Herbivores are credited with driving the evolutionary diversification of plant defensive strategies over macroevolutionary time. For this to be true, herbivores must also cause short-term evolution within plant populations, but few studies have experimentally tested this prediction. We addressed this gap using a long-term manipulative field experiment where exclosures protected 22 plant populations from natural rabbit herbivory for <1 to 26 years. We collected seeds of Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) from our plots and grew...
Data from: Global genetic analysis reveals the putative native source of the invasive termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, in FranceElfie Perdereau, Anne-Geneviève Bagnères-Urbany, Stephanie Bankhead-Dronnet, Simon Dupont, Marie Zimmermann, Edward L. Vargo & Franck Dedeine
Biological invasions are recognized as a major threat to both natural and managed ecosystems. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses can provide information about the geographical origins and patterns of introduction and explain the causes and mechanisms by which introduced species have become successful invaders. Reticulitermes flavipes is a North American subterranean termite that has been introduced into several areas, including France where introduced populations have become invasive. To identify likely source populations in the USA...
Data from: Clinal variation in colony breeding structure and level of inbreeding in the subterranean termites Reticulitermes flavipes and R. grasseiEdward L. Vargo, Laurianne Leniaud, Lois E. Swoboda, Sarah E. Diamond, Michael D. Weiser, Dini M. Miller & Anne-Geneviève Bagnères-Urbany
Social insects exhibit remarkable variation in their colony breeding structures, both within and among species. Ecological factors are believed to be important in shaping reproductive traits of social insect colonies, yet there is little information linking specific environmental variables with differences in breeding structure. Subterranean termites (Rhinotermitidae) show exceptional variation in colony breeding structure, differing in the number of reproductives and degree of inbreeding; colonies can be simple families headed by a single pair of...
Data from: Predation's role in life-history evolution of a livebearing fish and a test of the Trexler-DeAngelis model of maternal provisioningRüdiger Riesch, Ryan A. Martin & R. Brian Langerhans
Populations experiencing consistent differences in predation risk and resource availability are expected to follow divergent evolutionary trajectories. For example, live-history theory makes specific predictions for how predation should drive life-history evolution, and according to the Trexler-DeAngelis model for the evolution of matrotrophy, post-fertilization maternal provisioning is most likely to evolve in environments with consistent, high levels of resource availability. Using the model system of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes with and without the...
The belly button is one of the habitats closest to us, and yet it remains relatively unexplored. We analyzed bacteria and arachaea from the belly buttons of humans from two different populations sampled within a nation-wide citizen science project. We examined bacterial and archaeal phylotypes present and their diversity using multiplex pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA libraries. We then tested the oligarchy hypothesis borrowed from tropical macroecology, namely that the frequency of phylotypes in one sample...
Data from: The genetic architecture of a complex ecological trait: host plant use in the specialist moth, Heliothis subflexaSara Jane Oppenheim, Fred Gould & Keith Roderick Hopper
We used genetic mapping to examine the genetic architecture of differences in host plant use between two species of noctuid moths, Heliothis subflexa, a specialist on Physalis spp., and its close relative, the broad generalist H. virescens. We introgressed H. subflexa chromosomes into the H. virescens background and analyzed 1,462 backcross insects. The effects of H. subflexa-origin chromosomes were small when measured as the percent variation explained in backcross populations (0.2 to 5%), but were...
The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems can sequester carbon to mitigate climate change is a matter of debate. The stimulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been assumed to be a major mechanism facilitating soil carbon sequestration by increasing carbon inputs to soil and by protecting organic carbon from decomposition via aggregation. We present evidence from four independent microcosm and field experiments demonstrating that CO2 enhancement of AMF results...
Data from: A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotationPatricia L. Mullins, Ricardo Kawada, James P. Balhoff, Andrew R. Deans, James Balhoff, Patricia Mullins & Andrew Deans
The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and Evaniscus rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under Evaniscus rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented...
Data from: Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variationHeather M. Hines, Riccardo Papa, Mayte Ruiz, Alexie Papanicolaou, Charles Wang, H. Frederik Nijhout, W. Owen McMillan & Robert D. Reed
BACKGROUND: Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of...
Even though premating isolation is hypothesized to be a major driving force in speciation, its genetic basis is poorly known. In the noctuid moth Heliothis subflexa, one group of sex pheromone components, the acetates, emitted by the female, plays a crucial isolating role in preventing interspecific matings to males of the closely related Heliothis virescens, in which females do not produce acetates and males are repelled by them. We previously found intraspecific variation in acetates...
Broad-scale geographical gradients in the abiotic environment and interspecific interactions should select for clinal adaptation. How trait clines evolve has recently received increased attention because of anticipated climate change and the importance of rapid evolution in invasive species. This issue is particularly relevant for clines in growth and defense of plants, because both sets of traits are closely tied to fitness and because such sessile organisms experience strong local selection. Yet, despite widespread recognition that...
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...
North Carolina State University12
United States Department of Agriculture2
National Museums Scotland1
Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology1
Wayne State University1
University of North Carolina1
North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences1