Data from: Ecology and phylogenetic affinity of the early Cambrian tubular microfossil Megathrix longusXiaodong Shang, Pengju Liu, Ben Yang, Shouming Chen & Chuchu Wang
Abundant, exquisitely preserved specimens of the enigmatic tubular microfossil Megathrix longus are reported from the early Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area. Studies of their morphology and taphonomy reveal that the inner cross-wall of Megathrix longus is topographically flat, the trichome terminus is blunt and closed, and incomplete cross-walls are regularly intercalated between complete ones. The deformation of trichomes, as well as the corrugation of their cross-walls, are postmortem features caused by compaction,...
Data from: Anisian (Middle Triassic) ammonoids from British Columbia (Canada): biochronological and palaeobiogeographic implicationsCheng Ji & Hugo Bucher
New Anisian (Middle Triassic) ammonoids are reported from British Columbia (BC), Canada. Eight species are reported, including one new genus and two new species: Eufrechites roopnarini gen. et sp. nov. and Parafrechites cordeyi sp. nov. New ammonoid subzones are recognized, leading to improved correlation between BC and Nevada: the Hollandites minor Zone is correlated with the interval intercalated between the Unionvillites hadleyi Subzone and the Pseudodanubites nicholsi Subzone; an Eogymnotoceras thompsoni - Anagymnotoceras spivaki Zone...
Data from: A review of the defining chemical properties of soda lakes and pans: an assessment on a large geographic scale of Eurasian inland saline surface watersEmil Boros & Marina Kolpakova
The aim of this study is to evaluate the definition of water chemical type, with particular attention to soda brine characteristics by assessing ionic composition and pH values on a large geographic scale and broad salinity (TDS) range of Eurasian inland saline surface waters, in order to rectify the considerable confusion about the exact chemical classification of soda lakes and pans. Data on pH and on the concentration of eight major ions were compiled into...
Data from: New armoured scalidophorans (Ecdysozoa, Cycloneuralia) from the Cambrian Fortunian Zhangjiagou Lagerstätte, South ChinaYunhuan Liu, Jiachen Qin, Qi Wang, Andreas Maas, Baichuan Duan, Yanan Zhang, Hu Zhang, Tiequan Shao & Huaqiao Zhang
Although molecular studies estimated that cycloneuralians might have originated in the Ediacaran Period and diversified in the early Cambrian, it was not until 2014 that they were first reported from the Cambrian Fortunian Stage. To date only two species and five indeterminate forms have been described. Here, we report new three‐dimensionally phosphatized microfossils of cycloneuralians from the Fortunian Zhangjiagou Lagerstätte, South China. Two new genera and species, Qinscolex spinosus gen. et sp. nov. and Shanscolex...
Due to the ubiquity and high dispersal capacity of unicellular eukaryotes, their often extraordinary diversity found in isolated and long-lived ecosystems such as ancient lakes is typically attributed to multiple colonization events rather than to in situ speciation. However, respective evolutionary studies are very scarce and the often high number of species flocks in ancient lakes across multicellular taxa raises the question whether unicellular species, such as diatoms, may radiate as well. Here, we use...
Data from: The oldest known bryozoan: Prophyllodictya (Cryptostomata) from the lower Tremadocian (Lower Ordovician) of Liujiachang, southwestern Hubei, central ChinaJunye Ma, Paul D. Taylor, Fengsheng Xia & Renbin Zhan
A new cryptostome bryozoan, Prophyllodictya simplex sp. nov., is described from the Nantzinkuan Formation (Lower Ordovician, lower Tremadoc) of Liujiachang, central China. This antedates the previously oldest known bryozoan by several million years. Colony morphology and the phylogenetic position of Prophyllodictya within Cryptostomata are explored. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Cryptostomata (except Prophyllodictya) can be divided into two major groups, and that Prophyllodictya occupies a basal position in the cryptostome tree, which accords with its simple...
Data from: The early record of halysitid tabulate corals, and morphometrics of Catenipora from the Ordovician of north-central ChinaKun Liang, Robert J. Elias & Dong-Jin Lee
Catenipora is one of the most common tabulate coral genera in the Upper Ordovician Jinghe and Beiguoshan formations on the southern margin of the Ordos Basin, north-central China. We distinguish and identify the species of Catenipora using multivariate morphometric procedures. Cluster analysis based on morphological characters of coralla yields a dendrogram showing five morphospecies. The validity and distinctiveness of the morphospecies are evaluated by discriminant analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling. To identify the species represented...
Data from: The hatching mechanism of 130-million-year-old insects: an association of neonates, egg shells and egg bursters in Lebanese amberRicardo Pérez-De La Fuente, Michael S. Engel, Dany Azar & Enrique Peñalver
Hatching is a pivotal moment in the life of most animals. Diverse chemical, behavioural and mechanical methods have evolved in metazoans to break the egg membranes. Among them, many arthropod and vertebrate embryos hatch using ephemeral, frequently convergent structures known as egg bursters. However, the evolutionary processes by which hatching mechanisms and related embryonic structures became established in deep time are poorly understood due to a nearly complete absence from the fossil record. Herein we...
Data from: Eocene Pachynolophinae (Perissodactyla, Palaeotheriidae) from China and their paleobiogeographic implicationsBin Bai
The Eocene Palaeotheriidae was traditionally considered a nearly endemic European group within Equoidea, but a few palaeotheres have been reported from Asia. Here I reanalyze a maxilla containing M1-3 from the Lunan Basin, Yunnan Province, China. This element was initially assigned to a new tapiromorph species, Lophialetes yunnanensis, but I erect a new genus Lophiohippus within Pachynolophinae for the Yunnan specimen based mainly on the absence of mesostyles, the strongly inclined metalophs, the strong development...
In order to determine the incubation temperature of eggs laid by non-avian dinosaurs, we analysed the oxygen isotope compositions of both eggshell carbonate (δ18Oc) and embryo bone phosphate (δ18Op) from seven oviraptorosaur eggs with preserved in ovo embryo bones. These eggs come from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Jiangxi Province, China. Oviraptorosaur theropods were selected because of their known brooding behaviour as evidenced by preserved adult specimens fossilized in brooding posture on their clutch....
Data from: Ecological stasis in Spinicaudata (Crustacea, Branchiopoda)? Early Cretaceous clam shrimp of the Yixian Formation of north‐east China occupied a broader realized ecological niche than extant members of the groupManja Hethke, Franz T. Fürsich, Baoyu Jiang, Bo Wang, Patrick Chellouche & Stephen C. Weeks
The palaeoecology of Spinicaudata, the dominant group of benthic invertebrates in many pre-Cenozoic freshwater environments, remains poorly understood. In analogy with extant taxa, it has been oversimplified and often reduced to shallow, temporary environments characterised by few trophic levels, implying ecological stasis from the Devonian to the Recent. We excavated 43 horizons of the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Anjiagou and Hengdaozi beds) to evaluate whether spinicaudatan ecology can be simplified to such an extent. Sedimentological...
Data from: The early history of Annonaceae (Magnoliales) in Southeast Asia suggests floristic exchange between India and Pan-Indochina by the late OligoceneQijia Li, Gongle Shi, Yusheng Liu, Qiongyao Fu, Jianhua Jin & Cheng Quan
The collision between India and Eurasia in the mid‐Palaeogene facilitated terrestrial floristic exchange. However, due to the complexity of this geological event and scarcity of fossil record, the plant migration patterns between the two plates are still highly debated. In this study, we focus on the Oligocene floristic exchange between India and Pan‐Indochina mainly based on a carpological study of Annonaceae, an emblematic family unique in its pantropical distribution and frugivore‐based dispersal strategy. A new...
Data from: Fusion or hypertrophy?: The unusual arms of the Petalocrinidae (Ordovician-Devonian; Crinoidea)William Ausich, Yingyan Mao & Yue Li
The large, triangular or cylindrical second brachial plate of the Petalocrinidae was formed through fusion of brachial plates along the distal margin of the growing arms. Based on the number of ambulacral bifurcations, brachials from the primibrachitaxis through at least the quintibrachitaxis may have been fused to form this large plate. In Petalocrinus, all calcite of fused second brachials assume the same crystallographic orientation, but in Spirocrinus more than one crystal comprises the second brachial...
Data from: Body length of bony fishes was not a selective factor during the biggest mass extinction of all timeMark N. Puttick, Jürgen Kriwet, Wen Wen, Shixue Hu, Gavin H. Thomas & Michael J. Benton
The Permo-Triassic mass extinction devastated life on land and in the sea, but it is not clear why some species survived and others went extinct. One explanation is that lineage loss during mass extinctions is a random process in which luck determines which species survive. Alternatively, a phylogenetic signal in extinction may indicate a selection process operating on phenotypic traits. Large body size has often emerged as an extinction risk factor in studies of modern...
Institute of Geology14
Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology2
Chinese Academy of Sciences2
University of Kansas1
Capital Normal University1
Sun Yat-sen University1
The Ohio State University1
Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology1