58 Works

The contribution of semi-natural habitats to biological control is dependent on sentinel prey type

Niamh Mary McHugh, Stephen Moreby, Marjolein Lof, Wopke Van Der Werf & John Holland
It is widely recognized that landscape factors affect the biological control of weed seeds and insect pests in arable crops, but landscape effects have been found to be inconsistent between studies. Here, we compare six different types of sentinels (surrogate prey that was either live insects or seeds) to measure the effects of semi-natural habitats at field to landscape scales on levels of biological control in winter wheat in the UK. Sentinels were located in...

Size-dependent male mating tactics and their morphological correlates in Poecilia gillii

Andrew Furness, Andres Hagmayer & Bart Pollux
Male alternative reproductive strategies are found in some species of most major animal taxa, but are especially widespread in fishes. Mature males of the shortfin molly, Poecilia gillii, display extensive variation in size and morphology. We devised a field test of a priori hypotheses regarding the interrelationships between male size, colouration, morphology, and mating tactics. Males did not occur in discrete size classes, but instead occurred in a size and morphological continuum. Large males exhibited...

Methodology matters for comparing coarse wood and bark decay rates across tree species

Chenhui Chang, Richard S.P Van Logtestijn, Leo Goudzwaard, Jurgen Van Hal, Juan Zuo, Mariet Hefting, Shanshan Yang, Frank J. Sterck, Lourens Poorter, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen & Ute Sass-Klaassen
1. The importance of wood decay for the global carbon and nutrient cycles is widely recognized. However, relatively little is known about bark decay dynamics, even though bark represents up to 25% of stem dry mass. Moreover, bark presence versus absence can significantly alter wood decay rates. Therefore, it really matters for the fate of carbon whether variation in bark and wood decay rates is coordinated across tree species. 2. Answering this question requires advances...

Data from: The ovipositor actuation mechanism of a parasitic wasp and its functional implications

Noraly M.M.E. Van Meer, Uroš Cerkvenik, Christian M. Schlepütz, Johan L. Van Leeuwen & Sander W. S. Gussekloo
Parasitic wasps use specialized needle-like structures­­—ovipositors—to drill in substrates to reach hidden hosts. The external ovipositor (terebra) consists of three interconnected, sliding elements (valvulae) which are moved reciprocally during insertion. This presumably reduces the required pushing force on the terebra and limits the risk of damage whilst probing. Although this is an important mechanism, it is still not completely understood how the actuation of the valvulae is achieved, and it has only been studied with...

Population studies of the wild tomato species Solanum chilense reveal geographically structured major gene-mediated pathogen resistance

Parvinderdeep S. Kahlon, Shallet Mindih Seta, Gesche Zander, Daniela Scheikl, Ralph Hückelhoven, Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten & Remco Stam
Natural plant populations encounter strong pathogen pressure and defense-associated genes are known to be under selection dependent on the pressure by the pathogens. Here we use populations of the wild tomato Solanum chilense to investigate natural resistance against Cladosporium fulvum, a well-known ascomycete pathogen of domesticated tomatoes. Host populations used are from distinct geographical origins and share a defined evolutionary history. We show that distinct populations of S. chilense differ in resistance against the pathogen....

The role of fine‐root mass, specific root length and lifespan in tree performance: a whole‐tree exploration

Monique Weemstra, Natasa Kiorapostolou, Jasper Van Ruijven, Liesje Mommer, Jorad De Vries & Frank Sterck
1. The root economics spectrum (RES) hypothesis predicts that fast-growing tree species have short-lived roots with high specific root length (SRL) to allow rapid resource uptake, and opposite trait expressions for slow-growing species. Yet, the mixed support for this hypothesis suggests that trees can adopt alternative strategies to increase resource uptake, besides an increase in SRL. 2. We combined a novel mechanistic whole-tree model and empirical fine-root data of ten tree species to test the...

Marine stepping-stones: Connectivity of Mytilus edulis populations between offshore energy installations

Joop W.P. Coolen, Arjen R. Boon, Richard Crooijmans, Hilde Van Pelt, Frank Kleissen, Daan Gerla, Jan Beermann, Silvana N.R. Birchenough, Lisa E. Becking & Pieternella C. Luttikhuizen
Recent papers postulate that epifaunal organisms use artificial structures as stepping-stones to spread to areas that are too distant to reach in a single generation. With thousands of artificial structures present in the North Sea, we test the hypothesis that these structures are connected by water currents and act as an interconnected reef. Population genetic structure of the Blue mussel, Mytilus edulis was expected to follow a pattern predicted by particle tracking models (PTM). Correlation...

Limited mass-independent individual variation in resting metabolic rate in a wild population of snow voles (Chionomys nivalis)

Andres Hagmayer, Glauco Camenisch, Cindy Canale, Erik Postma & Timothée Bonnet
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potentially important axis of physiological adaptation to the thermal environment. However, our understanding of the causes and consequences of individual variation in RMR in the wild is hampered by a lack of data, as well as analytical challenges. RMR measurements in the wild are generally characterized by large measurement errors and a strong dependency on mass. The latter is problematic when assessing the ability of RMR to evolve independently...

Predation risk shapes the degree of placentation in natural populations of live-bearing fish

Andres Hagmayer, Andrew I. Furness, David N. Reznick, Myrthe L. Dekker & Bart J. A. Pollux
The placenta is a complex life-history trait that is ubiquitous across the tree of life. Theory proposes that the placenta evolves in response to high performance-demanding conditions by shifting maternal investment from pre- to post-fertilization, thereby reducing a female’s reproductive burden during pregnancy. We test this hypothesis by studying populations of the fish species Poeciliopsis retropinna in Costa Rica. We found substantial variation in the degree of placentation among natural populations associated with predation risk:...

Data from: Neighbourhood-dependent root distributions and the consequences on root separation in arid ecosystems

Bin J. W. Chen, Chi Xu, Mao-Song Liu, Zheng Y. X. Huang, Ming-Juan Zhang, Jian Tang & Niels P. R. Anten
1. Inter-specific root separation is an important example of spatial niche differentiation that drives species coexistence in many ecosystems. Particularly under water-stressed conditions, it is believed to be an inevitable outcome of species interactions. However, evidence for and against this idea has been found. So far, studies aiming at reconciling the debate mainly focus on abiotic determinants. It remains unclear if and to what extent root separation depends on the type and growth form of...

Data from: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland

Lorna Cole, David Kleijn, Lynn Dicks, Jane Stout, Simon Potts, Matthias Albrecht, Mario Balzan, Ignasi Bartomeus, Penelope Bebeli, Danilo Bevk, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Róbert Chlebo, Anželika Dautartė, Nikolaos Emmanouil, Chris Hartfield, John Holland, Andrea Holzschuh, Nieke Knoben, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Yael Mandelik, Heleni Panou, Robert Paxton, Theodora Petanidou, Miguel Pinheiro De Carvalho, … & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in...

Raw data for: No reproductive benefits of dear enemy recognition in a territorial songbird

Michael Reichert, Jodie Crane, Gabrielle Davidson, Eileen Dillane, Ipek Kulahci, James O'Neill, Kees Van Oers, Ciara Sexton & John Quinn
Territorial animals often learn to distinguish their neighbors from unfamiliar conspecifics. This cognitive ability facilitates the dear enemy effect, where individuals respond less aggressively to neighbors than to other individuals, and is hypothesized to be adaptive by reducing unnecessary aggressive interactions with individuals that are not a threat to territory ownership. A key prediction of this hypothesis, that individuals with better ability to learn to recognize neighbors should have higher fitness, has never been tested....

Fragmentation and translocation distort the genetic landscape of ungulates: red deer in the Netherlands

Joost Ferdinand De Jong
Many ungulate populations have a complex history of isolation and translocation. Consequently, ungulate populations may have experienced substantial reductions in the level of overall gene flow, yet simultaneously have augmented levels of long distance gene flow. To investigate the effect of this dual anthropogenic effect on the genetic landscape of ungulates, we genotyped 35K SNPs in 47 red deer (Cervus elaphus) of Netherlands, including putative autochthonous relic populations as well as allochthonous populations established in...

Data from: The relative importance of green infrastructure as refuge habitat for pollinators increases with local land-use intensity

Pengyao Li, David Kleijn, Isabelle Badenhausser, Carlos Zaragoza-Trello, Nicolas Gross, Ivo Raemakers & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural expansion and intensification have resulted in strong declines in farmland biodiversity across Europe. In many intensively farmed landscapes, linear landscape elements such as field boundaries, road verges and ditch banks are the main remaining green infrastructures providing refuge for biodiversity, and as such play a pivotal role in agri-environmental policies aiming at mitigating biodiversity loss. Yet, while we have a fairly good understanding of how agricultural intensification influences biodiversity on farmland, little is...

Data and R-code from 'Mode of death and mortality risk factors in Amazon trees'. Nature communications. 2020

Adriane Esquivel Muelbert, Oliver L. Phillips, Roel J. W. Brienen, Sophie Fauset, Martin J. P. Sullivan, Timothy R. Baker, Kuo-Jung Chao, Ted R. Feldpausch, Emanuel Gloor, Niro Higuchi, Jeanne Houwing-Duistermaat, Jon Lloyd, Haiyan Liu, Yadvinder Malhi, Beatriz Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon Junior, Abel Monteagudo-Mendoza, Lourens Poorter, Marcos Silveira, Emilio Vilanova Torre, Esteban Alvarez Dávila, Jhon del Aguila Pasquel, Everton Almeida, Patricia Alvarez Loayza & Ana Andrade

Data from: Quantitative genetics of the use of conspecific and heterospecific social cues for breeding site choice

Jere Tolvanen, Sami Mikael Kivelä, Blandine Doligez, Jennifer Morinay, Lars Gustafsson, Piter Bijma, Veli-Matti Pakanen & Jukka T. Forsman
Social information use for decision-making is common and affects ecological and evolutionary processes, including social aggregation, species coexistence and cultural evolution. Despite increasing ecological knowledge on social information use, very little is known about its genetic basis and therefore its evolutionary potential. Genetic variation in a trait affecting an individual's social and non-social environment may have important implications for population dynamics, interspecific interactions and for expression of other, environmentally plastic traits. We estimated repeatability, additive...

Centaurea population effects on nematode communities

Rutger Wilschut, Kim Magnée, Stefan Geisen, Wim Van Der Putten & Olga Kostenko
Data set belonging to the study 'Plant population and soil origin effects on nematode community composition in the rhizosphere of a range-expanding plant species and a native congener'. In this study, we experimentally compared the development of nematode communities originating from northern and southern European soils in the rhizospheres of different populations of the range-expanding plant species Centaurea stoebe and the native plant species Centaurea jacea. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of...

Haplotype-resolved genome analyses of a heterozygous diploid potato

Qian Zhou, Chunzhi Zhang, Wu Huang, Zhongmin Yang, Yu Zhang, Die Tang, John P. Hamilton, Richard G. F. Visser, Christian W. B. Bachem, C. Robin Buell, Zhonghua Zhang & Sanwen Huang
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the most important tuber crop worldwide. An effort is underway to transform the crop from a clonally propagated tetraploid into a diploid seed-propagated, inbred line-based hybrid, which requires a better understanding of its highly heterozygous genome of potato. Here, we report the 1.67 Gb haplotype-resolved assembly of a diploid potato, RH89-039-16, using the combination of multiple sequencing and mapping strategies, including circular consensus sequencing. Comparison of the two haplotypes revealed...

Increasing agricultural habitat reduces solitary bee offspring number and weight in apple orchards through reduced floral diet diversity and increased fungicide risk

Mary Centrella, Laura Russo, Natalia Moreno-Ramirez, Brian Eitzer, Maria Van Dyke, Bryan Danforth & Katja Poveda
1. Threats to bee pollinators such as land use change, high pesticide risk, and reduced floral diet diversity are usually assessed independently, even though they often co-occur to impact bees in agroecosystems. 2. We established populations of the non-native mason bee O. cornifrons at 17 NY apple orchards varying in proportion of surrounding agriculture and measured floral diet diversity and pesticide risk levels in the pollen provisions they produced. We used path analysis to test...

Selection of indicators for assessing and managing the impacts of bottom trawling on seabed habitats

Jan Geert Hiddink, Michel Kaiser, Marija Sciberras, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Adriaan Rijnsdorp & Simon Jennings
1. Bottom-trawl fisheries are the most-widespread source of anthropogenic physical disturbance to seabed habitats. Development of fisheries-, conservation- and ecosystem-based management strategies requires the selection of indicators of the impact of bottom trawling on the state of benthic biota. Many indicators have been proposed, but no rigorous test of a range of candidate indicators against 9 commonly-agreed criteria (concreteness, theoretical basis, public awareness, cost, measurement, historical data, sensitivity, responsiveness, specificity) has been performed. 2. Here,...

Plant volatiles induced by herbivore eggs prime defenses and mediate shifts in the reproductive strategy of receiving plants

Foteini Paschalidou, Lisa Eyman, James Sims, James Buckley, Nina Fatouros, Consuelo De Moraes & Mark Mescher
Plants can detect cues associated with the risk of future herbivory and modify defense phenotypes accordingly; however, our current understanding is limited both with respect to the range of early warning cues to which plants respond and the nature of the responses. Here we report that exposure to volatile emissions from plant tissues infested with herbivore eggs promotes stronger defense responses to subsequent herbivory in two Brassica species. Furthermore, exposure to these volatile cues elicited...

Data from: Microbial and volatile profiling of soils suppressive to Fusarium culmorum of wheat

Adam Ossowicki, Vittorio Tracanna, Marloes L. C. Petrus, Gilles Van Wezel, Jos M. Raaijmakers, Marnix H. Medema & Paolina Garbeva
In disease-suppressive soils, microbiota protect plants from root infections. Bacterial members of this microbiota have been shown to produce specific molecules that mediate this phenotype. To date, however, studies have focused on individual suppressive soils and the degree of natural variability of soil suppressiveness remains unclear. Here, we screened a large collection of field soils for suppressiveness to Fusarium culmorum using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as a model host plant. A high variation of disease suppressiveness...

Herbivory meets fungivory: insect herbivores feed on plant pathogenic fungi for their own benefit

Franziska Eberl, Maite Fernandez De Bobadilla, Almuth Hammerbacher, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon & Sybille Unsicker
Plants are regularly colonized by fungi and bacteria, but plant-inhabiting microbes are rarely considered in studies on plant-herbivore interactions. Here we show that young gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars prefer to feed on black poplar (Populus nigra) foliage infected by the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina instead of uninfected control foliage, and selectively consume fungal spores. This consumption, also observed in a related lepidopteran species, is stimulated by the sugar alcohol mannitol, found in much higher...

Agricultural intensification reduces plant taxonomic and functional diversity across European arable systems.

Carlos P Carmona, Irene Guerrero, Begoña Peco, Manuel B. Morales, Juan J Onate, Tomas Pärt, Teja Tscharntke, Jaan Liira, Tsipe Aavik, Mark Emmerson, Frank Berendse, Piotr Ceryngier, Vincent Bretagnolle, Wolfgang Weisser & Jan Bengtsson
1. Agricultural intensification is one of the main drivers of species loss worldwide, but there is still a lack of information about its effect on functional diversity of arable weeds communities. 2. Using a large scale pan European study including 786 fields within 261 farms from eight countries, we analysed differences in the taxonomic and functional diversity of arable weeds assemblages across different levels of agricultural intensification in. We estimated weed species frequency in each...

Data from: A treasure from the past: former sperm whale distribution in Indonesian waters unveiled using distribution models and historical whaling data

Achmad Sahri, Mochamad Iqbal Herwata Putra, Putu Liza Kusuma Mustika & Albertinka J. Murk
Aim: This study is the first in Indonesia to assess historical sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) seasonal distributions by combining historical whaling data with environmental factors associated with sperm whale habitat preferences. Since current records of whale occurrence covering the whole of Indonesian waters are incomplete, we used historical whaling data summarized by Charles Haskins Townsend in 1935 to model its potential distribution for each season. Location: Indonesian waters (92-143E, 9N-14S) Taxa: Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Wageningen University & Research
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
  • Netherlands Institute of Ecology
  • Lund University
  • Texas A&M University
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
  • University of Liège
  • University of Cambridge
  • Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust
  • University of California, Berkeley