BackgroundAnalyzed individually, gene trees for a given taxon set tend to harbour incongruent or conflicting signals. One popular approach to deal with this circumstance is to use concatenated data. But especially in prokaryotes, where lateral gene transfer (LGT) is a natural mechanism of generating genetic diversity, there are open questions as to whether concatenation amplifies or averages phylogenetic signals residing in individual genes. Here we investigate concatenations of prokaryotic and eukaryotic datasets to investigate possible...
Data from: A modelling framework to assess the effect of pressures on river abiotic habitat conditions and biotaJochem Kail, Björn Guse, Johannes Radinger, Maria Schröder, Jens Kiesel, Maarten Kleinhans, Filip Schuurman, Nicola Fohrer, Daniel Hering & Christian Wolter
River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a modelling framework was further developed and tested to assess the effect of pressures at different spatial scales on reach-scale habitat conditions and biota. Ecohydrological and 1D hydrodynamic models were used to predict...
Data from: 10 years of life in compost: temporal and spatial variation of North German C. elegans populationsCarola Petersen, Manja Saebelfeld, Camilo Barbosa, Barbara Pees, Ruben Joseph Hermann, Rebecca Schalkowski, Eike Andreas Strathmann, Philipp Dirksen & Hinrich Schulenburg
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a central laboratory model system in almost all biological disciplines, yet its natural life history and population biology are largely unexplored. Such information is essential for in-depth understanding of the nematode's biology because its natural ecology provides the context, in which its traits and the underlying molecular mechanisms evolved. We characterized natural phenotypic and genetic variation among North German C. elegans isolates. We used the unique opportunity to compare samples...
Background: How do very small animals with limited long-distance dispersal abilities move between locations, especially if they prefer ephemeral micro-habitats that are only available for short periods of time? The free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and several congeneric taxa appear to be common in such short-lived environments, for example decomposing fruits or other rotting plant material. Dispersal is usually assumed to depend on animal vectors, yet all current data is based on only a limited...
Data from: Oxygen depletion in coastal seas and the effective spawning stock biomass of an exploited fish speciesHans-Harald Hinrichsen, Burkhard Dewitz, Jan Dierking, Holger Haslob, Andrejs Makarcuks, Christoph Petereit, Rudi Voss & H.-H. Hinrichsen
Environmental conditions may have previously underappreciated effects on the reproductive processes of commercially exploited fish populations, for example eastern Baltic cod, that are living at the physiological limits of their distribution. In the Baltic Sea, salinity affects neutral egg buoyancy, which is positively correlated with egg survival, as only water layers away from the oxygen consumption-dominated sea bottom contain sufficient oxygen. Egg buoyancy is positively correlated to female spawner age/size. From observations in the Baltic...
Frogs are well known to capture fast-moving prey by flicking their sticky tongues out of the mouth. This tongue projection behaviour happens extremely fast which makes frog tongues a biological high-speed adhesive system. The processes at the interface between tongue and prey, and thus the mechanism of adhesion, however, are completely unknown. Here, we captured the contact mechanics of frog tongues by filming tongue adhesion at 2000 frames per second through an illuminated glass. We...
Data from: Plasticity and epistasis strongly affect bacterial fitness after losing multiple metabolic genesGlen D’Souza, Silvio Waschina, Christoph Kaleta, Christian Kost & Glen D'Souza
Many bacterial lineages lack seemingly essential metabolic genes. Previous work suggested selective benefits could drive the loss of biosynthetic functions from bacterial genomes when the corresponding metabolites are sufficiently available in the environment. However, the factors that govern this ‘genome streamlining’ remain poorly understood. Here we determine the effect of plasticity and epistasis on the fitness of Escherichia coli genotypes from whose genome biosynthetic genes for one, two, or three different amino acids have been...
Overfishing of large predatory fish populations has resulted in lasting restructurings of entire marine food webs worldwide, with serious socio-economic consequences. Fortunately, some degraded ecosystems show signs of recovery. A key challenge for ecosystem management is to anticipate the degree to which recovery is possible. By applying a statistical food-web model, using the Baltic Sea as a case study, we show that under current temperature and salinity conditions, complete recovery of this heavily altered ecosystem...
Data from: Temporal variation in antibiotic environments slows down resistance evolution in pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosaRoderich Roemhild, Camilo Barbosa, Robert E. Beardmore, Gunther Jansen & Hinrich Schulenburg
Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern to public health. New treatment strategies may alleviate the situation by slowing down the evolution of resistance. Here, we evaluated sequential treatment protocols using two fully independent laboratory-controlled evolution experiments with the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 and two pairs of clinically relevant antibiotics (doripenem/ciprofloxacin and cefsulodin/gentamicin). Our results consistently show that the sequential application of two antibiotics decelerates resistance evolution relative to monotherapy. Sequential treatment enhanced population extinction...
Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR”1
Spanish Institute of Oceanography1
University of Hamburg1
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences1
Stockholm Resilience Centre1
University of Oslo1
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf1
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel1
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology1