44 Works

Detecting flying insects using car nets and DNA metabarcoding

Cecilie Svenningsen, Tobias Guldberg Frøslev, Jesper Bladt, Lene Bruhn Pedersen, Jonas Colling Larsen, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Camilla Fløjgaard, Anders Hansen, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Robert Dunn & Anders Tøttrup
Monitoring insects across space and time is challenging, due to their vast taxonomic and functional diversity. This study demonstrates how nets mounted on rooftops of cars (car nets) and DNA metabarcoding can be applied to sample flying insect richness and diversity across large spatial scales within a limited time period. During June 2018, 365 car net samples were collected by 151 volunteers during two daily time intervals on 218 routes in Denmark. Insect bulk samples...

Combining epidemiological and ecological methods to quantify social effects on E. coli transmission

Trevor Farthing, Daniel Dawson, Michael Sanderson, Hannah Seger & Cristina Lanzas
Enteric microparasites like Escherichia coli utilize multiple transmission pathways to propagate within and between host populations. Characterizing the relative transmission risk attributable to host social relationships, and direct physical contact between individuals is paramount for understanding how microparasites like E. coli spread within affected communities and estimating colonization rates. To measure these effects, we carried out commensal E. coli transmission experiments in two cattle (Bos taurus) herds, wherein all individuals were equipped with real-time location...

A new pipeline for removing paralogs in target enrichment data

Wenbin Zhou, John Soghigian &
Target enrichment (such as Hyb-Seq) is a well-established high throughput sequencing method that has been increasingly used for phylogenomic studies. Unfortunately, current widely used pipelines for analysis of target enrichment data do not have a vigorous procedure to remove paralogs in target enrichment data. In this study, we develop a pipeline we call Putative Paralogs Detection (PPD) to better address putative paralogs from enrichment data. The new pipeline is an add-on to the existing HybPiper...

Data From: Phylogenomics reveals accelerated late Cretaceous diversification of bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae)

Xuankun Li, Luisa C. Teasdale, Keith M. Bayless, Allan G. Ellis, Brian M. Wiegmann, Carlos José E. Lamas, Christine L. Lambkin, Neal L. Evenhuis, James A. Nicholls, Diana Hartley, Seunggwan Shin, Michelle Trautwein, Andreas Zwick, Bryan D. Lessard & David K. Yeates
Bombyliidae is a very species-rich and widespread family of parasitoid flies with more than 250 genera classified into 17 extant subfamilies. However, little is known about their evolutionary history or how their present-day diversity was shaped. Transcriptomes of 15 species and anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) sequence captures of 86 species, representing 94 bee fly species and 14 subfamilies, were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Bombyliidae. We integrated data from transcriptomes across each of the...

A novel body plan alters diversification of body shape and genitalia in live-bearing fish

R. Brian Langerhans & Eduardo Rosa-Molinar
Major evolutionary innovations can greatly influence subsequent evolution. While many major transitions occurred in the deep past, male live-bearing fishes (family Poeciliidae) more recently evolved a novel body plan. This group possesses a three-region axial skeleton, with one region—the ano-urogenital region—representing a unique body region accommodating male genitalic structures (gonopodial complex). Here we evaluate several hypotheses for the evolution of diversity in this region and examine its role in the evolution of male body shape....

Low-level updraft intensification in response to environmental wind profiles

Nicholas A. Goldacker & Matthew D. Parker
Supercell storms can develop a “dynamical response” whereby upward accelerations in the lower troposphere amplify as a result of rotationally induced pressure falls aloft. These upward accelerations likely modulate a supercell’s ability to stretch near-surface vertical vorticity to achieve tornadogenesis. This study quantifies such a dynamical response as a function of environmental wind profiles commonly found near supercells. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) were used to identify recurring low-level wind profile patterns from 20,194 model-analyzed, near-supercell soundings....

Variant discovery in full-sibling families of Pinus taeda L

Eddie Lauer
Fusiform rust disease, caused by the endemic fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme, is the most damaging disease affecting economically important pine species in the southeast United States. In this report, we detail the genomic localization and sequence-level discovery of candidate race-nonspecific broad-spectrum fusiform rust resistance genes in Pinus taeda L. Two full-sib families, each with ~1000 progeny, were challenged with a complex inoculum consisting of over 150 pathogen isolates. High-density linkage mapping revealed three...

Data from: Estimating encounter location distributions from animal tracking data

Michael Noonan, Ricardo Martinez-Garcia, Grace H. Davis, Margaret C. Crofoot, Roland Kays, Ben T. Hirsch, Damien Caillaud, Eric Payne, Andrew Sih, David L. Sinn, Orr Spiegel, William F. Fagan, Christen H. Fleming & Justin M. Calabrese
1. Ecologists have long been interested in linking individual behavior with higher-level processes. For motile species, this 'upscaling' is governed by how well any given movement strategy maximizes encounters with positive factors, and minimizes encounters with negative factors. Despite the importance of encounter events for a broad range of ecological processes, encounter theory has not kept pace with developments in animal tracking or movement modeling. Furthermore, existing work has focused primarily on the relationship between...

Wild bumble bee colony abundance, scaled by field size, predicts pollination services

Shelby Fleischer, James Strange, Margarita Lopez-Uribe & Carley McGrady
Although bee visitation rate to flowers is often used to assess both pollination services and bee abundance, the abundance of social species needs to be assessed by quantifying the number of colonies instead of the number of foraging individuals. Because accurately quantifying the number of wild bee colonies can be difficult, the relationship of visitation rates provided by foragers and the abundance of colonies contributing those foragers from the surrounding landscape is poorly documented for...

Cooperative communication with humans evolved to emerge early in domestic dogs

Hannah Salomons, Kyle C.M. Smith, Megan Callahan-Beckel, Margaret Callahan, Kerinne Levy, Brenda S. Kennedy, Emily E. Bray, Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, Daniel J. Horschler, Margaret Gruen, Jingzhi Tan, Philip White, Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Evan L. MacLean & Brian Hare
While we know that dogs evolved from wolves, it remains unclear how domestication affected dog cognition. One hypothesis suggests dog domestication altered social maturation by a process of selecting for an attraction to humans. Under this account, dogs became more flexible in using inherited skills to cooperatively-communicate with a new social partner that was previously feared and expressed these unusual social skills early in development. Here we tested dog (N=44) and wolf (N=37) puppies, 5-18...

Measuring phylogenetic information of incomplete sequence data

Tae-Kun Seo, Olivier Gascuel & Jeffrey Thorne
Widely used approaches for extracting phylogenetic information from aligned sets of molecular sequences rely upon probabilistic models of nucleotide substitution or amino-acid replacement. The phylogenetic information that can be extracted depends on the number of columns in the sequence alignment and will be decreased when the alignment contains gaps due to insertion or deletion events. Motivated by the measurement of information loss, we suggest assessment of the Effective Sequence Length (ESL) of an aligned data...

Facilitation by isolated trees triggers woody encroachment and a biome shift at the savanna-forest transition

Rodolfo Abreu, Giselda Durigan, Antônio Carlos Melo, Natashi Pilon & William Hoffmann
1. Woody encroachment into grassy biomes is a global phenomenon, often resulting in a nearly complete turnover of species, with savanna specialists being replaced by forest-adapted species. Understanding the mechanisms involved in this change is important for devising strategies for managing savannas. 2. We examined how isolated trees favor woody encroachment and species turnover by overcoming dispersal limitation and environmental filtering. In a savanna released from fire in southeastern Brazil (Cerrado) we sampled woody plants...

Frankliniella fusca activity patterns in wheat

Anders Huseth, James Goethe, Seth Dorman, George Kennedy & Hehe Wang
Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca Hinds) are an important seedling pest of many agricultural crops including, but not limited to cotton, tomato, and tobacco. This insect is mobile and completes several generations on both crop and non-crop plants each growing season in the southern United States. We do know that this insect disperses through a predictable sequence of these habitats each spring, however, it is not well known how abundant early season host crops affect population...

NDVI time series - early warning signals

Melinda Martinez, Marcelo Ardon & Joshua Gray
Many freshwater forested wetlands along the southeastern U.S. coastline are rapidly transitioning from forest to marsh or open water, due to climate change related disturbances, such as saltwater intrusion and increasing flooding frequency. These changes in wetland state are considered a regime shift, and the timing and trajectory of change are not well understood. Recent studies have found early warning signals (EWS) of regime shifts in other ecosystems, but it is unclear if these can...

Prevalence of Ranavirus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, B. salamandrivorans, and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Amphibians and Reptiles of North Carolina, USA

Thomas Lentz, Stephanie Thi, Andrew Duncan, Adam Miranda, Jeffrey Beane, Daniel Dombrowski, Brenna Forester, Christopher Akcali, Nathan Shepard, , Alvin Braswell, Lori Williams, Charles Lawson, Christopher Jenkins, Joseph Pechmann, Jacqueline Blake, Melissa Hooper, Keenan Freitas, Ann Somers & Bryan Stuart
The viral pathogen Ranavirus (Rv) and the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) infect amphibians and reptiles. In recent years, there has been increased interest in reporting the occurrences of these pathogens. North Carolina, USA has a rich diversity of amphibians and reptiles, and is notably the most species-rich U.S. state in salamanders. We assessed prevalence of Rv, Bd, Bsal, and Oo in a broad taxonomic and geographic representation...

Sponge-like rigid structures in frictional granular packings

Kuang Liu, Jonathan E. Kollmer, Karen E. Daniels, J.M. Schwarz & Silke Henkes
We show how rigidity emerges in experiments of sheared two-dimensional frictional granular materials by using generalizations of two methods for identifying rigid structures. Both approaches, the force-based dynamical matrix and the topology-based rigidity percolation, agree with each other and identify similar rigid structures. As the system becomes jammed, at a critical contact number z = 2.4±0.1, a rigid backbone interspersed with floppy, particle-filled holes of a broad range of sizes emerges, creating a sponge-like morphology....

Data from: Salivary digestion extends the range of sugar-aversions in the German cockroach

Ayako Wada-Katsumata
Saliva has diverse functions in feeding behavior of animals. However, the impact of salivary digestion of food on insect gustatory information processing is poorly documented. Glucose-aversion (GA) in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is a highly adaptive heritable behavioral resistance trait that protects the cockroach from ingesting glucose-containing-insecticide-baits. In this study, we confirmed that GA cockroaches rejected glucose, but they accepted oligosaccharides. However, whereas wild-type cockroaches that accepted glucose also satiated on oligosaccharides, GA cockroaches...

Data for Predation and resource availability interact to drive life-history evolution in an adaptive radiation of livebearing fish

Randall Brian Langerhans & Kaj Hulthén
Predation risk and resource availability are two primary factors predicted by theory to drive the evolution of life histories. Yet, disentangling their roles in life-history evolution in the wild is challenging because (1) the two factors often co-vary across environments and (2) environmental effects on phenotypes can mask patterns of genotypic evolution. Here, we use the model system of the Post-Pleistocene radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes to provide a strong test...

Avian Response to Hurricane Maria in Coffee Plantations

Jaime Collazo, Amarilys Irizarry, Ivette Perfecto & John Vandermeer
Insights on impacts and resiliency of avian species with respect to hurricanes in the Caribbean have largely focused on responses measured in protected habitats. We assessed avian responses in non-protected habitat, specifically shade-restored coffee plantations, because their structural complexity retains many attributes of secondary forests, and may contribute to landscape scale species resiliency. We tallied species richness and estimated occupancy probability of 12 resident avian species, after adjusting for imperfect detection, to assess the impact...

Island area, not isolation, drives taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of ants on land-bridge islands

Yuhao Zhao, Robert Dunn, Haonan Zhou, Xingfeng Si & Ping Ding
Aim: To explore the impact of island area and isolation on multiple dimensions of ant biodiversity (taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity) and the underlying processes of community assembly on islands. Location: Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang, China, created by dam construction in 1959. Taxon: Ants. Methods: We sampled ants on 33 islands, built a species-level phylogenetic tree and measured five morphological traits of all species collected to estimate taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity. We used multiple...

Olfactory Learning Supports an Adaptive Sugar-Aversion Gustatory Phenotype in the German Cockroach

Ayako Wada-Katsumata & Coby Schal
An association of food sources with odors prominently guides foraging behavior in animals. To understand the interaction of olfactory memory and food preferences, we used glucose-averse (GA) German cockroaches. Multiple populations of cockroaches evolved a gustatory polymor-phism where glucose is perceived as a deterrent and enables GA cockroaches to avoid eating glucose-containing toxic baits. Comparative behavioral analysis using an operant conditioning paradigm revealed that learning and memory guide foraging decisions. Cockroaches learned to associate specific...

A Hopf Adaptive Oscillator Analog Circuit as a musical instrument

Edmon Perkins, XiaoFu Li &
The utilization of a Hopf adaptive frequency oscillator as a musical instrument is explored. The analog circuit design of this nonlinear oscillator are presented, and the procedure to use it as a musical instrument is described. Although similar to other analog electronics instruments such as the theremin, the authors believe this is the first time that an adaptive oscillator has been implemented as a musical instrument. Ave Maria, D. 839-Bradley Chapman (https://musopen.org/music/1673-ave-ma...​), is used here...

Predation shapes behavioral lateralization: insights from an adaptive radiation of livebearing fish

Kaj Hulthén, Heinen-Kay Justa Lee, Danielle Schmidt & R. Brian Langerhans
Hemispheric brain lateralization can drive the expression of behavioral asymmetry, or laterality, which varies notably both within and among species. To explain these left–right behavioral asymmetries in animals, predator-mediated selection is often invoked. Recent studies have revealed that a relatively high degree of lateralization correlates positively with traits known to confer survival benefits against predators, including escape performance, multitasking abilities, and group coordination. Yet, we still know comparatively little about 1) how consistently predators shape...

Limited plasticity in thermally tolerant ectotherm populations: evidence for a trade-off

Jordanna Barley, Brian S. Cheng, Matthew Sasaki, Sarah Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Cynthia G. Hays, Alysha B. Putnam, Seema Sheth, Andrew Villeneuve, Morgan Kelly, Jordanna M. Barley & Andrew R. Villeneuve
Many species face extinction risks owing to climate change, and there is an urgent need to identify which species' populations will be most vulnerable. Plasticity in heat tolerance, which includes acclimation or hardening, occurs when prior exposure to a warmer temperature changes an organism's upper thermal limit. The capacity for thermal acclimation could provide protection against warming, but prior work has found few generalizable patterns to explain variation in this trait. Here, we report the...

Savannas are not old fields: functional trajectories of forest expansion in a fire-suppressed Brazilian savanna are driven by habitat generalists

Samuel Flake, Rodolfo Abreu, Giselda Durigan & William Hoffmann
Under fire suppression, many tropical savannas transform into forests. Forest expansion entails changes in environmental variables and plant community structure. We hypothesized that forest expansion into savanna results in a shift in community-weighted mean functional traits from stress tolerance to competitiveness, with generalist species having trait values intermediate between those of specialists of savanna and forest habitats. We studied 30 plots distributed over three savanna-forest boundaries undergoing forest expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado, capturing a...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    44

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    44

Affiliations

  • North Carolina State University
    44
  • Lund University
    4
  • Duke University
    3
  • Pennsylvania State University
    3
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    2
  • Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro
    2
  • University of North Carolina
    2
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of Copenhagen
    2