14 Works

Data from: Cough frequency during treatment associated with baseline cavitary volume and proximity to the airway in pulmonary TB

Alvaro Proaño, David P. Bui, José W. López, Nancy M. Vu, Marjory A. Bravard, Gwenyth O. Lee, Brian H. Tracey, Ziyue Xu, Germán Comina, Eduardo Ticona, Daniel J. Mollura, Jon S. Friedland, David A. J. Moore, Carlton A. Evans, Philip Caligiuri, Robert H. Gilman & Tuberculosis Working Group In Peru
Background: Cough frequency, and its duration, is a lab-free biomarker that can be used in low-resource settings and has been associated with transmission and treatment response. Radiological characteristics associated with increased cough frequency may be important in understanding transmission. The relationship between cough frequency and cavitary lung disease has never been studied. Methods: We analyzed 41 human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults with culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis throughout treatment. Cough recordings were based on the Cayetano Cough...

Data from: Plant diversity and density predict belowground diversity and function in an early successional alpine ecosystem

Dorota L. Porazinska, Emily C. Farrer, Marko J. Spasojevic, Cliff P. Bueno De Mesquita, Sam A. Sartwell, Jane G. Smith, Caitlin T. White, Andrew J. King, Katharine N. Suding, Steven K. Schmidt, Clifton P. Bueno De Mesquita & Steve K. Schmidt
Despite decades of interest, few studies have provided evidence supporting theoretical expectations for coupled relationships between aboveground and belowground diversity and ecosystem functioning in non-manipulated naturalecosystems. We characterized plant species richness and density, soil bacterial, fungal and eukaryotic species richness and phylogenetic diversity (using 16S, ITS, and 18S gene sequencing), and ecosystem function (levels of soil C and N, and rates of microbial enzyme activities) along a natural gradient in plant richness and density in...

Data from: Soil erodibility differs according to heritable trait variation and nutrient-induced plasticity in the salt marsh engineer Spartina alterniflora

Brittany M. Bernik, John H. Pardue, Michael J. Blum, BM Bernik, MJ Blum & JH Pardue
Use of landform engineers for habitat restoration has often resulted in unanticipated outcomes. It is possible that departures from expectation arise because applications do not adequately account for the influence of heritable and non-heritable phenotypic variation on ecosystem attributes. In this study, we performed a common garden greenhouse experiment to determine whether soil shear strength—a characteristic linked to erosion resistance—varies according to heritable and plastic trait expression in Spartina alterniflora grown under contrasting nutrient regimes....

Data from: Male-male aggression is unlikely to stabilize a poison frog polymorphism

Yusan Yang, Matthew B. Dugas, Houston J. Sudekum, Sean N. Murphy & Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki
Phenotypic polymorphism is common in animals, and the maintenance of multiple phenotypes in a population requires forces that act against homogenizing drift and selection. Male-male competition can contribute to the stability of a polymorphism when males compete primarily with males of the same phenotype. In and around a contact zone between red and blue lineages of the poison frog Oophaga pumilio, we used simulated territorial intrusions to test the non-exclusive predictions that males would direct...

Data from: Female ornamentation is associated with elevated aggression and testosterone in a tropical songbird

Erik D. Enbody, Jordan Boersma, Hubert Schwabl & Jordan Karubian
In males, testosterone plays a key role in ornament production and linking ornamentation with reproductive behaviors and other traits to produce an integrated phenotype. Less is known about whether females couple testosterone, ornamentation, and aggressive behaviors to achieve female-specific combinations of traits. Ornamentation in females may be the result of correlated expression with male ornamentation, or female traits could arise as the result of sex specific selection pressures. Resolving between these alternatives is necessary to...

Data from: Variation in individual temperature preferences, not behavioural fever, affects susceptibility to chytridiomycosis in amphibians

Erin L. Sauer, Rebecca C. Fuller, Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki, Julia Sonn, Jinelle H. Sperry & Jason R. Rohr
The ability of wildlife populations to mount rapid responses to novel pathogens will be critical for mitigating the impacts of disease outbreaks in a changing climate. Field studies have documented that amphibians preferring warmer temperatures are less likely to be infected with the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is driven by behavioural fever or natural variation in thermal preference. Here, we placed frogs in thermal gradients, tested for...

Data from: Acoustic adaptation to city noise through vocal learning by a songbird

Dana Lynn Moseley, Graham Earnest Derryberry, Jennifer Nicole Phillips, Julie Elizabeth Danner, Raymond Michael Danner, David Andrew Luther & Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry
Anthropogenic noise imposes novel selection pressures, especially on species that communicate acoustically. Many animals – including insects, frogs, whales, and birds – produce sounds at higher frequencies in areas with low-frequency noise pollution. Although there is support for animals changing their vocalizations in real time in response to noise (i.e., immediate flexibility), other evolutionary mechanisms for animals that learn their vocalizations remain largely unexplored. We hypothesize that cultural selection for signal structures less masked by...

Data from: Differential introgression of a female competitive trait in a hybrid zone between sex-role reversed species

Sara E. Lipshutz, Joana I. Meier, Matthew J. Miller, Graham Derryberry, Ole Seehausen & Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry
Mating behavior between recently diverged species in secondary contact can impede or promote reproductive isolation. Traditionally, researchers focus on the importance of female mate choice and male-male competition in maintaining or eroding species barriers. Although female-female competition is widespread, little is known about its role in the speciation process. Here, we investigate a case of interspecific female competition and its influence on patterns of phenotypic and genetic introgression between species. We examine a hybrid zone...

Data from: Temperature dependent effects of cutaneous bacteria on a frog's tolerance of fungal infection

Matthew J. Robak & Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki
Defense against pathogens is one of many benefits that bacteria provide to animal hosts. A clearer understanding of how changes in the environment affect the interactions between animals and their microbial benefactors is needed in order to predict the impact and dynamics of emerging animal diseases. Due to its dramatic effects on the physiology of animals and their pathogens, temperature may be a key variable modulating the level of protection that beneficial bacteria provide to...

Data from: A century of genetic variation inferred from a persistent soil-stored seed bank

Jennifer L. Summers, Brittany Bernik, Colin J. Saunders, Jason S. McLachlan & Michael J. Blum
Stratigraphic accretion of dormant propagules in soil can result in natural archives useful for studying ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change. Few attempts have been made, however, to use soil-stored seed banks as natural archives, in part because of concerns over non-random attrition and mixed stratification. Here we examine the persistent seed bank of Schoenoplectus americanus, a foundational brackish marsh sedge, to determine whether it can serve as a resource for reconstructing historical records...

Data from: A range-wide domino effect and resetting of the annual cycle in a migratory songbird

Elizabeth A. Gow, Lauren Burke, David W. Winkler, Samantha M. Knight, Robert G. Clark, Marc Bélisle, Lisha L. Berzins, Tricia Blake, Eli S. Bridge, Russell D. Dawson, Peter O. Dunn, Dany Garant, Geoff Holroyd, Andrew G. Horn, David J.T. Hussell, Olga Lansdorp, Andrew J. Laughlin, Marty L. Leonard, Fanie Pelletier, Dave Shutler, Lynn Siefferman, Caz M. Taylor, Helen Trefry, Carol M. Vleck, David Vleck … & D. Ryan Norris
Latitudinal differences in timing of breeding are well documented but how such differences carry over to influence timing of events in the annual cycle of migratory birds is not well understood. We examined geographic variation in timing of events throughout the year using light-level geolocator tracking data from 133 migratory tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) originating from 12 North American breeding populations. A swallow’s breeding latitude influenced timing of breeding, which then carried over to affect...

Data from: Condition-dependent foraging strategies in a coastal seabird: evidence that the rich get richer

Brock Geary, Scott T. Walter, Paul L. Leberg & Jordan Karubian
The degree to which foraging individuals are able to appropriately modify their behaviors in response to dynamic environmental conditions and associated resource availability can have important fitness consequences. Despite an increasingly refined understanding of differences in foraging behavior between individuals, we still lack detailed characterizations of within-individual variation over space and time, and what factors may drive this variability. From 2014-2017, we used GPS transmitters and accelerometers to document foraging movements by breeding adult Brown...

Data from: Urban rat races: spatial population genomics of brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) compared across multiple cities

Matthew Combs, Kaylee A. Byers, Bruno M. Ghersi, Michael J. Blum, Adalgisa Caccone, Federico Costa, Chelsea G. Himsworth, Jonathan L. Richardson & Jason Munshi-South
Urbanization often substantially influences animal movement and gene flow. However, few studies to date have examined gene flow of the same species across multiple cities. In this study, we examine brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) to test hypotheses about the repeatability of neutral evolution across four cities: Salvador, Brazil; New Orleans, USA; Vancouver, Canada; New York City, USA. At least 150 rats were sampled from each city and genotyped for a minimum of 15,000 genome-wide SNPs....

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • Tulane University
    14
  • University of Pittsburgh
    3
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    3
  • Louisiana State University of Alexandria
    2
  • California Polytechnic State University
    1
  • National University of San Marcos
    1
  • Acadia University
    1
  • Federal University of Southern Bahia
    1
  • Colby College
    1
  • Columbia University
    1