370 Works

Effects of an alternative host on the prevalence and infection intensity of a bumble bee parasite

Rebecca Irwin & Simon Pinilla-Gallego
Several bee parasites are transmitted through flowers, and some of them can infect multiple host species. Given the shared use of flowers by bee species, parasites can potentially encounter multiple host species, which could affect the evolution of parasite virulence. We used the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia bombi and its host, the common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens), to explore the effect of infecting an alternative host, the alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata), on parasite infectivity...

Floral shape predicts bee-parasite transmission potential

Rebecca Irwin, Mario Pinilla-Gallego, Wee-Hao Ng & Victoria Amaral
The spread of parasites is one of the primary drivers of population decline of both managed and wild bees. Several bee parasites are transmitted by the shared use of flowers, turning floral resources into potential disease hotspots. However, we know little about how floral morphology and floral species identity affect different steps of the transmission process. Here, we used the gut parasite Crithidia bombi and its primary host, bumble bees (Bombus spp.), to examine whether...

Detecting flying insects using car nets and DNA metabarcoding

Cecilie Svenningsen, Tobias Guldberg Frøslev, Jesper Bladt, Lene Bruhn Pedersen, Jonas Colling Larsen, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Camilla Fløjgaard, Anders Hansen, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Robert Dunn & Anders Tøttrup
Monitoring insects across space and time is challenging, due to their vast taxonomic and functional diversity. This study demonstrates how nets mounted on rooftops of cars (car nets) and DNA metabarcoding can be applied to sample flying insect richness and diversity across large spatial scales within a limited time period. During June 2018, 365 car net samples were collected by 151 volunteers during two daily time intervals on 218 routes in Denmark. Insect bulk samples...

Data from: Are shy individuals less behaviorally variable? Insights from a captive population of mouse lemurs

Jennifer L. Verdolin & John Harper
Increasingly, individual variation in personality has become a focus of behavioral research in animal systems. Boldness and shyness, often quantified as the tendency to explore novel situations, are seen as personality traits important to the fitness landscape of individuals. Here we tested for individual differences within and across contexts in behavioral responses of captive mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) to novel objects, novel foods, and handling. We report consistent differences in behavioral responses for objects and...

Data from: Rapid human-induced divergence of life-history strategies in Bahamian livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae)

Rüdiger Riesch, Tara Easter, Craig A. Layman & Randall Brian Langerhans
1. Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) can have dramatic impacts on ecosystems, leading to rapid trait changes in some organisms and extinction in others. Such changes in traits signify that human actions can lead to cases of increased phenotypic diversity and consequently can strongly impact population-, community- and ecosystem-level dynamics. 2. Here, we examine whether the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation have led to changes in the life histories of three native species of mosquitofish...

Data from: Effects of plant functional group loss on soil biota and net ecosystem exchange: a plant removal experiment in the Mongolian grassland

Dima Chen, Qingmin Pan, Yongfei Bai, Shuijin Hu, Jianhui Huang, Qibing Wang, Shahid Naeem, James J. Elser, Jianguo Wu & Xingguo Han
1. The rapid loss of global biodiversity can greatly affect the functioning of above-ground components of ecosystems. However, how such biodiversity losses affect below-ground communities and linkages to soil carbon (C) sequestration is unclear. Here we describe how losses in plant functional groups (PFGs) affect soil microbial and nematode communities and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a 4-year removal experiment conducted on the Mongolian plateau, the world's largest remaining natural grassland. 2. Our results demonstrated...

Data from: Global genetic analysis reveals the putative native source of the invasive termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, in France

Elfie Perdereau, Anne-Geneviève Bagnères-Urbany, Stephanie Bankhead-Dronnet, Simon Dupont, Marie Zimmermann, Edward L. Vargo & Franck Dedeine
Biological invasions are recognized as a major threat to both natural and managed ecosystems. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses can provide information about the geographical origins and patterns of introduction and explain the causes and mechanisms by which introduced species have become successful invaders. Reticulitermes flavipes is a North American subterranean termite that has been introduced into several areas, including France where introduced populations have become invasive. To identify likely source populations in the USA...

Data from: Assessing gene-environment interactions for common and rare variants with binary traits using gene-trait similarity regression

Guolin Zhao, Rachel Marceau, Daowen Zhang, Jung-Ying Tzeng & J.-Y. Tzeng
Accounting for gene-environment (GxE) interactions in complex trait association studies can facilitate our understanding of genetic heterogeneity under different environmental exposures, improve the ability to discover susceptible genes that exhibit little marginal effect, provide insight into the biological mechanisms of complex diseases, help to identify high-risk subgroups in the population, and uncover hidden heritability. However, significant GxE interactions can be difficult to find. The sample sizes required for sufficient power to detect association are much...

Data from: Pre-infection effects of nectar secondary compounds on a bumble bee gut pathogen

Kristen Michaud, Rebecca Irwin, Nicholas Barber & Lynn Adler
Bumble bee pollinators can be exposed to pathogens when foraging on flowers previously visited by infected individuals. Infectious cells may be deposited in floral nectar, providing a site for pathogens to interact with nectar secondary compounds prior to infecting bees. Some nectar secondary compounds can reduce pathogen counts in infected bumble bees, but we know less about how exposure to these compounds directly affects pathogens prior to being ingested by their host. We exposed the...

Data from: Natural selection and repeated patterns of molecular evolution following allopatric divergence

Yibo Dong, Shichao Chen, Shifeng Cheng, Wenbin Zhou, Qing Ma, Zhiduan Chen, Cheng-Xin Fu, Xin Liu, Yun-Peng Zhao, Pamela S. Soltis, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Douglas E. Soltis & Jenny Xiang
Background: Geographic speciation is a major force in generating biodiversity. However, how genomes diverge over time after geographic isolation has halted gene flow has remained unclear. We examine genome-wide divergence of putatively single-copy orthologous genes (POGs) from transcriptomes in 20 allopatric species/variety pairs from diverse angiosperm clades. Sixteen of these pairs reflect the well-known eastern Asia – eastern North America floristic disjunction; these species have been isolated for different lengths of time, from the Miocene...

Data from: Grouping substitution types into different relaxed molecular clocks

Hui-Jie Lee, Hirohisa Kishino, Nicolas Rodrigue & Jeffrey L. Thorne
Different types of nucleotide substitutions experience different patterns of rate change over time. We propose clustering context-dependent (or context-independent) nucleotide substitution types according to how their rates change and then using the grouping for divergence time estimation. With our models, relative rates among types that are in the same group are fixed, whereas absolute rates of the types within a group change over time according to a shared relaxed molecular clock. We illustrate our procedure...

Data from: Importance of deep water uptake in tropical eucalypt forest

Mathias Christina, Yann Nouvellon, Jean-Paul Laclau, Jose L. Stape, Jean-Pierre Bouillet, George R. Lambais & Guerric Le Maire
Climate models predict that the frequency, intensity and duration of drought events will increase in tropical regions. Although water withdrawal from deep soil layers is generally considered to be an efficient adaptation to drought, there is little information on the role played by deep roots in tropical forests. Tropical Eucalyptus plantations managed in short rotation cycles are simple forest ecosystems that may provide an insight into the water use by trees in tropical forests. The...

Data from: Does hunting or hiking affect wildlife communities in protected areas?

Roland Kays, Arielle W. Parsons, Megan C. Baker, Ellizabeth L. Kalies, Tavis Forrester, Robert Costello, Christopher T. Rota, Joshua J. Millspaugh & William J. McShea
Managed public wild areas have dual mandates to protect biodiversity and provide recreational opportunities for people. These goals could be at odds if recreation, ranging from hiking to legal hunting, disrupts wildlife enough to alter their space use or community structure. We evaluated the effect of managed hunting and recreation on 12 terrestrial wildlife species by employing a large citizen science camera trapping survey at 1947 sites stratified across different levels of human activities in...

Data from: Taxonomic resolution is a determinant of biodiversity effects in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities

Haishui Yang, Qian Zhang, Roger T. Koide, Jason D. Hoeksema, Jianjun Tang, Xinmin Bian, Shuijin Hu & Xin Chen
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are key regulators of ecosystem processes, yet how their biodiversity works in ecosystems remains poorly understood. We documented the extent to which taxonomic resolution influenced the effect of biodiversity of AMF taxa on plant performance (growth, nutrient uptake and stress tolerance) in a meta-analysis of 902 articles. We found that the effect of biodiversity of AMF taxa depended on taxonomic resolution. Plant performance was positively promoted by AMF family richness, while...

Data from: Male courtship preference during seasonal sympatry may maintain population divergence

Abigail A. Kimmitt, Samantha L. Dietz, Dustin G. Reichard & Ellen D. Ketterson
Animal migration can lead to a population distribution known as seasonal sympatry, in which closely related migrant and resident populations of the same species co-occur in sympatry during part of the year, but are otherwise allopatric. During seasonal sympatry in early spring, residents may initiate reproduction before migrants depart, presenting an opportunity for gene flow. Differences in reproductive timing between migrant and resident populations may favor residents that exhibit preferences for potential mates of similar...

Data from: Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies

Heather M. Hines, Brian A. Counterman, Riccardo Papa, Priscila Albuquerque De Moura, Marcio Z. Cardoso, Mauricio Linares, James Mallet, Robert D. Reed, Chris D. Jiggins, Marcus R. Kronforst & W. Owen McMillan
The mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene have undergone parallel radiations to form a near-identical patchwork of over 20 different wing pattern races across the Neotropics. Previous molecular phylogenetic work on these radiations has suggested that similar but geographically disjunct color patterns arose multiple times independently in each species. The neutral markers used in these studies, however, can move freely across color pattern boundaries and therefore might not represent the history of the adaptive...

Data from: Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

Kaitlin C. Maguire, Douglas J. Shinneman, Kevin M. Potter & Valerie D. Hipkins
Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of...

Data from: Efficacy of Aedes aegypti control by indoor Ultra Low Volume (ULV) insecticide spraying in Iquitos, Peru

Christian E. Gunning, Kenichi Okamoto, Helvio Astete, Gissella M. Vasquez, Erik B. Erhardt, Clara Del Aguila, Raul Pinedo, Roldan Cardenas, Carlos Pacheco, Enrique Chalco, Hugo Rodriguez-Ferruci, Thomas W. Scott, Alun L. Lloyd, Fred Gould, Amy C. Morrison, Kenichi W. Okamoto & Erik Erhardt
Background: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and urban yellow fever viruses. Indoor, ultra low volume (ULV) space spraying with pyrethroid insecticides is the main approach used for Ae. aegypti emergency control in many countries. Given the widespread use of this method, the lack of large-scale experiments or detailed evaluations of municipal spray programs is problematic. Methodology/Principal Findings: Two experimental evaluations of non-residual, indoor ULV pyrethroid spraying were conducted in Iquitos,...

Data from: Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs

Javier Monzón, Roland Kays & Daniel E. Dykhuizen
The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids in order to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution, and...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of plant growth rate following experimental removal of herbivores

Nash E. Turley, Walter C. Odell, Hanno Schaefer, Georg Everwand, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Herbivores are credited with driving the evolutionary diversification of plant defensive strategies over macroevolutionary time. For this to be true, herbivores must also cause short-term evolution within plant populations, but few studies have experimentally tested this prediction. We addressed this gap using a long-term manipulative field experiment where exclosures protected 22 plant populations from natural rabbit herbivory for <1 to 26 years. We collected seeds of Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) from our plots and grew...

Data from: Experimental evidence does not support the Habitat Amount Hypothesis

Nick M. Haddad, Andrew Gonzalez, Lars A. Brudvig, Melissa A. Burt, Douglas J. Levey & Ellen I. Damschen
For a half century, habitat configuration – the arrangement of habitat patches within a landscape – has been central to theories of landscape ecology, population dynamics, and community assembly, in addition to conservation strategies. A recent hypothesis advanced by Fahrig (2013) would, if supported, greatly diminish the relevance of habitat configuration as a predictor of diversity. The Habitat Amount Hypothesis posits that the sample area effect overrides patch size and patch isolation effects of habitat...

Data from: Hemimetabolous genomes reveal molecular basis of termite eusociality

Mark C Harrison, Evelien Jongepier, Hugh M. Robertson, Nicolas Arning, Tristan Bitard-Feildel, Hsu Chao, Christopher P. Childers, Huyen Dinh, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Johannes Gowin, Carolin Greiner, Yi Han, Haofu Hu, Daniel S.T. Hughes, Ann-Kathrin Huylmans, Carsten Kemena, Lukas P.M. Kremer, Sandra L. Lee, Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Ludovic Mallet, Jose M. Monroy-Kuhn, Annabell Moser, Shwetha C. Murali, Donna M. Muzny … & Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Around 150 million years ago, eusocial termites evolved from within the cockroaches, 50 million years before eusocial Hymenoptera, such as bees and ants, appeared. Here, we report the 2-Gb genome of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and the 1.3-Gb genome of the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. We show evolutionary signatures of termite eusociality by comparing the genomes and transcriptomes of three termites and the cockroach against the background of 16 other eusocial and non-eusocial insects....

Data from: Size, sex, and individual-level behavior drive intra-population variation in cross-ecosystem foraging of a top-predator

James C. Nifong, Craig A. Layman & Brian R. Silliman
1. Large-bodied, top-predators are often highly mobile, with the potential to provide important linkages between spatially distinct food webs. What biological factors contribute to variation in cross-ecosystem movements, however, have rarely been examined. 2. Here, we investigated how ontogeny (body size), sex, and individual-level behavior impacts intra-population variation in cross-ecosystem foraging (i.e., between freshwater and marine systems), by the top-predator Alligator mississippiensis. 3. Field surveys revealed A. mississippiensis uses marine ecosystems regularly and are abundant...

Data from: Inducible versus constitutive social immunity: examining effects of colony infection on glucose oxidase and defensin-1 production in honeybees

Margarita M. López-Uribe, Andrea Fitzgerald & Michael Simone-Finstrom
Honeybees use a variety of defence mechanisms to reduce disease infection and spread throughout the colony. Many of these defences rely on the collective action of multiple individuals to prevent, reduce or eradicate pathogens—often referred to as ‘social immunity’. Glucose oxidase (GOX) and some antimicrobial peptides (e.g. defensin-1 or Def1) are secreted by the hypopharyngeal gland of adult bees on larval food for their antiseptic properties. Because workers secrete these compounds to protect larvae, they...

Data from: Little evidence for morphological change in a resilient endemic species following the introduction of a novel predator

Diana M. T. Sharpe, R. Brian Langerhans, Etienne Low-Décarie & Lauren J Chapman
Human activities, such as species introductions, are dramatically and rapidly altering natural ecological processes, and often result in novel selection regimes. To date, we still have a limited understanding of the extent to which such anthropogenic selection may be driving contemporary phenotypic change in natural populations. Here we test whether the introduction of the piscivorous Nile perch, Lates niloticus, into East Africa's Lake Victoria and nearby lakes coincided with morphological change in one resilient native...

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