105 Works

Data from: Genetic analyses reveal complex dynamics within a marine fish management area

Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Karin Hüssy, Henrik Baktoft, Bastian Huwer, Dorte Bekkevold, Holger Haslob, Jens-Peter Herrmann, Hans-Harald Hinrichsen, Uwe Krumme, Henrik Mosegaard, Einar Eg Nielsen, Thorsten B.H. Reusch, Marie Storr-Paulsen, Andres Velasco, Burkhard Von Dewitz, Jan Dierking & Margit Eero
Genetic data have great potential for improving fisheries management by identifying the fundamental management units – i.e. the biological populations - and their mixing. However, so far the number of practical cases of marine fisheries management using genetics has been limited. Here, we used Atlantic cod in the Baltic Sea to demonstrate the applicability of genetics to a complex management scenario involving mixing of two genetically divergent populations. Specifically, we addressed several assumptions used in...

Data from: Environmental DNA from seawater samples correlate with trawl catches of subarctic, deepwater fishes

Philip Francis Thomsen, Peter Rask Møller, Eva Egelyng Sigsgaard, Steen Wilhelm Knudsen, Ole Ankjær Jørgensen & Eske Willerslev
Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental...

Data from: Trophic interactions drive the emergence of diel vertical migration patterns: a game-theoretic model of copepod communities

Jérôme Pinti, Thomas Kiørboe, Uffe H. Thygesen & Andre W. Visser
Diel Vertical Migration (DVM), the daily movement of organisms through oceanic water columns, is mainly driven by spatio-temporal variations in light affecting the intensity of predator-prey interactions. Migration patterns of an organism are intrinsically linked to the distribution of its conspecifics, its prey, and its predators, each with their own fitness seeking imperatives. We present a mechanistic, trait-based model of DVM for the different components of a pelagic community. Specifically we consider size, sensory mode,...

Data from: Ocean warming expands habitat of a rich natural resource and benefits a national economy

Teunis Jansen, Søren Post, Trond Kristiansen, Guðmundur J. Óskarsson, Jesper Boje, Brian R. MacKenzie, Mala Broberg & Helle Siegstad
Geographic redistribution of living natural resources changes access and thereby harvesting opportunities between countries. Internationally shared fish resources can be sensitive to shifts in the marine environment and this may have great impact on the economies of countries and regions that rely most heavily on fisheries to provide employment and food supply. Here we present a climate change-related biotic expansion of a rich natural resource with substantial economic consequences, namely the appearance of northeast Atlantic...

Data from: Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

Amanda Juan Chen, Vit Hubka, Jens C. Frisvad, Cobus M. Visagie, Jos Houbraken, Martin Meijer, Janos Varga, Rasime Demirel, Željko Jurjević, Alena Kubátová, František Sklenář, Y. G. Zhou & Robert A. Samson
Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over...

Data from: Bioenergetics modeling of the annual consumption of zooplankton by pelagic fish feeding in the Northeast Atlantic

Eneko Bachiller, Kjell Rong Utne, Teunis Jansen & Geir Huse
The present study uses bioenergetics modeling to estimate the annual consumption of the main zooplankton groups by some of the most commercially important planktivorous fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic, namely Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and NEA mackerel (Scomber scombrus). The data was obtained from scientific surveys in the main feeding area (Norwegian Sea) in the period 2005-2010. By incorporating novel information about ambient temperature, seasonal growth and changes...

Indoor temperature - office work performance database

Jose Ali Porras-Salazar, Stefano Schiavon, Pawel Wargocki, Toby Cheung & Kwok Wai Tham
The objective of developing this database was to summarise all relevant published studies that have linked the thermal environment to office work performance within the most representative temperature range for office buildings (20 °C to 30 °C). We conducted a comprehensive literature review and collected the relevant published data into our database. A variety of combinations of keywords including temperature, thermal sensation, work, cognitive, and task performance, and office and commercial buildings, were used. In...

Data from: Thicker shells reduce copepod grazing on diatoms

Josephine Grønning, Fredrik Ryderheim & Thomas Kiørboe
The diatom frustule provides partial protection against copepods, yet we do not know the mechanism behind the reduced grazing. We used direct observations of copepod-diatom interactions to compare rejection frequency and prey-handling times of diatoms with different degrees of silica content in three differently sized species. We compared rejection frequency and prey-handling times of thick- and thin-shelled cells of the diatoms Cyclotella cryptica, Thalassiosira weissflogii, and Ditylum brightwellii. We found that for all three species,...

Programme for monitoring of the Greenland ice sheet (PROMICE): Greenland ice velocity

Anne Solgaard & Anders Kusk

Data from: Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish

Ben B. Chapman, Kaj Hulthén, Christer Brönmark, Anders P. Nilsson, Christian Skov, Lars-Anders Hansson & Jakob Brodersen
1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare...

Data from: Performance assessment of two whole-lake acoustic positional telemetry systems - is reality mining of free-ranging aquatic animals technologically possible?

Henrik Baktoft, Petr Zajicek, Thomas Klefoth, Jon Christian Svendsen, Lene Jacobsen, Martin Wæver Pedersen, David March Morla, Christian Skov, Shinnosuke Nakayama & Robert Arlinghaus
Acoustic positional telemetry systems (APTs) represent a novel approach to study the behaviour of free ranging aquatic animals in the wild at unprecedented detail. System manufactures promise remarkably high temporal and spatial resolution. However, the performance of APTs has rarely been rigorously tested at the level of entire ecosystems. Moreover, the effect of habitat structure on system performance has only been poorly documented. Two APTs were deployed to cover two small lakes and a series...

Data from: Stable isotopes reveal the effect of trawl fisheries on the diet of commercially exploited species

Hilmar Hinz, Joan Moranta, Stephen Balestrini, Marija Sciberras, Julia R. Pantin, James Monnington, Alex Zalewski, Michel J. Kaiser, Mattias Sköld, Patrik Jonsson, Francois Bastardie & Jan Geert Hiddink
Bottom trawling can change food availability for benthivorous demersal species by (i) changing benthic prey composition through physical seabed impacts and (ii) by removing overall benthic consumer biomass increasing the net availability of benthic prey for remaining individuals. Thus trawling may both negatively and positively influence the quantity and quality of food available. Using δ13C and δ15N we investigated potential diet changes of three commercially exploited species across trawling gradients in the Kattegat (plaice, dab...

Data from: Privatisation rescues essential function following loss of cooperation

Sandra Breum Andersen, Melanie Ghoul, Rasmus Lykke Marvig, Zhuo-Bin Lee, Søren Molin, Helle Krogh Johansen & Ashleigh S. Griffin
A single cheating mutant can lead to the invasion and eventual eradication of cooperation from a population. Consequently, cheat invasion is often considered equal to extinction in empirical and theoretical studies of cooperator-cheat dynamics. But does cheat invasion necessarily equate extinction in nature? By following the social dynamics of iron metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during cystic fibrosis lung infection, we observed that individuals evolved to replace cooperation with a ‘private’ behaviour. Phenotypic assays showed that...

Data from: Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

František Sklenář, Željko Jurjević, Polona Zalar, J. C. Frisvad, Cobus M. Visagie, Miroslav Kolařík, Jos Houbraken, Amanda J. Chen, Neriman Yilmaz, Keith A. Seifert, Monica Coton, Franck Déniel, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Robert A. Samson, Stephen W. Peterson & Vít Hubka
Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister sect. Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises osmophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 taxa comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported...

Data from: Unravelling species boundaries in the Aspergillus viridinutans complex (section Fumigati): opportunistic human and animal pathogens capable of interspecific hybridization

Vit Hubka, Vanessa Barrs, Zuzana Dudová, František Sklenář, Alena Kubátová, Tetsuhiro Matsuzawa, Takashi Yaguchi, Yoshikazu Horie, Alena Nováková, Jens C. Frisvad, Jessica Talbot & Miroslav Kolařík
Although Aspergillus fumigatus is the major agent of invasive aspergillosis, an increasing number of infections are caused by its cryptic species, especially A. lentulus and the A. viridinutans species complex (AVSC). Their identification is clinically relevant because of antifungal drug resistance and refractory infections. Species boundaries in the AVSC are unresolved since most species have uniform morphology and produce interspecific hybrids in vitro. Clinical and environmental strains from six continents (n = 110) were characterized...

Data from: Dynamic Wolbachia prevalence in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants: potential for a nutritional symbiosis

Sandra B. Andersen, Mette Boye, David R. Nash & Jacobus J. Boomsma
Wolbachia are renowned as reproductive parasites, but their phenotypic effects in eusocial insects are not well understood. We used a combination of qrt-PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and laser scanning confocal microscopy to evaluate the dynamics of Wolbachia infections in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex octospinosus across developmental stages of sterile workers. We confirm that workers are infected with one or two widespread wsp genotypes of Wolbachia, show that colony prevalences are always 100%, and characterize...

Data from: The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

Nicola S. Lewis, Colin A. Russell, Tavis K. Anderson, Kathryn Berger, David F. Burke, Judith M. Fonville, Ronald A.M. Fouchier, Paul Kellam, Bjorn F. Koel, Tung Nguyen, Bundit Nuansrichy, J. S. Malik Peiris, Takehiko Saito, Gaelle Simon, Eugene Skepner, Nobuhiro Takemae, ESNIP3 Consortium, Richard J. Webby, Kristien Van Reeth, Sharon M. Brookes, Lars Larsen, Ian H. Brown, Amy L. Vincent, Pinky Langat, Filip Bielejec … & JS Malik Peiris
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the...

Data from: Temperature-dependence of minimum resource requirements alters competitive hierarchies in phytoplankton

Leah Lewington-Pearce, Anita Narwani, Mridul K. Thomas, Colin Kremer, Helena Vogler & Pavel Kratina
1. Resource competition theory is a conceptual framework that provides mechanistic insights into competition and community assembly of species with different resource requirements. However, there has been little exploration of how resource requirements depend on other environmental factors, including temperature. Changes in resource requirements as influenced by environmental temperature would imply that climate warming can alter the outcomes of competition and community assembly. 2. We experimentally demonstrate that environmental temperature alters the minimum light and...

Data from: Structurally assisted super black in colorful peacock spiders

Dakota E. McCoy, Victoria E. McCoy, Nikolaj K. Mandsberg, Anna V. Shneidman, Joanna Aizenberg, Richard O. Prum & David Haig
Male peacock spiders (Maratus, Salticidae) compete to attract female mates using elaborate, sexually-selected displays. They evolved both brilliant color and velvety black. Here we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hyperspectral imaging, and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) optical modeling to investigate the deep black surfaces of peacock spiders. We found that super black regions reflect <0.5% of light (for a 30° collection angle) in Maratus speciosus (0.44%) and Maratus karrie (0.35%) due to microscale structures. Both species...

Data from: Signatures of natural selection among lineages and habitats in Oncorhynchus mykiss

Morten T. Limborg, Scott M. Blankenship, Sewall F. Young, Fred M. Utter, Lisa W. Seeb, Mette H. H. Hansen & James E. Seeb
Recent advances in molecular interrogation techniques now allow unprecedented genomic inference about the role of adaptive genetic divergence in wild populations. We used high-throughput genotyping to screen a genome-wide panel of 276 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the economically and culturally important salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss. Samples included 805 individuals from 11 anadromous and resident populations from the northwestern United States and British Columbia, and represented two major lineages including paired populations of each life history...

Data from: On the missing link in ecology: improving communication between modellers and experimentalists

Jan Heuschele, Mikael T. Ekvall, Patrizio Mariani & Christian Lindemann
Collaboration between modellers and experimentalists is essential in ecological research, however, different obstacles linking both camps often hinder scientific progress. In this commentary, we discuss several issues of the current state of affairs in this research loop. Backed by an online survey amongst fellow ecologists, modellers and experimentalists alike, we identify two major areas that need to be mended. Firstly, differences in language and jargon lead to a lack of exchange of ideas and to...

Data from: Pre-adapting parasitic phages to a pathogen leads to increased pathogen clearance and lowered resistance evolution with Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis bacterial isolates

Ville-Petri Friman, V-P. Friman, D. Soanes-Brown, P. Sierocinski, A. Buckling, H. K. Johansen, S. Molin & M. Merabishvili
Recent years have seen renewed interest in phage therapy - the use of viruses to specifically kill disease-causing bacteria – because of the alarming rise in antibiotic resistance. However, a major limitation of phage therapy is the ease at with bacteria can evolve resistance to phages. Here we determined if in vitro experimental coevolution can increase the efficiency of phage therapy by limiting the resistance evolution of intermittent and chronic cystic fibrosis Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung...

Data from: Selection for life-history traits to maximize population growth in an invasive marine species

Cornelia Jaspers, Lise Marty & Thomas Kiørboe
Species establishing outside their natural range, negatively impacting local ecosystems, are of increasing global concern. They often display life-history features characteristic for r-selected populations with fast growth and high reproduction rates to achieve positive population growth rates (r) in invaded habitats. Here, we demonstrate substantially earlier maturation at a 2 orders of magnitude lower body mass at first reproduction in invasive compared to native populations of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi. Empirical results are corroborated...

Speciation history of European (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (A. rostrata), analyzed using genomic data

Natacha Nikolic, Shenglin Liu, Magnus W. Jacobsen, Bjarni Jónsson, Louis Bernatchez, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire & Michael M. Hansen
Speciation in the ocean could differ from terrestrial environments due to fewer barriers to gene flow. Hence, sympatric speciation might be common, with American and European eel being candidates for exemplifying this. They show disjunct continental distributions on both sides of the Atlantic, but spawn in overlapping regions of the Sargasso Sea from where juveniles are advected to North American, European and North African coasts. Hybridization and introgression is known to occur, with hybrids almost...

The battle between harvest and natural selection creates small and shy fish

Christopher Monk, Dorte Bekkevold, Thomas Klefoth, Thilo Pagel, Miquel Palmer & Robert Arlinghaus
Harvest of fish and wildlife, both commercial and recreational, is a selective force that can induce evolutionary changes to life-history and behaviour. Natural selective forces may create countering selection pressures. Assessing natural fitness represents a considerable challenge in broadcast spawners. Thus, our understanding of the relative strength of natural and fisheries selection is slim. In the field, we compared the strength and shape of harvest selection to natural selection on body size over four years...

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