28 Works

Data from: Vegetation type controls root turnover in global grasslands

Jinsong Wang, Jian Sun, Zhen Yu, Yong Li, Dashuan Tian, Bingxue Wang, Zhaolei Li & Shuli Niu
Abstract: Aim: Root turnover is an important process determining carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. It is an established fact that root turnover is jointly regulated by climatic, edaphic, and biotic factors. However, the relative importance of these forces in determining the global patterns of root turnover time is far from clear. Location: Global. Time period: 1946–2017. Major taxa studied: Grasslands. Methods: We compiled a database of 141 sites with 433 observations on root...

Data from: Offspring dispersal ability covaries with nest-site choice

David M. Delaney & Fredric J. Janzen
Optimal maternal investment is often a tradeoff between conflicting pressures and varies depending upon environmental context and intrinsic female traits. Yet, offspring phenotype might also interact with such factors to influence investment. In aquatic turtles, terrestrial nests constructed farther from shore often have higher survival because nest predators tend to forage along environmental edges. However, offspring from eggs deposited farther inland must migrate farther to water upon emergence. We released hatchling common snapping turtles (Chelydra...

Data from: Variability in community productivity: mediating effects of vegetation attributes

Wayne H. Polley & Brian J. Wilsey
1. Plant productivity varies though time in response to environmental fluctuations. Reducing variability in productivity requires an improved understanding of how plant community attributes interact with environmental fluctuations to influence plant growth dynamics. We evaluated links between two community attributes, species diversity and abundance-weighted values of specific leaf area (SLA), and temporal variability in grassland productivity at patch (local) and aggregate (multi-patch) spatial scales. 2. Aggregate communities were created by combining patches of spatially-distinct communities...

Data from: The low but uncertain measured benefits of U.S. water quality policy

David A. Keiser, Catherine L. Kling & Joseph S. Shapiro
US investment to decrease pollution in rivers, lakes, and other surface waters has exceeded $1.9 trillion since 1960, and has also exceeded the cost of most other US environmental initiatives. These investments come both from the 1972 Clean Water Act and the largely voluntary efforts to control pollution from agriculture and urban runoff. This paper reviews the methods and conclusions of about 20 recent evaluations of these policies. Surprisingly, most analyses estimate that these policies’...

Data from: The Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system and obligate arthropod inquilines should be considered an evolutionary community

Jordan D. Satler & Bryan C. Carstens
Aim: The Sarracenia alata pitcher plant and inquiline species comprise an ecological community. These inquilines span the continuum in their ecological association with the host pitcher plant, from species that contain little-to-no interaction with the plant to species that are completely dependent on the plant for their entire life cycle. We are interested in testing if degree of ecological dependence is positively correlated with a shared evolutionary history, and in identifying members of this community...

Data from: Signatures of selection and environmental adaptation across the goat genome post-domestication

Licia Colli, Marco Milanesi, Andrea Talenti, Francesca Bertolini, Minhui Chen, Alessandra Crisà, Kevin Daly, Marcello Del Corvo, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Johannes A. Lenstra, Ben D. Rosen, Elia Vajana, Gennaro Catillo, Stéphane Joost, Ezequiel Luis Nicolazzi, Estelle Rochat, Max F. Rothschild, Bertrand Servin, Tad S. Sonstegard, Roberto Steri, Curtis P. Van Tassel, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Paola Crepaldi, Alessandra Stella & AdaptMap Consortium
Background: Since goat was domesticated 10,000 years ago, many factors have contributed to the differentiation of goat breeds and these are classified mainly into two types: (i) adaptation to different breeding systems and/or purposes and (ii) adaptation to different environments. As a result, approximately 600 goat breeds have developed worldwide; they differ considerably from one another in terms of phenotypic characteristics and are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. In this work, we...

Data from: Inferring roles in defense from metabolic allocation of rice diterpenoids

Xuan Lu, Juan Zhang, Benjamin Brown, Riqing Li, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Aileen Berasategui, Bo Liu, Meimei Xu, Dangping Luo, Zhiqiang Pan, Scott R. Baerson, Jonathan Gershenzon, Zhaohu Li, Ane Sesma, Bing Yang & Reuben J. Peters
Among their responses to microbial infection, plants deploy an arsenal of antibiotic natural products. While these historically have been identified on the basis of their antibiotic activity in vitro, this leaves open the question of their relevance to defense in planta. The vast majority of such natural products from the important crop plant rice (Oryza sativa) are diterpenoids whose biosynthesis proceeds via either ent- or syncopalyl diphosphate (CPP) intermediates, and which were isolated on the...

Data from: Air pollution and visitation at national parks

David Keiser, Gabriel Lade & Ivan Rudik
Hundreds of millions of visitors travel to U.S. national parks every year to visit America’s iconic landscapes. Concerns about air quality in these areas have led to strict, yet controversial pollution control policies. We document pollution trends in U.S. national parks and estimate the relationship between pollution and park visitation. From 1990-2014, average ozone concentrations in national parks were statistically indistinguishable from the 20 largest U.S. metropolitan areas. Further, relative to U.S. cities, national parks...

Data from: Reconciling multiple impacts of nitrogen enrichment on soil carbon: plant, microbial, and geochemical controls

Chenglong Ye, Dima Chen, Steven J. Hall, Shang Pan, Xuebin Yan, Tongshuo Bai, Hui Guo, Yi Zhang, Yongfei Bai & Shuijin Hu
Impacts of reactive nitrogen (N) inputs on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics are highly variable, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we proposed a new conceptual framework that integrates plant, microbial, and geochemical mechanisms to reconcile diverse and contrasting impacts of N on soil C. This framework was tested using long-term N enrichment and acid addition experiments in a Mongolian steppe grassland. Distinct mechanisms could explain effects of N on particulate and mineral-associated soil C...

Data from: Functional outcomes of mutualistic network interactions: a community-scale study of frugivore gut passage on germination

Evan C. Fricke, John Bender, Evan M. Rehm & Haldre S. Rogers
1. Current understanding of mutualistic networks is grounded largely in data on interaction frequency, yet mutualistic network dynamics are also shaped by interaction quality—the functional outcomes of individual interactions on reproduction and survival. The difficulty of obtaining data on functional outcomes has resulted in limited understanding of functional variation among a network’s pairwise species interactions, of the study designs that are necessary to capture major sources of functional variation, and of predictors of functional variation...

Data from: The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dalia A. Conde, Dave Hodgson, Felix Zajitschek, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Aurelio F. Malo, Susan C. Alberts, Peter H. Becker, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne M. Bronikowski, Kristel M. De Vleeschouwer, Richard J. Delahay, Stefan Dummermuth, Eduardo Fernández-Duque, John Frisenvænge, Martin Hesselsøe, Sam Larson, Jean-Francois Lemaitre, Jennifer McDonald, David A.W. Miller, Colin O'Donnell, Craig Packer, Becky E. Raboy, Christopher J. Reading … & Chris J. Reading
The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly-explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations, and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age-specific demographic rates and...

Data from: Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg & Elizabeth T. Borer
Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and...

Data from: Response to persistent er stress in plants: a multiphasic process that transitions cells from prosurvival activities to cell death

Renu Srivastava, Zhaoxia Li, Giulia Russo, Jie Tang, Ran Bi, Usha Muppirala, Sivanandan Chudalayandi, Andrew Severin, Mingze He, Samuel I. Vaitkevicius, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Peng Liu, Ann E. Stapleton, Diane C. Bassham, Federica Brandizzi & Stephen H. Howell
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved response that protects plants from adverse environmental conditions. The UPR is elicited by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in which unfolded and misfolded proteins accumulate within the ER. Here, we induced the UPR in maize (Zea mays) seedlings to characterize the molecular events that occur over time during persistent ER stress. We found that a multiphasic program of gene expression was interwoven among other cellular events, including...

Data from: Phylogenetic ANOVA: group-clade aggregation, biological challenges, and a refined permutation procedure

Dean C. Adams & Michael L. Collyer
Phylogenetic regression is frequently utilized in macroevolutionary studies, and its statistical properties have been thoroughly investigated. By contrast, phylogenetic ANOVA has received relatively less attention, and the conditions leading to incorrect statistical and biological inferences when comparing multivariate phenotypes among groups remains under-explored. Here we propose a refined method of randomizing residuals in a permutation procedure (RRPP) for evaluating phenotypic differences among groups while conditioning the data on the phylogeny. We show that RRPP displays...

Data from: Altered spring phenology of North American freshwater turtles and the importance of representative populations

Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker & Gordon R. Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon, Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Application of CRISPR/Cas9 to Tragopogon (Asteraceae), an evolutionary model for the study of polyploidy

Shengchen Shan, Evgeny V. Mavrodiev, Riqing Li, Zhengzhi Zhang, Bernard A. Hauser, Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis & Bing Yang
Tragopogon (Asteraceae) is an excellent natural system for studies of recent polyploidy. Development of an efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing platform in Tragopogon will facilitate novel studies of the genetic consequences of polyploidy. Here, we report our initial results of developing CRISPR/Cas9 in Tragopogon. We have established a feasible tissue culture and transformation protocol for Tragopogon. Through protoplast transient assays, use of the TragCRISPR system (i.e. the CRISPR/Cas9 system adapted for Tragopogon) was capable of introducing...

Data from: Genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of Kenyan domestic pigs

Fidalis D. Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow & Max Rothschild
The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Data from: Partitioning genetic and species diversity refines our understanding of species-genetic diversity relationships

Vera W Pfeiffer, Brett M Ford, Johann Housset, Audrey McCombs, José L Blanco-Pastor, Nicolas Gouin, Stephanie Manel & Angéline Bertin
Illuminating the origin of species-genetic diversity correlations (SGDCs) is a challenging task that has sparked a lot of interest. Genetic and species diversity are comprised by components that respond differently to the same ecological processes. Thus, it can be useful to partition species and genetic diversity into their different components to infer the mechanisms behind SGDCs. In this study, we applied such an approach using a high-elevation Andean wetland system, where previous evidence identified neutral...

Data from: Social context affects thermoregulation but not activity level during avian immune response

Grace J. Vaziri, Manju M. Johny, Petrutza C. Caragea & James S. Adelman
Determining how an animal’s social context alters its immune responses will help us understand how pathogens impact individual health and spread within groups. Several studies have shown that group-housed animals can suppress components of the acute phase immune response, specifically sickness behaviors like lethargy. However, we do not know whether individuals alter sickness behaviors or other components of the acute phase response, including thermoregulation, in response to the infection status of other group members. We...

Data from: Identification of candidate effector genes of Pratylenchus penetrans

Paulo Vieira, Thomas Mayer, Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Dana K. Howe, Inga Zasada, Thomas Baum, Jonathan D. Eisenback, Kathryn Kamo, Thomas R. Maier & Thomas J. Baum
Pratylenchus penetrans is one of the most important species among root lesion nematodes (RLNs) due to the detrimental and economic impact that it causes in a wide range of crops. Similar to other plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs), P. penetrans harbors a significant number of secreted proteins that play key roles during parasitism. Here we combined spatially and temporally resolved next generation sequencing datasets of P. penetrans to select a list of candidate genes aimed at the...

Data from: Variation in home-field advantage and ability in leaf litter decomposition across successional gradients

G.F. Ciska Veen, Ashley D. Keiser, Wim H. Van Der Putten, David A. Wardle & G. F. Ciska Veen
1. It is increasingly recognized that interactions between plants and soil (a)biotic conditions can influence local decomposition processes. For example, decomposer communities may become specialized in breaking down litter of plant species that they are associated with, resulting in accelerated decomposition, known as ‘home-field advantage’ (HFA). Also, soils can vary inherently in their capacity to degrade organic compounds, known as ‘ability’. However, we have a poor understanding how environmental conditions drive the occurrence of HFA...

Data from: Energy demand and the context-dependent effects of genetic interactions underlying metabolism

Luke A. Hoekstra, Cole R. Julick, Katelyn M. Mika & Kristi L. Montooth
Genetic effects are often context-dependent, with the same genotype differentially affecting phenotypes across environments, life stages, and sexes. We used an environmental manipulation designed to increase energy demand during development to investigate energy demand as a general physiological explanation for context-dependent effects of mutations, particularly for those mutations that affect metabolism. We found that increasing the period during which Drosophila larvae are active during development phenocopies a temperature-dependent developmental delay in a mitochondrial-nuclear genotype with...

Data from: Selection signatures underlying dramatic male inflorescence transformation during modern hybrid maize breeding

Joseph L. Gage, Michael R. White, Jode W. Edwards, Shawn Kaeppler & Natalia De Leon
Inflorescence capacity plays a crucial role in reproductive fitness in plants, and in production of hybrid crops. Maize is a monoecious species bearing separate male and female flowers (tassel and ear, respectively). The switch from open-pollinated populations of maize to hybrid-based breeding schemes in the early 20th century was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in tassel size, and the trend has continued with modern breeding over the recent decades. The goal of this study was...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Iowa State University
  • University of Minnesota
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Guelph
  • Utah State University
  • Duke University
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • University of Washington
  • University of Pretoria
  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology