392 Works

Data from: Dissolved organic carbon and unimodal variation in sexual signal coloration in mosquitofish: a role for light limitation?

Sean T. Giery & Craig A. Layman
Natural selection plays an important role in the evolution of sexual communication systems. Here, we assess the effect of two well-known selection agents, transmission environment and predation, on interpopulation variation in sexual signals. Our model system is a series of 21 populations of Bahamian mosquitofish subjected to independent variation in optical conditions and predation risk. We show that optically diverse environments, caused by locally variable dissolved organic carbon concentrations, rather than spatial variation in predation,...

Data from: Comparing the genetic architecture and potential response to selection of native and invasive populations of reed canary grass

Brittny Calsbeek, Manisha Patel, Sebastien Lavergne & Jane Molofsky
Evolutionary processes such as migration, genetic drift, and natural selection are thought to play a prominent role in species invasions into novel environments. However, few empirical studies have explored the mechanistic basis of invasion in an evolutionary framework. One promising tool for inferring evolutionarily important changes in introduced populations is the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G matrix). G matrix comparisons allow for the inference of changes in the genetic architecture of introduced populations relative to their...

Data from: High genomic diversity and candidate genes under selection associated with range expansion in eastern coyote (Canis latrans) populations

Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Kristin E. Brzeski, Joseph W. Hinton, Brent R. Patterson, Linda Y. Rutledge, Alexandra L. DeCandia, Tyler Wheeldon, Steven R. Fain, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Roland Kays, Bradley N. White, Michael J. Chamberlain & Bridgett M. VonHoldt
Range expansion is a widespread biological process, with well described theoretical expectations for the genomic outcomes accompanying the colonization of novel ranges. However, comparatively few empirical studies address the genome-wide consequences associated with the range expansion process, particularly in recent or on-going expansions. Here, we assess two recent and distinct eastward expansion fronts of a highly mobile carnivore, the coyote (Canis latrans), to investigate patterns of genomic diversity and identify variants that may have been...

Data from: Widespread introgression of mountain hare genes into Fennoscandian brown hare populations

Riikka Levänen, Carl-Gustaf Thulin, Göran Spong, Jaakko L.O. Pohjoismäki & Jaakko L. O. Pohjoismäki
In Fennoscandia, mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and brown hare (Lepus europaeus) hybridize and produce fertile offspring, resulting in gene flow across the species barrier. Analyses of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) show that introgression occur frequently, but unavailability of appropriate nuclear DNA markers has made it difficult to evaluate the scale- and significance for the species. The extent of introgression has become important as the brown hare is continuously expanding its range northward, at the...

Data from: Information criteria for comparing partition schemes

Tae-Kun Seo & Jeffrey L. Thorne
When inferring phylogenies, one important decision is whether and how nucleotide substitution parameters should be shared across different subsets or partitions of the data. One sort of partitioning error occurs when heterogeneous subsets are mistakenly lumped together and treated as if they share parameter values. The opposite kind of error is mistakenly treating homogeneous subsets as if they result from distinct sets of parameters. Lumping and splitting errors are not equally bad. Lumping errors can...

Data from: The genetic architecture of ecological adaptation: intraspecific variation in host plant use by the lepidopteran crop pest Chloridea virescens

Sara J. Oppenheim, Fred Gould & Keith R. Hopper
Intraspecific variation in ecologically important traits is a cornerstone of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. The evolution and maintenance of this variation depends on genetic architecture, which in turn determines responses to natural selection. Some models suggest that traits with complex architectures are less likely to respond to selection than those with simple architectures, yet rapid divergence has been observed in such traits. The simultaneous evolutionary lability and genetic complexity of host plant...

Data from: Microenvironment and functional-trait context dependence predict alpine plant community dynamics

Benjamin Blonder, Rozalia E. Kapas, Rebecca M. Dalton, Bente J. Graae, Jacob M. Heiling & Øystein H. Opedal
Predicting the structure and dynamics of communities is difficult. Approaches linking functional traits to niche boundaries, species co‐occurrence and demography are promising, but have so far had limited success. We hypothesized that predictability in community ecology could be improved by incorporating more accurate measures of fine‐scale environmental heterogeneity and the context‐dependent function of traits. We tested these hypotheses using long term whole‐community demography data from an alpine plant community in Colorado. Species distributions along microenvironmental...

Data from: A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation

Patricia L. Mullins, Ricardo Kawada, James P. Balhoff, Andrew R. Deans, James Balhoff, Patricia Mullins & Andrew Deans
The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and Evaniscus rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under Evaniscus rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented...

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

Data from: Gene expression profiles associated with the transition to parasitism in Ancylostoma caninum larvae

Jennifer M. Moser, Tori Freitas, Prema Arasu & Greg Gibson
Ancylostoma caninum is a common canine parasite responsible for anemia and death in infected dogs. Gene expression profiling was used to investigate molecular differences between two different forms of the third larval stage (L3s): infective free-living larvae and in vitro serum-stimulated larvae that mimic the initial stages of parasitism of a host. We developed an A. caninum cDNA microarray consisting of 4191 EST clones, and used it to identify a set of 113 genes that...

Quantitative trait loci mapping in cichlid fishes: Aulonocara koningsi x Metriaclima mbenjii and Labidochromis caeruleus x Labeotropheus trewavasae

Kara Powder, Leah DeLorenzo, Victoria DeBrock, Aldo Carmona Baez, Patrick Ciccotto, Erin Peterson, Clare Stull, Natalie Roberts & Reade Roberts
Since the time of Darwin, biologists have sought to understand the evolution and origins of phenotypic variation. To understand the genetic and molecular sources of morphological differences, we capitalize on the cichlid fish system. Cichlids of the East African Rift Lakes have undergone an extensive adaptive radiation, including variation in body shape, head shape, and pigmentation. These morphological differences are often intimately linked to the ecology and behavior of these animals. Here, we investigate the...

Concatenated amino acid (AA) phylogenetic dataset of nuclear gene orthologs for Ephydroidea (Diptera)

Brian Wiegmann
The schizophoran superfamily Ephydroidea (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) includes eight families, ranging from the well-known vinegar flies (Drosophilidae) and shore flies (Ephydridae), to several small, relatively unusual groups, the phylogenetic placement of which has been particularly challenging for systematists. Extraordinary diversity in life histories, feeding habits, and morphology are hallmarks of fly biology, and the Ephydroidea are no exception. Extreme specialization can lead to “orphaned” taxa with no clear evidence for their phylogenetic position. To resolve relationships...

Pollen limitation of native plant reproduction in an urban landscape

Rebecca Irwin, Adrian Carper, Lynn Adler & Paige Warren
Premise: Evidence suggests that bees may benefit from moderate levels of human development. However, the effects of human development on pollination and reproduction of bee-pollinated plants are less well understood. Studies have measured natural variation in pollination and plant reproduction as a function of urbanization, but few have experimentally measured the magnitude of pollen limitation in urban versus non-urban sites. Doing so is important to unambiguously link changes in pollination to plant reproduction. Previous work...

Anonymized Researcher Interview Data - from the Raising the Profile of the NCSU Libraries Research Support Strategies & Engagement project

Hilary Davis & Colin Nickels
The data are from semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with researchers (all status levels from undergraduate to tenured faculty) at NC State University between August 2018 - January 2019

The distribution and spread of naturally occurring Medea selfish genetic elements in the United States

Sarah Cash, Fred Gould & Marce Lorenzen
Selfish genetic elements (SGEs) are DNA sequences that are transmitted to viable offspring in greater than Mendelian frequencies. Medea SGEs occur naturally in some populations of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and are expected to increase in frequency within populations and spread among populations. The large‐scale U.S. distributions of Medea‐4 (M4) had been mapped based on samples from 1993 to 1995. We sampled beetles in 2011–2014 and show that the distribution of M4 in the...

Microevolutionary change in mimicry? Erosion of rattling behaviour among nonvenomous snakes on islands lacking rattlesnakes

Bradley Allf, Amanda Sparkman & David Pfennig
Batesian mimics––harmless species that converge on the warning signals of a dangerous species––are spectacular examples of adaptation, but few documented cases involve acoustic signals. Even fewer studies have documented microevolutionary change in mimicry of any kind. Here, we describe potential evolutionary change in acoustic mimicry. Many nonvenomous snakes vibrate their tail tip when threatened, making a sound resembling a venomous rattlesnake. When we compared this behaviour between gopher snakes from mainland California where rattlesnakes are...

Environmental decomposition of olefinic cuticular hydrocarbons of Periplaneta americana generates a volatile pheromone that guides social behaviour

Eduardo Hatano, Ayako Wada-Katsumata & Coby Schal
Once emitted, semiochemicals are exposed to reactive environmental factors that may alter them, thus disrupting chemical communication. Some species, however, might have adapted to detect environmentally mediated breakdown products of their natural chemicals as semiochemicals. We demonstrate that air, water vapour and ultraviolet (UV) radiation break down unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of Periplaneta americana (American cockroach), resulting in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In behavioural assays, nymphs strongly avoided aggregating in shelters exposed...

Great smoky mountain ant community composition

Nathan J. Sanders, Jean-Philippe Lessard & Robert R. Dunn
Disentangling the drivers of diversity gradients can be challenging. The Measurement of Biodiversity (MoB) framework decomposes scale-dependent changes in species diversity into three components of community structure: the species abundance distribution (SAD), the total community abundance, and the within-species spatial aggregation. Here we extend MoB from categorical treatment comparisons to quantify variation along continuous geographic or environmental gradients. Our approach requires sites along a gradient, each consisting of georeferenced plots of abundance-based species composition data....

Molecular prevalence of Bartonella, Babesia, and hemotropic Mycoplasma species in dogs with hemangiosarcoma from across the United States

Erin Lashnits, Pradeep Neupane, Julie Bradley, Toni Richardson, Rachael Thomas, Keith Linder, Matthew Breen & Ricardo Maggi
Hemangiosarcoma (HSA), a locally invasive and highly metastatic endothelial cell neoplasm, accounts for two-thirds of all cardiac and splenic neoplasms in dogs. Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with neoplastic and non-neoplastic vasoproliferative lesions in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in conjunction with two other hemotropic pathogens, Babesia spp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma spp., in tissues and blood samples from 110 dogs with...

Development and testing of a novel Killer-Rescue self-limiting gene drive system in Drosophila melanogaster

Maxwell Scott, Sophia Webster & Michael Vella
Here we report the development and testing of a novel self-limiting gene drive system, Killer-Rescue, in Drosophila melanogaster. This system is composed of an auto-regulated Gal4 Killer (K) and a Gal4-activated Gal80 Rescue (R). Overexpression of Gal4 is lethal, but in the presence of R activation of Gal80 leads to much lower levels of Gal4 and rescue of lethality. We demonstrate that with a single 2:1 engineered to wildtype release, K drives R through the...

Relative reproductive phenology and synchrony affect neonate survival in a nonprecocial ungulate

Eric Michel, Bronson Strickland, Stephen Demarais, Jerrold Belant, Todd Kautz, Jared Duquette, Dean Beyer, Michael Chamberlain, Karl Miller, Rebecca Shuman, John Kilgo, Duane Diefenbach, Bret Wallingford, Justin Vreeland, Steve Ditchkoff, Christopher DePerno, Christopher Moorman, Michael Chitwood & Marcus Lashley
1. Degree of reproductive synchronization in prey is hypothesized as a predator defense strategy reducing prey risk via predator satiation or predator avoidance. Species with precocial young, especially those exposed to specialist predators, should be highly synchronous to satiate predators (predator satiation hypothesis), while prey with nonprecocial (i.e., altricial) young, especially those exposed to generalist predators, should become relatively asynchronous to avoid predator detection (predator avoidance hypothesis). The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America...

Resonance Raman confirms partial hemoglobin preservation in dinosaur remains

Brandon Long
Still-soft, hollow, and flexible structures that are morphologically consistent with blood vessels were recovered from demineralized dinosaur bone and studied with resonance Raman techniques to test the hypothesis that these vessel-like structures are original to the dinosaur, and that they maintain endogenous molecular characteristics. We probed these ancient samples using resonance Raman at two different wavelengths, and the existence of a stronger resonance Raman signal level in the green compared to blue excitation is consistent...

Legacy effect of grazing intensity mediates the bottom-up controls of resource addition on soil food webs

Dima Chen, Bing Wang, Ying Wu, Shuijin Hu & Yongfei Bai
1. Large-scale studies have demonstrated that nitrogen (N) and water (W) availability greatly affect terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and this is especially true for the resource-poor semi-arid grasslands. Yet, experimental evidence is lacking for how N and W availability affect soil food webs across historical grazing intensity-altered environments at a local scale. 2. Here, we included N- and W-addition treatments in an 8-year grazing experiment (with four grazing intensities) to determine how the legacy effects of...

Deconstructing incubation behaviour in response to ambient temperature over different timescales

David Diez-Méndez, Caren Cooper, Juan José Sanz, Jose Verdejo & Emilio Barba
Avian embryos need a stable thermal environment to develop optimally, while incubating females need to allocate time to self-maintenance off the nest. In species with female-only incubation, eggs are exposed to ambient temperatures that usually cool them down during female absences. The lower the ambient temperature the sooner females should return to re-warm the eggs. When incubation constraints ease at increasing ambient temperatures, females respond by increasing either incubation effort or self-maintenance time. These responses...

Data from: Mammal-bearing gastric pellets potentially attributable to Troodon formosus at the Cretaceous Egg Mountain locality, Two Medicine Formation, Montana, U.S.A.

William Freimuth, David Varricchio, Alexandria Brannick, Lucas Weaver & Gregory Wilson Mantilla
Fossil gastric pellets (regurgitalites) have distinct taphonomic characteristics that facilitate inferences of behavioural ecology in deep time, despite their rarity in the fossil record. Using the taphonomic patterns of both extant and fossil small mammals from more recent geologic deposits as a guide, we assess the taphonomy of three unusual multi-individual aggregates of mammal skeletons from paleosols at Egg Mountain, a dinosaur nesting locality from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation, Montana, USA. One aggregate...

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