53 Works

Data from: Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens

David Wragg, Joram M. Mwacharo, Paul M. Hocking, Olivier Hanotte & Jose A. Alcalde
Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chicken breeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional...

Data from: The modulating role of group stability on fitness effects of group size is different in females and males of a communally rearing rodent

Luis A. Ebensperger, Loreto A. Correa, Cecilia León, Juan Ramírez-Estrada, Sebastian Abades, Alvaro Villegas & Loren D. Hayes
Group size may influence fitness benefits and costs that emerge from cooperative and competitive interactions in social species. However, evidence from plural breeding mammals indicates that group size is insufficient to explain variation in direct fitness, implying other attributes of social groups were overlooked. We studied the natural population of a social rodent during 5 years to test the hypothesis that social stability – in terms of group composition – modulates the effects of increasing...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Agreements between industry and academia on publication rights: a retrospective study of protocols and publications of randomized clinical trials

Benjamin Kasenda, Erik Von Elm, John J. You, Anette Blümle, Yuki Tomonaga, Ramon Saccilotto, Alain Amstutz, Theresa Bengough, Joerg J. Meerpohl, Mihaela Stegert, Kelechi K. Olu, Kari A. O. Tikkinen, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Markus Faulhaber, Sohail M. Mulla, Dominik Mertz, Elie A. Akl, Dirk Bassler, Jason W. Busse, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Francois Lamontagne, Alain Nordmann, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz … & Matthias Briel
Background: Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i) the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii) the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii) the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees. Methods and Findings: We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical...

Data from: Ontogenetic thermal tolerance and performance of ectotherms at variable temperatures

Grisel Cavieres, Jose Miguel Bogdanovich & Francisco Bozinovic
Early experience and environmental conditions during ontogeny may effect organismal structure, physiology and fitness. Here, we assessed the effect of developmental acclimation to environmental thermal variability on walking speed in Drosophila melanogaster adults. Our results showed a shift in the performance curve to the right. Thus, upper and lower thermal limits exhibited developmental plasticity. Additionally, in constant and variable climatic scenarios, flies shifted to the right the optimum temperature but the maximum performance decreased only...

Data from: The phenotypic correlates and quantitative genetics of masculinization in the rodent, Octodon degus

Derek A. Roff, Matthew E. Wolak, Loreto A. Correa & Mauricio Soto-Gamboa
In some mammals female characteristics have been shown to depend in part on the intrauterine position during development of female fetuses relative to male fetuses. Females developing in close proximity to males show behavioural, physiological and life history characteristics that are masculinized. With the exception of one inconclusive study, nothing is known of the genetic basis of this phenomenon. In this paper we reported an analysis of the quantitative genetic basis of masculinization, as indicated...

Data from: Highly masculinized and younger males attain higher reproductive success in a social rodent

Loreto A. Correa, Cecilia León, Juan Ramírez-Estrada, Alvaro Ly-Prieto, Sebastian Abades, Loren D. Hayes, Mauricio Soto-Gamboa & Luis A. Ebensperger
Abstract: Alternative morphotypes have been reported in males of different taxa. In some mammals highly masculinized and slightly masculinized males represent two opposite ends along a gradient of phenotypic variation in males. This phenotypical gradient originates during prenatal development. Laboratory studies have documented how highly and slightly masculinized males differ in several traits, including their reproductive success. However, the extent to which these reported differences materialize in natural populations remains unknown. We quantified the impact...

Data from: Testing the effects of heterozygosity on growth rate plasticity in the seaweed Gracilaria chilensis (Rhodophyta)

Cristobal F. Gallegos Sanchez, Jessica Beltrán, Verónica Flores, Alejandra V. González & Bernabé Santelices
Heterozygosity has been positively associated with fitness and population survival. However, the relationship between heterozygosity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity (i.e., plasticity which results in fitness homeostasis or improvement in changing environments), is unclear and has been poorly explored in seaweeds. In this study, we explored this relationship in the clonal red seaweed, Gracilaria chilensis by conducting three growth rate plasticity experiments under contrasting salinity conditions and by measuring heterozygosity with five microsatellite DNA markers. Firstly,...

Genome-wide analyses reveal drivers of penguin diversification

Juliana Vianna, Flávia A. N. Fernandes, María José Frugone, Henrique V. Figueiró, Luis R. Pertierra, Daly Noll, Ke Bi, Cynthia Y. Wang-Claypool, Andrew Lowther, Patricia Parker, Celine Le Bohec, Francesco Bonadonna, Barbara Wienecke, Pierre Pistorius, Antje Steinfurth, Christopher P. Burridge, Gisele P. M. Dantas, Elie Poulin, W. Brian Simison, Jim Henderson, Eduardo Eizirik, Mariana F. Nery & Rauri C. K. Bowie
Penguins are the only extant family of flightless diving birds. They currently comprise at least 18 species, distributed from polar to tropical environments in the Southern Hemisphere. The history of their diversification and adaptation to these diverse environments remains controversial. We used 22 new genomes from 18 penguin species to reconstruct the order, timing, and location of their diversification, to track changes in their thermal niches through time, and to test for associated adaptation across...

The macroecology of fish migration

Dominique Alò, Shaw Lacy, Andrea Castillo, Horacio Samaniego & Pablo Marquet
Aim: We still lack a consensus on the main variables driving changes in migratory strategies. Different hypotheses have been proposed: productivity, energy, environmental heterogeneity, and genetic predisposition. This work takes an integrative view and analyzes migrations from a macroecological perspective estimating the extent to which different environmental variables and historic factors influence migratory life histories. Location: Global Time period: Current Major taxa studied: Actinopterygian fishes Methods: Using public domain museum records, global repositories, and global...

Effects of harvesting on subtidal kelp forests (Lessonia trabeculata) in Central Chile

Alejandro Pérez-Matus, Bryan Bularz, Miriam Fernández, Evie Wieters & María Dulce Subida
The systematic degradation of marine ecosystems is a global phenomenon that has important and diverse consequences including biodiversity loss and reduced ecosystem service provisions. In temperate regions, subtidal kelp forests are dominant ecosystems in rocky coasts, subjected to the influence of local-scale stressors and regional environmental variation. For example, kelps within the Humboldt Current System are at risk of degradation from live-harvesting by fisheries. However, limited information exists regarding the long-term consequences of kelp harvesting...

Data from: Decoupled evolution of foliar freezing resistance, temperature-niche and morphological leaf traits in Chilean Myrceugenia

Fernanda Pérez, Luis Felipe Hinojosa, Carmen Gloria Ossa, Francisa Campano & Francisca Campano
1. Phylogenetic conservatism of tolerance to freezing temperatures has been cited to explain the tendency of plant lineages to grow in similar climates. However there is little information about whether or not freezing resistance is conserved across phylogenies, and whether conservatism of physiological traits could explain conservatism of realized climatic niches. Here we compared the phylogenetical lability of realized climatic niche, foliar freezing resistance, and four morphological leaf traits that are generally considered adaptations to...

Data from: Genetic structure of introduced American mink (Neovison vison) in Patagonia: colonisation insights and implications for control and management strategies

Mónica Mora, Gonzalo Medina-Vogel, Maximiliano A. Sepúlveda, Daly Noll, Rocío Álvarez-Varas & Juliana A. Vianna
Context: Biological invasions have caused dramatic changes in native biodiversity and ecosystem function. Studies of genetic variation and evolutionary changes are useful for understanding population dynamics during biological invasions, and shed light on management, prevention and restoration strategies. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the structure and genetic variability of American mink (Neovison vison), an invasive species in southern South America, introduced for fur farming in the 1930s. Methods: Samples from 153 mink were obtained...

Data accompanying ‘Microstructural controls on thermal crack damage and the presence of a temperature-memory effect during cyclic thermal stressing of rocks’ submitted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters

John Browning, Ali Daoud, Philip Meredith & Thomas Mitchell
Acoustic emissions (AE) and ultrasonic wave velocity data recorded during a series of high temperature thermal cracking experiments by Daoud et al., in the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory of the University College London. The data gives the time and magnitude of AE output which were recorded contemporaneously whilst cyclically heating three rock types (A Slaufrudalur Granophyre, A Santorini Andesite and a Seljadalur Basalt). The ultrasonic wave velocity data was recorded pre- and post- heating....

Data from: Heat tolerance in ectotherms scales predictably with body size

Enrico Rezende & Ignacio Peralta-Maraver
This study analyses how heat stress varies with body size in ectothermic organisms. The analytical approach is based on thermal death time (TDT) curves, which take into consideration both the intensity and the duration of a thermal stress, and result in a linear relationship between temperature and the logarithm of time. We analyzed two separate heat tolerance datasets measured in mollusk, arthropod, fish, amphibian and reptile species, covering nearly 9 orders of magnitude in size....

Data from: Rapid within- and transgenerational changes in thermal tolerance and fitness in variable thermal landscapes

Grisel Cavieres, Enrico L. Rezende, Sabrina Clavijo-Baquet, Jose Alruiz, Carla Rivera-Rebella, Francisca Boher & Francisco Bozinovic
Phenotypic plasticity may increase performance and fitness and allow organisms to cope with variable environmental conditions. We studied within-generation plasticity and transgenerational effects of thermal conditions on temperature tolerance and demographic parameters in Drosophila melanogaster. We employed a fully factorial design, in which both parental (P) and offspring generations (F1) were reared in a constant or a variable thermal environment. Thermal variability during ontogeny increased heat tolerance in P, but with demographic cost as this...

Detection histories of mesocarnivores in agricultural areas of Southern Chile

Nicolás Gálvez, José Infante, Adrián Fernandez, Jesús Díaz & Lisanne Petracca
We obtained mesocarnivore detection/non-detection data from 180 sampling units (4 km2 each) located in the agricultural landscapes of southern Chile from January-April of 2019. We used single-species occupancy models to investigate the associations of forest fragmentation, forest loss, and private land ownership subdivision (as a measure of human use intensification) with the occurrence of four mesocarnivores (güiña, grey fox, culpeo fox, and Molina’s hog-nosed skunk), and extended this framework to two-species occupancy models to assess...

Disturbance and the (surprising?) role of ecosystem engineering in explaining spatial patterns of non-native plant establishment

Meredith Root-Bernstein, Cesar Muñoz & Juan Armesto
The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis is widely considered to be wrong but is rarely tested against alternative hypotheses. It predicts that soil disturbances and herbivory have identical impacts on species richness via identical mechanisms (reduction in biomass and in competition). An alternative hypothesis is that the specific traits of disturbance agents (small mammals) and plants differentially affects richness or abundance of different plant groups. We tested these hypotheses on a degu (Octodon degus) colony in central...

Taxonomy based on limited genomic markers may underestimates species diversity of rockhopper penguins and threaten their conservation

María José Frugone, Theresa Cole, María Eugenia López, Gemma Clucas, Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicolás Lois, Pierre Pistorius, Francesco Bonadonna, Phil Trathan, Andrea Polanowski, Barbara Wienecke, Andrea Raya-Rey, Klemens Pütz, Antje Steinfurth, Ke Bi, Cynthia Wang-Claypool, Rauri C. K. Bowie, Jonathan Waters, Elie Poulin & Juliana Vianna
Delimiting recently diverged species is challenging. During speciation, genetic differentiation may be distributed unevenly across the genome, as different genomic regions can be subject to different selective pressures and evolutionary histories. Reliance on limited numbers of genetic markers that may be underpowered can make species delimitation even more challenging, potentially resulting in taxonomic inconsistencies. Rockhopper penguins of the genus Eudyptes comprise three broadly recognized taxa: northern (E. moseleyi), southern (E. chrysocome), and eastern rockhopper (E....

Data from: O father where art thou? Paternity analyses in a natural population of the haploid-diploid seaweed Chrondrus crispus

Stacy A. Krueger-Hadfield, Denis Roze, Christophe Destombe, Juan A. Correa & Myriam Valero
The link between life history traits and mating systems in diploid organisms has been extensively addressed in the literature, whereas the degree of selfing and/or inbreeding in natural populations of haploid–diploid organisms, in which haploid gametophytes alternate with diploid sporophytes, has been rarely measured. Dioecy has often been used as a proxy for the mating system in these organisms. Yet, dioecy does not prevent the fusion of gametes from male and female gametophytes originating from...

Data from: Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia

Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Paves & Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic...

Metapopulation dynamics and foraging plasticity in a highly vagile seabird, the southern rockhopper penguin

Nicolas Lois, Leonardo Campagna, Ulises Balza, Michael Polito, Klemens Pütz, Juliana Vianna, Annick Morgenthaler, Esteban Frere, Ricardo Saenz-Samaniego, Andrea Raya Rey & Bettina Mahler
Population connectivity is driven by individual dispersal potential and modulated by natal philopatry. In seabirds, high vagility facilitates dispersal yet philopatry is also common, with foraging area overlap often correlated with population connectivity. We assess the interplay between these processes by studying past and current connectivity and foraging niche overlap among southern rockhopper penguin colonies of the coast of southern South America using genomic and stable isotope analyses. We found two distinct genetic clusters and...

Shrinking dinosaurs and the evolution of endothermy in birds

Enrico Rezende
The evolution of endothermy represents a major transition in vertebrate history and a major factor underlying the diversity of birds and mammals. Despite the several advantages of an endothermic lifestyle, the tempo and mode of the evolution of endothermy in these lineages remains one of the most controversial subjects in paleontology and evolutionary physiology. Here, we combine a heat transfer model with body size estimates in the theropod phylogeny to reconstruct the evolution of metabolic...

Data from: Comparative phylogeography of three host sea anemones in the Indo-Pacific

Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Madeleine Emms, Emily Giles, Remy Gatins, Gerrit Nanninga, Anna Scott, Jean Paul Hobbs, Ashley Frisch, Suzanne Mills, Ricardo Beldade & Michael Berumen
Aim The mutualistic relationship between anemones and anemonefishes is one of the most iconic examples of symbiosis. However, while anemonefishes have been extensively studied in terms of genetic connectivity, such information is lacking entirely for host sea anemones. Here, we provide the first information on the broad-scale population structure and phylogeographic patterns of three species of host sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla mertensii, and Entacmaea quadricolor. We evaluate if there is concordance in genetic structure...

After a catastrophe, a little bit of sex is better than nothing: genetic consequences of a major earthquake on asexual and sexual populations

Ronan Becheler, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Solenn Stoeckel, Stéphane Mauger, Alice Saunier, Antonio Brante, Destombe Christophe & Valero Myriam
Catastrophic events can have profound effects on the demography of a population and consequently, on genetic diversity. The dynamics of post-catastrophic recovery as well as the role of sexual versus asexual reproduction in buffering the effects of massive perturbations remain poorly understood, in part because the opportunity to document genetic diversity before and after such events is rare. Six natural (purely sexual) and seven cultivated (mainly clonal due to farming practices) populations of the red...

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