14 Works

A new method to reconstruct quantitative food webs and nutrient flows from isotope tracer addition experiments

Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Matthieu Bruneaux, Sarah Michelle Collins, Rana El-Sabaawi, Alexander S Flecker & Steven A Thomas
Understanding how nutrients flow through food webs is central in ecosystem ecology. Tracer addition experiments are powerful tools to reconstruct nutrient flows by adding an isotopically enriched element into an ecosystem, and tracking its fate through time. Historically, the design and analysis of tracer studies have varied widely, ranging from descriptive studies to modeling approaches of varying complexity. Increasingly, isotope tracer data is being used being used to compare ecosystems and analyze experimental manipulations. Currently,...

Boreal predator co-occurrences reveal shared use of seismic lines in a working landscape

Erin R. Tattersall, Joanna M. Burgar, Jason T. Fisher & A. Cole Burton
Interspecific interactions are an integral aspect of ecosystem functioning that may be disrupted in an increasingly anthropocentric world. Industrial landscape change creates a novel playing field on which these interactions take place, and a key question for wildlife managers is whether and how species are able to coexist in such working landscapes. Using camera traps deployed in northern Alberta, we surveyed boreal predators to determine whether interspecific interactions affected occurrences of black bears (Ursus americanus),...

Spatial structure of reproductive success infers mechanisms of ungulate invasion in Nearctic boreal landscapes

Jason Fisher
1. Landscape change is a key driver of biodiversity declines due to habitat loss and fragmentation, but spatially shifting resources can also facilitate range expansion and invasion. Invasive populations are reproductively successful, and landscape change may buoy this success. 2. We show how modelling the spatial structure of reproductive success can elucidate the mechanisms of range shifts and sustained invasions for mammalian species with attendant young. We use an example of white-tailed deer (deer; Odocoileus...

Data from: Phosphorus limitation does not drive loss of bony lateral plates in freshwater stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Sophie L. Archambeault, Daniel J. Durston, Alex Wan, Rana El-Sabaawi, Blake Matthews & Catherine L. Peichel
Connecting the selective forces that drive the evolution of phenotypes to their underlying genotypes is key to understanding adaptation, but such connections are rarely tested experimentally. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are a powerful model for such tests because genotypes that underlie putatively adaptive traits have been identified. For example, a regulatory mutation in the Ectodysplasin (Eda) gene causes a reduction in the number of bony armor plates, which occurs rapidly and repeatedly when marine sticklebacks...

Post-disturbance conifer tree-ring δ15N reflects openness of the nitrogen cycle across temperate coastal rainforests

Marty Kranabetter & Barbara Hawkins
1. Post-disturbance losses in nitrogen (N) may diminish forest productivity, and soils with inherently ‘open’ N cycles (high nitrification rates) are considered the most vulnerable to leaching losses of NO3-. Monitoring ongoing N depletion from soil profiles is challenging, but tree-ring δ15N of regenerating stands may offer an effective method for assessing site-specific, long-term soil N dynamics. Evidence to date is mixed, however, and includes increasing, unchanging, or decreasing tree-ring δ15N in young stands following...

Complete tag loss in capture-recapture studies affects abundance estimates: an elephant seal case study

Emily Malcolm-White, Laura Cowen & Clive McMahon
1. In capture-recapture studies, recycled individuals occur when individuals lose all of their tags and are recaptured as though they were new individuals. Typically, the effect of these recycled individuals is assumed negligible. 2. Through a simulation-based study of double tagging experiments, we examined the effect of recycled individuals on parameter estimates in the Jolly-Seber model with tag loss (Cowen & Schwarz, 2006). We validated the simulation framework using long-term census data of elephant seals....

Resolving fine-scale population structure and fishery exploitation using sequenced microsatellites in a northern fish

Kara K.S. Layton, J. Brian Dempson, Paul V.R. Snelgrove, Steven J. Duffy, Amber M. Messmer, Ian Paterson, Nicholas W. Jeffery, Tony Kess, John B. Horne, Sarah J. Salisbury, Daniel E. Ruzzante, Paul Bentzen, David Côté, Cameron M. Nugent, Moira M. Ferguson, Jong S. Leong, Ben F. Koop & Ian R. Bradbury
The resiliency of populations and species to environmental change is dependent on the maintenance of genetic diversity, and as such quantifying diversity is central to combatting ongoing wide spread reductions in biodiversity. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, several methods now exist for resolving fine-scale population structure, but the comparative performance of these methods for genetic assignment has rarely been tested. Here we evaluate the performance of sequenced microsatellites and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...

Autosomal suppression and fitness costs of an old driving X chromosome in Drosophila testacea

Graeme Keais, SiJia Lu & Steve Perlman
Driving X chromosomes (XDs) are meiotic drivers that bias their own transmission through males by killing Y-bearing gametes. These chromosomes can in theory spread rapidly in populations and cause extinction, but many are found as balanced polymorphisms or as “cryptic” XDs shut down by drive suppressors. The relative likelihood of these outcomes, as well as the evolutionary pathways through which they come about, are not well-understood. An XD was recently discovered in the mycophagous fly,...

Data from: Increased diversity and concordant shifts in community structure of coral-associated Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria subjected to chronic human disturbance

Danielle Claar, Jamie McDevitt-Irwin, Melissa Garren, Rebecca Vega Thurber, Ruth Gates & Julia Baum
Coral-associated bacteria and endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodiniaceae spp.) are both vitally important for the biological function of corals. Yet little is known about their co-occurrence within corals, how their diversity varies across coral species, or how they are impacted by anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we sampled coral colonies (n = 472) from seven species, encompassing a range of life history traits, across a gradient of chronic human disturbance (n = 11 sites on Kiritimati (Christmas) atoll) in...

Data from: Convergent evolution of niche structure in Northeast Pacific kelp forests

Samuel Starko, Kyle Demes, Christopher Neufeld & Patrick Martone
Much of the morphological and ecological diversity present on earth is believed to have arisen through the process of adaptive radiation. Yet, this is seemingly at odds with substantial evidence that niches tend to be similar among closely related species (i.e., niche conservatism). Identifying the relative importance of these opposing processes in driving niche evolution under different circumstances is therefore essential to our understanding of the interaction between ecological and evolutionary phenomena. In this study,...

Museum epigenomics: characterizing cytosine methylation in historic museum specimens

Tricia Rubi, L. Lacey Knowles & Ben Dantzer
Museum genomics has transformed the field of collections-based research, opening up a range of new research directions for paleontological specimens as well as natural history specimens collected over the past few centuries. Recent work demonstrates that it is possible to characterize epigenetic markers such as DNA methylation in well preserved ancient tissues. This approach has not yet been tested in traditionally prepared natural history specimens such as dried bones and skins, the most common specimen...

Phylogenetic restriction of plant invasion in drought-stressed environments: implications for insect-pollinated plant communities in water-limited ecosystems

Andrew Simon, Hannah Marx & Brian Starzomski
Background: Plant-pollinator community diversity has been found to decrease under conditions of drought stress, however research into the temporal dimensions of this phenomenon remains limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of seasonal drought on the temporal niche dynamics of entomophilous flowering plants in a water-limited ecosystem. We hypothesized that closely related native and exotic plants would tend to share similar life history, and that peak flowering events would therefore coincide with phylogenetic clustering...

Limited genetic parallelism underlies recent, repeated incipient speciation in geographically proximate populations of an Arctic fish (Salvelinus alpinus)

Sarah J. Salisbury, Gregory R. McCracken, Robert Perry, Donald Keefe, Kara K. S. Layton, Tony Kess, Cameron M. Nugent, Jong S. Leong, Ian R. Bradbury, Ben F. Koop, Moira M. Ferguson & Daniel E. Ruzzante
The genetic underpinnings of incipient speciation, including the genomic mechanisms which contribute to morphological and ecological differentiation and reproductive isolation, remain poorly understood. The repeated evolution of consistently, phenotypically distinct morphs of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) within the Quaternary period offer an ideal model to study the repeatability of evolution at the genomic level. Sympatric morphs of Arctic Charr are found across this species' circumpolar distribution. However, the specific genetic mechanisms driving this morph differentiation...

Data from: Spatial patterns and rarity of the white-phased ‘Spirit Bear’ allele reveals gaps in habitat protection

Christina Service, Mathieu Bourbonnais, Megan Adams, Lauren Henson, Douglas Neasloss, Chris Picard, Paul Paquet & Chris Darimont
Preserving genetic and phenotypic diversity can help safeguard not only biodiversity but also cultural and economic values. Here, we present data that emerged from Indigenous-led research at the intersection of evolution and ecology to support conservation planning of a culturally salient, economically valuable, and rare phenotypic variant. We addressed three conservation objectives for the white-phased ‘Spirit bear’ polymorphism, a rare and endemic white-coated phenotype of black bear (Ursus americanus) in Kitasoo/Xai’xais and Gitga’at Territories and...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • University of Victoria
    14
  • University of British Columbia
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Dalhousie University
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    2
  • Stanford University
    1
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
    1
  • California State University, Monterey Bay
    1
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    1