaoguang Wang
Fluids injection for hydraulic stimulation and fracturing, typical in the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in granites, can reactivate deep faults and induce seismicity. Such faults typically contain chlorite coatings as an alteration product that may impact styles of deformation – aseismic through seismic. We performed shear experiments on simulated granite fault gouges under conditions typifying a geothermal reservoir at ~4 km depth with a confining pressure of 110 MPa, a temperature of 150℃,...

Increases in vein length compensate for leaf area lost to lobing in grapevine

Zoë Migicovsky, Joel F. Swift, Zachary Helget, Laura L. Klein, Anh Ly, Matthew Maimaitiyiming, Karoline Woodhouse, Anne Fennell, Misha Kwasniewski, Allison J. Miller, Peter Cousins & Daniel H. Chitwood
There is considerable variation in leaf lobing and leaf size, including among grapevines, some of the most well-studied leaves. We examined the relationship between leaf lobing and leaf size across grapevine populations which varied in extent of leaf lobing. We used homologous landmarking techniques to measure 2,632 leaves across two years in 476 unique, genetically distinct grapevines from 5 biparental crosses which vary primarily in the extent of lobing. We determined to what extent leaf...

A simple theory for interfacial properties of dilute solutions

V. Mandalaparthy & W.G. Noid
Recent studies suggest that cosolute mixtures may exert significant non-additive effects upon protein stability. The corresponding liquid–vapor interfaces may provide useful insight into these non-additive effects. Accordingly, in this work, we relate the interfacial properties of dilute multicomponent solutions to the interactions between solutes. We first derive a simple model for the surface excess of solutes in terms of thermodynamic observables. We then develop a lattice-based statistical mechanical perturbation theory to derive these observables from...

Malicious Pathogen-spreading During COVID-19

P.B. Crabb
Among the distressing events of the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 was the appearance of news reports of atypical acts of aggression all over the world. This study tested the hypothesis that the aversive conditions of the early months of the pandemic triggered a type of interpersonal aggression that may be called aggressive pathogen-spreading: spitting, coughing, and sneezing bodily fluids on a target person with the goal of causing distress and/or infection....

Data from: Experimental demonstration and pan-structurome prediction of climate-associated riboSNitches in Arabidopsis

Ángel Ferrero-Serrano, Megan M. Sylvia, Peter C. Forstmeier, Andrew J. Olson, Doreen Ware, Philip C. Bevilacqua & Assmann Sarah M.
BackgroundGenome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) aim to correlate phenotypic changes with genotypic variation. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within transcripts may alter mRNA structure, with potential impacts on transcript stability, macromolecular interactions and translation. However, no plant genomes have been yet assessed for the presence of these structure-altering polymorphisms or “riboSNitches”.ResultsWe experimentally demonstrate the presence of riboSNitches in transcripts of two Arabidopsis genes, ZINC RIBBON 3 (ZR3) and COTTON GOLGI-RELATED 3 (CGR3), which are associated with continentality...

Combining metabolomics and experimental evolution reveals key mechanisms underlying longevity differences in laboratory evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations

Mark Phillips, Kenneth R. Arnold, Zer Vue, Heather K. Beasley, Edgar Garza-Lopez, Andrea G. Marshall, Derrick J. Morton, Melanie R. McReynolds, Thomas T. Barter & Antentor Hinton
Experimental evolution with Drosophila melanogaster has been used extensively for decades to study aging and longevity. In recent years, the addition of DNA and RNA sequencing to this framework has allowed researchers to leverage the statistical power inherent to experimental evolution to study the genetic basis of longevity itself. Here, we incorporated metabolomic data into to this framework to generate even deeper insights into the physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying longevity differences in three groups...

Oak galls exhibit ant-dispersal convergent with myrmecochorous seeds

Robert Warren, Antoine Guiguet, Chloe Mokadam, John Tooker & Andrew Deans
Ants disperse oak galls of some cynipid wasp species similarly to how they disperse seeds with elaiosomes. We conducted choice assays in field and lab settings, with ant-dispersed seeds and wasp-induced galls found in ant nests and found that seed-dispersing ants retrieve these galls as they do myrmecochorous seeds. We also conducted manipulative experiments in which we removed the putative ant-attracting appendages (“kapéllos”) from galls and found ants are specifically attracted to kapéllos. Finally, we...

Eddy Covariance 30 min flux data at Shale Hills Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory CZO (SSHCZO)

Y. Smeglin, Y. Shi, K.J. Davis, B. Forsythe & J. Horne
LI-COR LI 7500 measures CO2 and water vapor concentration at 10Hz time resolution. Campbell Scientific CSAT3 gives 3D wind speed and air temperature at 10Hz rate. CO2, sensible heat, latent heat fluxes were calculated every 30min based on the above measurements (time stamp shows the end of the 30min window). • Wind speed and air temperature measured with a Campbell Scientific CSAT3 Three-Dimensional Sonic Anemometer, http://www.campbellsci.com. • CO2 and water vapor concentration measured with a...

High Reynolds Number Wind Turbine Wake Data

Alexander Pique
This dataset is affiliated with the publication https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-022-03455-0. All of the data provided is necessary to reproduce the results with the aforementioned publication. The data in this repository is for the wake of a wind turbine at high Reynolds numbers. The data is mainly used for reproducing the statistics (deficit and variance profiles) and the phase averaged results.

Idealized atmospheric boundary layer and tornado simulations for Wang et al. (2022) two-layer-model study.

A. Wang, Y. Pan, G. Bryan & P. Markowski
This dataset contains the numerical simulations used in the Wang et al. (2022) study of two-layer-model in an idealized atmospheric boundary layer and an idealized tornado. That work modifies a wall model from the engineering community known as two-layer model (TLM) to a widely used atmospheric LES mode, Cloud Model 1 (CM1). LES of an idealized, neutral atmospheric boundary layer are performed first, in order to validate the implementation of the TLM in CM1. Next,...

Model Input, Analysis Code, and Select Model Output for the Murdzek et al. (2022) Ordinary Convection Sensitivity Study

S. Murdzek, P. Markowski, Y.P. Richardson & M.R. Kumjian
This dataset contains all relevant Cloud Model 1 (CM1) input files, python analysis code, and select CM1 output for the Murdzek et al. (2022, MWR) study that explores how the sensitivity of simulated ordinary convection changes in environments with different lifting condensation levels (LCLs). Enough CM1 output is provided to recreate most of the figures from Murdzek et al. (2022), and the rest of the output can be recreated using the supplied input files.

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘On long range dependence in global surface temperature series: An editorial comment’ (Climatic Change, Mann 2011)

M. Mann
Long Range Dependence (LRD) scaling behavior has been argued to characterize long-term surface temperature time series. LRD is typically measured by the so-called “Hurst” coefficient, “H”. Using synthetic temperature time series generated by a simple climate model with known physics, I demonstrate that the values of H obtained for observational temperature time series can be understood in terms of the linear response to past estimated natural and anthropogenic external radiative forcing combined with the effects...

The potential benefits of handling mixture statistics via a bi-Gaussian EnKF: Tests with all-sky satellite infrared radiances

M. Chan, X. Chen & J. Anderson
The meteorological characteristics of cloudy atmospheric columns can be very different from their clear counterparts. Thus, when a forecast ensemble is uncertain about the presence/absence of clouds at a specific atmospheric column (i.e., some members are clear while others are cloudy), that column's ensemble statistics will contain a mixture of clear and cloudy statistics. Such mixtures are inconsistent with the ensemble data assimilation algorithms currently used in numerical weather prediction. Hence, ensemble data assimilation algorithms...

Strategies to Mitigate Enteric Methane Emissions by Ruminants

C. Arndt, A.N. Hristov, W.J. Price, S.C. McClelland, A.M. Pelaez, A.R. Bayat, L.A. Crompton, J. Dijkstra, M.A. Eugène, D. Enahoro, E. Kebreab, M. Kreuzer, M. McGee, C. Martin, C.J. Newbold, C.K. Reynolds, A. Schwarm, K.J. Shingfield, J.B. Veneman, D.R. Yáñez-Ruiz & Z. Yu
To meet the 1.5°C target, methane (CH4) from ruminants must be reduced by 11 to 30% of the 2010 level by 2030 and by 24 to 47% by 2050. A meta-analysis identified strategies to decrease product-based [PB; CH4 per unit meat or milk (CH4I)] and absolute (ABS) enteric CH4 emissions while maintaining or increasing animal productivity (AP; weight gain and milk yield). Next the potential of different adoption rates of one PB and/or ABS strategies...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    58

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    58

Affiliations

  • Pennsylvania State University
    58
  • National Center for Atmospheric Research
    3
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    2
  • The Ohio State University
    2
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • University of Pittsburgh
    2
  • University at Buffalo, State University of New York
    2
  • University of East Anglia
    2
  • University of Southern California
    2
  • North Carolina State University
    2