25 Works

Data from: Plant species richness promotes soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in grasslands without legumes

Wen-Feng Cong, Jasper Van Ruijven, Liesje Mommer, Gerlinde De Deyn, Frank Berendse, Ellis Hoffland & Gerlinde B. De Deyn
1. The storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil are important ecosystem functions. Grassland biodiversity experiments have shown a positive effect of plant diversity on soil C and N storage. However, these experiments all included legumes, which constitute an important N input through N2-fixation. Indeed, the results of these experiments suggest that N2-fixation by legumes is a major driver of soil C and N storage. 2. We studied whether plant diversity affects soil...

Data from: Impact of diet and individual variation on intestinal microbiota composition and fermentation products in obese men

Anne Salonen, Leo Lahti, Jarkko Salojärvi, Grietje Holtrop, Katri Korpela, Sylvia H. Duncan, Priya Date, Freda Farquharson, Alexandra M. Johnstone, Gerald E. Lobley, Petra Louis, Harry J. Flint & Willem M. De Vos
There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of fourteen obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), and a weight-loss diet (WL). We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the faecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR...

Data from: Regular bottlenecks and restrictions to somatic fusion prevent the accumulation of mitochondrial defects in Neurospora

Eric Bastiaans, Duur K. Aanen, Afons J. M. Debets, Rolf F. Hoekstra, Bram Lestrade & Marc F. P. M. Maas
The replication and segregation of the multi-copy mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are not under strict control of the nuclear DNA. Within-cell selection may thus favour variants with an intracellular selective advantage but a detrimental effect on cell fitness. High relatedness among the mtDNA variants of an individual is predicted to disfavour such deleterious selfish genetic elements, but experimental evidence for this hypothesis is scarce. We studied the effect of mtDNA relatedness on the opportunities for suppressive...

Data from: Influence of land use and climate on recent forest expansion: a case study in the Eurosiberian-Mediterranean limit of northwest Spain

Jose Manuel Álvarez-Martínez, Susana Suárez-Seoane, Jetse J. Stoorvogel & Estanisao De Luis Calabuig
1. In Mediterranean mountainous areas, forests have expanded in recent decades because traditional management practices have been abandoned or reduced. However, understanding the ecological mechanism behind landscape change is a complex undertaking as the effects of land use may be influenced (reinforced or constrained) by other factors such as climate. 2. We used orthorectified aerial photographs to monitor changes in forest distribution in a set of 20 head-water basins (located in the Cantabrian Mountains of...

Data from: Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

Juan C. Hernández-Barrios, Niels P. R. Anten & Miguel Martínez-Ramos
Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs, harvesting regimes, and scale of commercialization are highly heterogeneous and few studies have evaluated the cumulative ecological and economic effects of such regimes. Here, we assessed the medium-term (10 years) sustainability of NTFP harvesting, using Chameadorea...

Data from: Genetics of decayed sexual traits in a parasitoid wasp with endosymbiont-induced asexuality

Wen-Juan Ma, Bart A. Pannebakker, Leo W. Beukeboom, Tanja Schwander & Louis Van De Zande
Trait decay may occur when selective pressures shift, owing to changes in environment or life style, rendering formerly adaptive traits non-functional or even maladaptive. It remains largely unknown if such decay would stem from multiple mutations with small effects or rather involve few loci with major phenotypic effects. Here, we investigate the decay of female sexual traits, and the genetic causes thereof, in a transition from haplodiploid sexual reproduction to endosymbiont-induced asexual reproduction in the...

Data from: Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island Southeast Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

Laurent A. F. Frantz, Ole Madsen, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Martien A. M. Groenen & Konrad Lohse
In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). A previous study revealed...

Data from: Synergistic effects of direct and indirect defences on herbivore egg survival in a wild crucifer

Nina E. Fatouros, Ana Pineda, Martinus E. Huigens, Colette Broekgaarden, Ilich A. Figueroa Candia, Methew M. Shimwela, Patrick Verbaarschot & Tibor Bukovinszky
Evolutionary theory of plant defences against herbivores predicts a trade-off between direct (anti-herbivore traits) and indirect defences (attraction of carnivores) when carnivore fitness is reduced. Such a trade-off is expected in plant species that kill herbivore eggs by exhibiting a hypersensitive response (HR)-like necrosis, which should then negatively affect carnivores. We used the black mustard (Brassica nigra) to investigate how this potentially lethal direct trait affects preferences and/or performances of specialist cabbage white butterflies (Pieris...

Data from: Tipping elements in the human intestinal ecosystem

Leo Lahti, Jarkko Salojärvi, Anne Salonen, Marten Scheffer & Willem M. De Vos
The microbial communities living in the human intestine can have profound impact on our well-being and health. However, we have limited understanding of the mechanisms that control this complex ecosystem. Here, based on a deep phylogenetic analysis of the intestinal microbiota in a thousand western adults, we identify groups of bacteria that exhibit robust bistable abundance distributions. These bacteria are either abundant or nearly absent in most individuals, and exhibit decreased temporal stability at the...

Data from: The scope for nuclear selection within Termitomyces fungi associated with fungus-growing termites is limited

Tania Nobre, Bertha Koopmanschap, Johan J. P. Baars, Anton S. M. Sonnenberg & Duur K. Aanen
Background: We investigate the scope for selection at the level of nuclei within fungal individuals (mycelia) of the mutualistic Termitomyces cultivated by fungus-growing termites. Whereas in most basidiomycete fungi the number and kind of nuclei is strictly regulated to be two per cell, in Termitomyces mycelia the number of nuclei per cell is highly variable. We hypothesised that natural selection on these fungi not only occurs between mycelia, but also at the level of nuclei...

Data from: Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

Bryan Finegan, Marielos Peña-Claros, Alexandre De Oliveira, Nataly Ascarrunz, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Geovana Carreño-Rocabado, Fernando Casanoves, Sandra Díaz, Paul Eguiguren Velepucha, Fernando Fernandez, Juan Carlos Licona, Leda Lorenzo, Beatriz Salgado Negret, Marcel Vaz & Lourens Poorter
1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica. Initial above-ground biomass and biomass increments of survivors, recruits and survivors + recruits (total) were estimated for trees ≥10 cm d.b.h. in 62 and 21 1.0-ha plots, respectively....

Data from: Baculovirus-induced tree-top disease: how extended is the role of egt as a gene for the extended phenotype?

Vera Ros, Stineke Van Houte, Lia Hemerik, Monique M. Van Oers & Vera I. D. Ros
Many parasites alter host behaviour to enhance their chance of transmission. Recently, the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase (egt) gene from the baculovirus Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) was identified to induce tree-top disease in L. dispar larvae. Infected gypsy moth larvae died at elevated positions (hence the term tree-top disease), which is thought to promote dissemination of the virus to lower foliage. It is, however, unknown whether egt has a conserved role among baculoviruses in inducing...

Data from: Increasing forest disturbances in Europe and their impact on carbon storage

Rupert Seidl, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Werner Rammer & Pieter Johannes Verkerk
Disturbances from wind, bark beetles and wildfires have increased in Europe’s forests throughout the twentieth century. Climatic changes were identified as a key driver behind this increase, yet how the expected continuation of climate change will affect Europe’s forest disturbance regime remains unresolved. Increasing disturbances could strongly impact the forest carbon budget, and are suggested to contribute to the recently observed carbon sink saturation in Europe’s forests. Here we show that forest disturbance damage in...

Data from: Sex-specific effects of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans

Catharine Ruth Archer, Eoin Duffy, David J. Hosken, Mikael Mokkonen, Kensuke Okada, Keiko Oku, Manmohan D. Sharma & John Hunt
1. Variation in the strength of age-dependent natural selection shapes differences in ageing rates across species and populations. Likewise, sexual selection can promote divergent patterns of senescence across the sexes. However, the effects of these processes on the evolution of ageing have largely been considered independently, and interactions between them are poorly understood. 2. We use experimental evolution to investigate how natural and sexual selection affect life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans. 3. Replicate...

Data from: Can frequent precipitation moderate drought impact on peatmoss carbon uptake in northern peatlands?

Jelmer J. Nijp, Juul Limpens, Klaas Metselaar, Sjoerd E. A. T. M. Van Der Zee, Frank Berendse & Bjorn J. M. Robroek
Northern peatlands represent a large global carbon store that potentially can be destabilised by summer water table drawdown. Precipitation can moderate negative impacts of water table drawdown by rewetting peatmoss (Sphagnum spp.), the ecosystems’ key species. Yet, the frequency for such rewetting to be effective remains unknown. We experimentally assessed the importance of precipitation frequency for Sphagnum water supply and carbon uptake during a stepwise decrease in water tables in a growth chamber. CO2 exchange...

Data from: Role of pleiotropy during adaptation of TEM-1 β-lactamase to two novel antibiotics

Martijn F. Schenk, Sariette Witte, Merijn L. M. Salverda, Bertha Koopmanschap, Joachim Krug & J. Arjan G. M. De Visser
Pleiotropy is a key feature of the genotype–phenotype map, and its form and extent have many evolutionary implications, including for the dynamics of adaptation and the evolution of specialization. Similarly, pleiotropic effects of antibiotic resistance mutations may affect the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the simultaneous or fluctuating presence of different antibiotics. Here, we study the role of pleiotropy during the in vitro adaptation of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase to two novel antibiotics, cefotaxime (CTX)...

Data from: Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

Mirte Bosse, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Ole Madsen, Laurent A. F. Frantz, Yogesh Paudel, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans & Martien A. M. Groenen
The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in...

Data from: On the fate of seasonally plastic traits in a rainforest butterfly under relaxed selection

Vicencio Oostra, Paul M. Brakefield, Yvonne Hiltemann, Bas J. Zwaan & Oskar Brattström
Many organisms display phenotypic plasticity as adaptation to seasonal environmental fluctuations. Often, such seasonal responses entails plasticity of a whole suite of morphological and life-history traits that together contribute to the adaptive phenotypes in the alternative environments. While phenotypic plasticity in general is a well-studied phenomenon, little is known about the evolutionary fate of plastic responses if natural selection on plasticity is relaxed. Here, we study whether the presumed ancestral seasonal plasticity of the rainforest...

Data from: Baculovirus infection triggers a positive phototactic response in caterpillars to induce ‘tree-top’ disease

Stineke Van Houte, Monique M. Van Oers, Han Yue, Just M. Vlak, Vera I.D. Ros, Y. Han & V. I. D. Ros
Many parasites manipulate host behaviour to enhance parasite transmission and survival. A fascinating example is baculoviruses, which often induce death in caterpillar hosts at elevated positions (‘tree-top’ disease). To date, little is known about the underlying processes leading to this adaptive host manipulation. Here, we show that the baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) triggers a positive phototactic response in S. exigua larvae prior to death and causes the caterpillars to die at elevated positions....

Data from: Gut microbiota signatures predict host and microbiota responses to dietary interventions in obese individuals

Katri Korpela, Harry J. Flint, Alexandra M. Johnstone, Jenni Lappi, Kaisa Poutanen, Evelyne Dewulf, Nathalie Delzenne, Willem M. De Vos & Anne Salonen
Background: Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in...

Data from: Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species

Katja M. Hoedjes, Hans M. Smid, Louise E. M. Vet & John H. Werren
Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present...

Data from: Positive shrub-tree interactions facilitate woody encroachment in boreal peatlands

Milena Holmgren, Ching-Yen Lin, Julian E. Murillo, Annelies Nieuwenhuis, Joyce Penninkhof, Natasja Sanders, Thomas Van Bart, Huib Van Veen, Harri Vasander, Marlies E. Vollebregt & Juul Limpens
Boreal ecosystems are warming roughly twice as fast as the global average, resulting in woody expansion that could further speed up the climate warming. Boreal peatbogs are waterlogged systems that store more than 30% of the global soil carbon. Facilitative effects of shrubs and trees on the establishment of new individuals could increase tree cover with profound consequences for the structure and functioning of boreal peatbogs, carbon sequestration and climate. We conducted two field experiments...

Data from: The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life history traits

Joost Van Den Heuvel, Jelle Zandveld, Maarten Mulder, Paul M. Brakefield, Thomas B. L. Kirkwood, Daryl P. Shanley & Bas J. Zwaan
Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both...

Data from: Positive selection of deleterious alleles through interaction with a sex-ratio suppressor gene in African buffalo: a plausible new mechanism for a high frequency anomaly

Pim Van Hooft, Ben J. Greyling, Wayne M. Getz, Paul D. Van Helden, Bas J. Zwaan & Armanda D. S. Bastos
Although generally rare, deleterious alleles can become common through genetic drift, hitchhiking or reductions in selective constraints. Here we present a possible new mechanism that explains the attainment of high frequencies of deleterious alleles in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of Kruger National Park, through positive selection of these alleles that is ultimately driven by a sex-ratio suppressor. We have previously shown that one in four Kruger buffalo has a Y-chromosome profile that, despite...

Data from: Loss of animal seed dispersal increases extinction risk in a tropical tree species due to pervasive negative density dependence across life stages

Timothy Trevor Caughlin, Jake M. Ferguson, Jeremy W. Lichstein, Pieter A. Zuidema, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin & Douglas J. Levey
Overhunting in tropical forests reduces populations of vertebrate seed dispersers. If reduced seed dispersal has a negative impact on tree population viability, overhunting could lead to altered forest structure and dynamics, including decreased biodiversity. However, empirical data showing decreased animal-dispersed tree abundance in overhunted forests contradict demographic models which predict minimal sensitivity of tree population growth rate to early life stages. One resolution to this discrepancy is that seed dispersal determines spatial aggregation, which could...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Wageningen University & Research
  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Leiden University
  • University of Florida
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Eastern Finland
  • University of Pretoria
  • University of Cologne