Data from: A Miopetaurista (Sciuridae, Rodentia) cranium from the middle Miocene of Bavaria (Germany) and brain evolution in flying squirrelsIsaac Casanovas-Vilar, Montserrat Grau-Camats, Ornella C. Bertrand, Jérôme Prieto, Sergi López-Torres & Mary Silcox
Flying squirrels (Sciurinae, Pteromyini) are the most successful group of gliding mammals. However, their fossil record mostly consists of isolated dental remains which provide very limited insights into their paleobiology and evolution. Only recently, the first skeleton of a fossil flying squirrel, belonging to the species Miopetaurista neogrivensis, has been described. It presents all the diagnostic gliding-related postcranial features of its extant relatives and shows that this group has undergone very little morphological change for...
Arthropods (i.e. insects, spiders, crustaceans, myriapods and others), are the most successful Phanerozoic animals. The group are characterised by the possession of a segmented body, jointed limbs and a hard cuticle that is episodically moulted. One highly successful, but now extinct, group of arthropods are the trilobites. Trilobites underwent episodic moulting (ecdysis), and most trilobites possess facial sutures, lines of weakness in the cephalon, via which the exuviae is shed and the animal emerges. However,...
Extending the footprint record of Pareiasauromorpha to the Cisuralian: earlier appearance and wider palaeobiogeography of the groupLorenzo Marchetti, Sebastian Voigt, Eudald Mujal, Spencer Lucas, Heitor Francischini, Josep Fortuny & Vincent Santucci
Pareiasauromorpha is one of the most important tetrapod groups of the Permian. Skeletal evidence suggests a late Kungurian origin in North America, whereas the majority of occurrences come from the Guadalupian and Lopingian of South Africa and Russia. Pareiasauromorpha footprints include the ichnogenus Pachypes, that is, however, unknown from strata older than late Guadalupian. A revision of several Pachypes-like footprints from the Cisuralian–Guadalupian of Europe and North America confirm the occurrence of this ichnogenus and...
African apes engage in a distinct form of locomotion called knuckle-walking, but there is much ambiguity as to when and how this locomotor behaviour evolved. This study aims to elucidate potential differences in knuckle-walking elbow posture and loading in African apes through the study of trabecular bone. Using a whole-epiphysis approach, we quantified variation in trabecular structure of the distal humerus of chimpanzees, western lowland gorillas, and mountain gorillas in comparison to orang-utans, siamangs and...
Data from: Dryopithecine palaeobiodiversity in the Iberian Miocene revisited on the basis of molar endostructural morphologyJosep Fortuny, Clément Zanolli, Federico Bernardini, Claudio Tuniz & David M. Alba
Extensive fieldwork at Abocador de Can Mata (NE Iberian Peninsula) has uncovered a previously unsuspected diversity of catarrhine primates in the middle Miocene (12.5–11.6 Ma) of Europe. However, the distinction of the great ape genera Pierolapithecus and Anoiapithecus from Dryopithecus—supported by craniodental differences—has been disputed by some authors. Here we revisit the diversity of great apes (dryopithecines) from the Iberian Miocene based on molar 3D endostructural morphology (relative enamel thickness, enamel distribution, and enamel-dentine junction...
Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont5
International Centre for Theoretical Physics1
University of Kent1
University of Lausanne1
Polish Academy of Sciences1
University of Edinburgh1
Technical University Munich1
University of Toronto1
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul1