30 Works

Data from: Iridescence untwined - Honey bees can separate hue variations in space and time

Leslie Ng, Laura Ospina-Rozo, Jair Garcia, Adrian Dyer & Devi Stuart-Fox
Iridescence is a phenomenon whereby the hue of a surface changes with viewing or illumination angle. Many animals display iridescence but it currently remains unclear whether relevant observers process iridescent color signals as a complex collection of colors (spatial variation), or as moving patterns of colors and shapes (temporal variation). This is important as animals may use only the spatial or temporal component of the signal, although this possibility has rarely been considered or tested....

Dataset for: A novel hydrophobically associating water-soluble polymer utilized as constant rheology agent for cement slurry

Jiapei Du
During the process of well cementing in deepwater, the cement slurry experiences a wide range of temperature variation from low temperature at seabed to high temperature in downhole. The elevated temperature affects the rheology of cement slurry. The change of rheology of cement slurry could influence the safety of cementing operation. The aim of this paper is to develop a new kind of hydrophobically associating water-soluble polymer (KWHL-1) as an additive to prepare a constant...

Data from: Effectiveness of joint species distribution models in the presence of imperfect detection

Stephanie Hogg, Yan Wang & Lewi Stone
Joint species distribution models (JSDMs) are a recent development in biogeography and enable the spatial modelling of multiple species and their interactions and dependencies. However, most models do not consider imperfect detection, which can significantly bias estimates. This is one of the first papers to account for imperfect detection when fitting data with JSDMs and to explore the complications that may arise. A multivariate probit JSDM that explicitly accounts for imperfect detection is proposed, and...

Data from: Climate is a strong predictor of near-infrared reflectance but a poor predictor of colour in butterflies

Joshua T. Munro, Iliana Medina, Ken Walker, Adnan Moussalli, Michael R. Kearney, Adrian G. Dyer, Jair Garcia, Katrina J. Rankin & Devi Stuart-Fox
Colour variation across climatic gradients is a common ecogeographical pattern; yet there is long-standing contention over underlying causes, particularly selection for thermal benefits. We tested the evolutionary association between climate gradients and reflectance of near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which influence heat gain but are not visible to animals. We measured ultraviolet, visible and NIR reflectance from calibrated images of 372 butterfly specimens from 60 populations (49 species, 5 families) spanning the Australian continent. Consistent with selection...

Data from: Flower signal variability overwhelms receptor-noise and requires plastic color learning in bees

Jair E Garcia, Mani Shrestha & Adrian G. Dyer
Color discrimination thresholds proposed by receptor-noise type models are frequently used in animal vision studies to predict a precise limit on the capacity of an animal to discriminate between stimuli. Honeybees and bumblebees are two closely related hymenopteran species for which precise data on photoreceptor sensitivities and receptor noise exist, enabling accurate testing on how their vision conforms to model predictions. Color vision has been proven in these species, and they are known to predominantly...

Data from: Matching symbiotic associations of an endangered orchid to habitat to improve conservation outcomes

Noushka Reiter, Ann C. Lawrie & Celeste C. Linde
Background and Aims: An understanding of mycorrhizal variation, orchid seed germination temperature and the effect of co-occurring plant species could be critical for optimising conservation translocation of endangered plants with specialised mycorrhizal associations. Methods: Focussing on the orchid Thelymitra epipactoides we isolated mycorrhizal fungi from ten plants within each of three sites; Shallow Sands Woodland (SSW), Damp Heathland (DH) and Coastal Heathland Scrub (CHS). Twenty-seven fungal isolates were tested for symbiotic germination under three temperature...

Floral Color Diversity: How Are Signals Shaped by Elevational Gradient on the Tropical–Subtropical Mountainous Island of Taiwan?

King-Chun Tai, Mani Shrestha, Adrian Dyer, En-Cheng Yang & Chun-Neng Wang
Pollinators with different vision are a key driver of flower coloration. Islands provide important insights into evolutionary processes, and previous work suggests islands may have restricted flower colors. Due to both species richness with high endemism in tropical–subtropical environments, and potentially changing pollinator distributions with altitude, we evaluated flower color diversity across the mountainous island of Taiwan in a comparative framework to understand the cause of color diversity. We sampled flower color signaling on the...

Effects of Uniform Vertical Inflow Perturbations on the Performance of Flapping Wings

Soudeh Mazharmanesh, Jace Stallard, Albert Medina, Alex Fisher, Noriyasu Ando, Fang-Bao Tian, John Young & Sridhar Ravi
Flapping wings have attracted significant interest for use in miniature unmanned flying vehicles. Although numerous studies have investigated the performance of flapping wings under quiescent conditions, effects of freestream disturbances on their performance remain under-explored. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effects of uniform vertical inflows on flapping wings using a Reynolds-scaled apparatus operating in water at the typical Reynolds number of large insects (Re ≈ 3600). The overall lift and drag produced by...

Data for: Spontaneous choices for insect-pollinated flower shapes by wild non-eusocial halictid bees

Scarlett Howard, Kit Prendergast, Matthew Symonds, Mani Shrestha & Adrian Dyer
The majority of angiosperms require animal pollination for reproduction and insects are the dominant group of animal pollinators. Bees are considered one of the most important and abundant insect pollinators. Research into bee behaviour and foraging decisions has typically centred on managed eusocial bee species, Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris. Non-eusocial bees are understudied with respect to foraging strategies and decision-making, such as flower preferences. Understanding whether there are fundamental foraging strategies and preferences which...

Data from: Reproductive isolation in alpine gingers: how do co-existing Roscoea (R. purpurea and R. tumjensis) conserve species integrity?

Babu Ram Paudel, Martin Burd, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G. Dyer, Qingjun Li & Qing-Jun Li
Multiple barriers may contribute to reproductive isolation between closely related species. Understanding the relative strength of these barriers can illuminate the ecological factors that currently maintain species integrity and how these factors originally promoted speciation. Two Himalayan alpine gingers, Roscoea purpurea and R. tumjensis, occur sympatrically in central Nepal and have such similar morphology that it is not clear whether or how they maintain a distinct identity. Our quantitative measurements of the components of reproductive...

Data from: Perception of contextual size illusions by honeybees in restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions

Scarlett R. Howard, Aurore Avargues-Weber, Jair Eduardo Garcia Mendoza, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adrian G. Dyer & Jair E. Garcia
How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears to vary dramatically among vertebrate species, and even populations, but this may depend on whether the viewing distance is restricted. We tested...

Data from: Broadband onset inhibition can suppress spectral splatter in the auditory brainstem

Martin J. Spencer, David A. X. Nayagam, Janine C. Clarey, Antonio G. Paolini, Hamish Meffin, Anthony N. Burkitt & David B. Grayden
In vivo intracellular responses to auditory stimuli revealed that, in a particular population of cells of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) of rats, fast inhibition occurred before the first action potential. These experimental data were used to constrain a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model of the neurons in this circuit. The post-synaptic potentials of the VNLL cell population were characterized using a method of triggered averaging. Analysis suggested that these inhibited VNLL cells...

Data from: Fine-scale diet of the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) using DNA-based analysis of faeces.

Kristian J. Peters, Kathy Ophelkeller, Nathan J. Bott, Bruce E. Deagle, Simon N. Jarman & Simon D. Goldsworthy
We applied DNA-based faecal analysis to determine the diet of female Australian sea lions (n = 12) from two breeding colonies in South Australia. DNA dietary components of fish and cephalopods were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and mitochondrial DNA primers targeting the short (~100 base pair) section of the 16S gene region. Prey diversity was determined by sequencing ~50 amplicons generated from clone libraries developed for each individual. Faecal DNA was also combined...

Using species distribution models and decision tools to direct surveys and identify potential translocation sites for a critically endangered species

Pia Lentini, Arabella Eyre, Natalie Briscoe, Lindy Lumsden, Dan Harley & Leo McComb
Aim: Occurrence records for cryptic species are typically limited or highly uncertain, leaving their distributions poorly resolved and hampering conservation. This can apply to well‐studied species, and increased survey effort and/or novel methods are required to improve distribution data. Here, we paired species distribution modelling (SDM) with decision tools to direct surveys for the critically endangered Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) outside its current restricted range. We also assessed survey areas for their suitability to host...

Genomic assembly of Botyrococcus braunii race B (Metzger et al. 1988) Ayame strain

Robert Moore & Andrew Ball
This dataset is a genomic assembly (v1.0) of DNA from a culture of Botryococcus braunii race B, Ayame strain. The strain was isolated in 1984 by Metzger et al Phytochemistry (1988), 27, 1383-1388. The site of isolation was Cote d'Ivoire, barrier lake of Ayame, 24th Feb 1984, pH5.7 water temp 30.8. The strain was then cultured in a lab for 25 years until being selected for this genomic denovo assembly project. The strain makes biofuels...

Data from: Exploring the in meso crystallization mechanism by characterizing the lipid mesophase microenvironment during the growth of single transmembrane α-helical peptide crystals

, Konstantin Knoblich, Shane A. Seabrook, Nigel M. Kirby, Stephen T. Mudie, Deborah Lau, Xu Li, Sally L. Gras, Xavier Mulet, Matthew E. Call, Melissa J. Call, Calum J. Drummond & Charlotte E. Conn
The proposed mechanism for in meso crystallisation of transmembrane proteins suggests that a protein or peptide is initially uniformly dispersed in the lipid self-assembly cubic phase but that crystals grow from a local lamellar phase, which acts as a conduit between the crystal and the bulk cubic phase. However, there is very limited experimental evidence for this theory. We have developed protocols to investigate the lipid mesophase microenvironment during crystal growth using standard procedures readily...

Data from: Increasing biodiversity in urban green spaces through simple vegetation interventions

Caragh G. Threlfall, Luis Mata, Jessica Anne Mackie, Amy K. Hahs, Nigel E. Stork, Nicholas S. G. Williams & Stephen J. Livesley
1. Cities are rapidly expanding worldwide and there is an increasing urgency to protect urban biodiversity, principally through the provision of suitable habitat, most of which is in urban green spaces. Despite this, clear guidelines of how to reverse biodiversity loss or increase it within a given urban green space is lacking. 2. We examined the taxa- and species-specific responses of five taxonomically and functionally diverse animal groups to three key attributes of urban green...

Data from: Flower colour and phylogeny along an altitudinal gradient in the Himalaya of Nepal

Mani Shrestha, Adrian Dyer, Prakash Bhattarai, Martin Burd & Adrian G. Dyer
1. Both the phylogenetic structure and trait composition of flowering plant communities may be expected to change with altitude. In particular, floral colours are thought to vary with altitude because Hymenoptera typically decline in importance as pollinators while Diptera and Lepidoptera become more important at higher elevations. Thus, ecological filtering among elevation zones and competitive processes among co-occurring species within zones could influence the floral chromatic cues present at low and high elevations. 2. We...

Data from: Numerical cognition in honeybees enables addition and subtraction

Scarlett R. Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair E. Garcia, Andrew D. Greentree & Adrian G. Dyer
Many animals understand numbers at a basic level for use in essential tasks such as foraging, shoaling, and resource management. However, complex arithmetic operations, such as addition and subtraction, using symbols and/or labeling have only been demonstrated in a limited number of nonhuman vertebrates. We show that honeybees, with a miniature brain, can learn to use blue and yellow as symbolic representations for addition or subtraction. In a free-flying environment, individual bees used this information...

Data from: Symbolic representation of numerosity by honeybees (Apis mellifera): matching characters to small quantities

Scarlett Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair Garcia, Andrew Greentree & Adrian Dyer
The assignment of a symbolic representation to a specific numerosity is a fundamental requirement for humans solving complex mathematical calculations used in diverse applications such as algebra, accounting, physics, and everyday commerce. Here we show that honeybees are able to learn to match a sign to a numerosity, or a numerosity to a sign and subsequently transfer this knowledge to novel numerosity stimuli changed in colour properties, shape, and configuration. While honeybees learnt the associations...

Data set for: Effects of microstructure evolution on compressive strength of silica sand-enhanced oil well cement at a wide temperature range

Jiapei Du
The influence of microstructure of silica-enhanced cement on the mechanical performance of cement is difficult to be described. In this study, we used the scanning electron microscope and image processing method to investigate the relationship between the complicity of cement microstructure and compressive strength under various temperature and curing time conditions. Fractal dimension was applied to describe the complicity of cement. The relationships among compressive strength, fractal dimension, temperature, curing time and pore structure of...

Data from: Numerical ordering of zero in honey bees

Scarlett R. Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair E. Garcia, Andrew D. Greentree & Adrian G. Dyer
Some vertebrates demonstrate complex numerosity concepts—including addition, sequential ordering of numbers, or even the concept of zero—but whether an insect can develop an understanding for such concepts remains unknown. We trained individual honey bees to the numerical concepts of “greater than” or “less than” using stimuli containing one to six elemental features. Bees could subsequently extrapolate the concept of less than to order zero numerosity at the lower end of the numerical continuum. Bees demonstrated...

Data from: Shades of red: bird-pollinated flowers target the specific colour discrimination abilities of avian vision

Mani Shrestha, Adrian G. Dyer, Skye Boyd-Gerny, Bob B. M. Wong & Martin Burd
Colour signals are a major cue in putative pollination syndromes. There is evidence that the reflectance spectra of many flowers target the distinctive visual discrimination abilities of hymenopteran insects, but far less is known about bird-pollinated flowers. Birds are hypothesized to exert different selective pressures on floral colour compared with hymenopterans because of differences in their visual systems. We measured the floral reflectance spectra of 206 Australian angiosperm species whose floral visitors are known from...

Input data for estimating dimensionless number (Reynolds, Swimming and Strouhal number) of swimming penguin

Mahadi Masud, Marco La Mantia & Peter Dabnichki
Propulsion performance of swimming and flying animals is often evaluated by using dimensionless numbers, such as the Strouhal and Reynolds numbers. They have been shown to allow better understanding of locomotion efficiency, using relatively simple approaches and avoiding overly complex computational models. Specifically, it has been reported that efficient propulsion is more likely to occur when Strouhal number values – estimated from propulsive frequencies and amplitudes – are within a relatively narrow range, depending on...

Data from: Multivariate selection mediated by aridity predicts divergence of drought resistant traits along natural aridity gradients of an invasive weed

Akane Uesugi
Geographic variation in the environment underpins selection for local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Because many environmental conditions vary across species’ ranges, identifying the specific environmental variables underlying local adaptation is profoundly challenging. We tested whether natural selection mediated by aridity predicts clinal divergence among invasive populations of capeweed (Arctotheca calendula) that established and spread across southern Australia during the last two centuries. Using common garden experiments with two environmental treatments (wet and dry)...

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