19 Works

Data from: Host association drives significant genetic divergence in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius

Warren Booth, Ondřej Balvín, Edward L. Vargo, Jitka Vilímová & Coby Schal
Genetic differentiation may exist among sympatric populations of a species due to long-term associations with alternative hosts (i.e., host-associated differentiation). While host-associated differentiation has been documented in several phytophagus insects, there are far fewer cases known in animal parasites. The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a wingless insect, represents a potential model organism for elucidating the processes involved in host-associated differentiation in animal parasites with relatively limited mobility. In conjunction with the expansion of modern humans...

Data from: Rapid phenotypic evolution following shifts in life cycle complexity

Ronald M. Bonett, John G. Phillips, Nicholus M. Ledbetter, Samuel D. Martin & Luke Lehman
Life cycle strategies have evolved extensively throughout the history of metazoans. The expression of disparate life stages within a single ontogeny can present conflicts to trait evolution, and therefore may have played a major role in shaping metazoan forms. However, few studies have examined the consequences of adding or subtracting life stages on patterns of trait evolution. By analyzing trait evolution in a clade of closely related salamander lineages we show that shifts in number...

Data from: Parasites favor intermediate nestling masses and brood sizes in cliff swallows

Charles R. Brown & Mary Bomberger Brown
A challenge of life-history theory is to explain why animal body size does not continue to increase, given various advantages of larger size. In birds, body size of nestlings and the number of nestlings produced (brood size) have occasionally been shown to be constrained by higher predation on larger nestlings and those from larger broods. Parasites also are known to have strong effects on life-history traits in birds, but whether parasitism can be a driver...

Additional file 4 of Bile acid distributions, sex-specificity, and prognosis in colorectal cancer

Yuping Cai, Xinyi Shen, Lingeng Lu, Hong Yan, Huang Huang, Patricia Gaule, Engjel Muca, Casey M. Theriot, Zahra Rattray, Nicholas J. W. Rattray, Jun Lu, Nita Ahuja, Yawei Zhang, Philip B. Paty, Sajid A. Khan & Caroline H. Johnson
Additional file 4. Clinical information and bile acid values (dichotomized by medians) of individual patients.

Data from: Ectoparasitism shortens the breeding season in a colonial bird

Charles R. Brown & Mary Bomberger Brown
When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host's breeding season—and thus the host's opportunity for multiple brooding—has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively...

Data from: Competition decreases with relatedness and lek size in mole crickets: a role for kin selection?

Kit T. Keane, Warren Booth, Daniel R. Howard, Timothy M. J. Golden & Peggy S. M. Hill
Twenty years ago, Kokko & Lindstrom (1996) introduced the hypothesis that kin selection may drive the evolution of leks, shifting the lek-paradigm away from a competitive framework and spurring research on the relatedness of males on leks. However, support for Kokko & Lindstrom’s kin selection hypothesis has been sparse; most studies have shown related males to occur on leks no more than expected by chance. Additionally, evidence supporting the proposed mechanism is mixed; by joining...

A genetic mechanism for sexual dichromatism in birds

Miguel Carneiro, Malgorzata Gazda, Pedro Araújo, Ricardo Lopes, Matthew Toomey, Pedro Andrade, Sandra Afonso, Cristiana Marques, Luís Nunes, Paulo Pereira, Sandra Trigo, Geofrey Hill & Joseph Corbo
Sexual dichromatism — a difference in coloration between males and females — is central to the study of ornamentation, mate choice, and sexual selection. Here, we show that carotenoid-based dichromatism in mosaic canaries, a hybrid product between the sexually dichromatic red siskin and monochromatic canaries, is controlled by the carotenoid-cleaving enzyme Beta-Carotene Oxygenase 2 (BCO2). Dichromatism in mosaic canaries is explained by differential carotenoid degradation in the integument of each sex, rather than sex-specific variation...

Additional file 2 of Bile acid distributions, sex-specificity, and prognosis in colorectal cancer

Yuping Cai, Xinyi Shen, Lingeng Lu, Hong Yan, Huang Huang, Patricia Gaule, Engjel Muca, Casey M. Theriot, Zahra Rattray, Nicholas J. W. Rattray, Jun Lu, Nita Ahuja, Yawei Zhang, Philip B. Paty, Sajid A. Khan & Caroline H. Johnson
Additional file 2: Table S3. Statistics of the abundances of bacteria in tumors from RCCs and LCCs.

Additional file 2 of Bile acid distributions, sex-specificity, and prognosis in colorectal cancer

Yuping Cai, Xinyi Shen, Lingeng Lu, Hong Yan, Huang Huang, Patricia Gaule, Engjel Muca, Casey M. Theriot, Zahra Rattray, Nicholas J. W. Rattray, Jun Lu, Nita Ahuja, Yawei Zhang, Philip B. Paty, Sajid A. Khan & Caroline H. Johnson
Additional file 2: Table S3. Statistics of the abundances of bacteria in tumors from RCCs and LCCs.

Avian color expression and perception: Is there a carotenoid link?

Matthew B Toomey & Kelly L. Ronald
Carotenoids color many of the red, orange and yellow ornaments of birds and also shape avian vision. The carotenoid-pigmented oil droplets in cone photoreceptors filter incoming light and are predicted to aid in color discrimination. Carotenoid use in both avian coloration and color vision raises an intriguing question: is the evolution of visual signals and signal perception linked through these pigments? Here, we explore the genetic, physiological and functional connections between these traits. Carotenoid color...

Data from: Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors

John L. Hoogland & Charles R. Brown
Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology, or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado USA revealed that interspecific killing (IK) of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common,...

Data from: Spatial and temporal unpredictability of colony size in cliff swallows across 30 years

Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown & Erin A. Roche
Most colonially breeding animals occupy colonies that range in size from a few pairs to thousands of individuals, but the causes of colony size variation are largely unknown. Three general hypotheses are: (1) that variation in colony size is maintained by fluctuating selection via spatial and temporal changes in fitness associated with different colony sizes; (2) that colony formation reflects heterogeneity in habitat, with some sites having resources to support more individuals than others; and...

Data from: Dispersing hemipteran vectors have reduced arbovirus prevalence

Amy T. Moore & Charles R. Brown
A challenge in managing vector-borne zoonotic diseases in human and wildlife populations is predicting where epidemics or epizootics are likely to occur, and this requires knowing in part the likelihood of infected insect vectors dispersing pathogens from existing infection foci to novel areas. We measured prevalence of an arbovirus, Buggy Creek virus, in dispersing and resident individuals of its exclusive vector, the ectoparasitic swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius), that occupies cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) colonies in...

Data from: Albian infaunal Pholadomyida (Cretaceous Bivalvia), Comanchean Carbonate Shelf, Texas

Robert W. Scott & Bradley W. Claggett
Species of the Megaorder Poromyata, although common and relatively diverse in Albian-lower Cenomanian Comanchean strata in Texas and northern Mexico, have been neglected as biostratigraphic markers and paleoecological indicators. Since 1852 more than a dozen species have been identified as Homomya Agassiz, Order Pholadomyida, Superfamily Pholadomyoidea, or Pleuromya Agassiz, Order Pholadida, Superfamily Pleuromyoidea. Because valve morphologies of both genera are similar in many ways, casts of both genera are difficult to separate. Statistical analysis of...

Data from: Evidence for complex life cycle constraints on salamander body form diversification

Ronald M. Bonett & Andrea L. Blair
Metazoans display a tremendous diversity of developmental patterns, including complex life cycles composed of morphologically disparate stages. In this regard, the evolution of life cycle complexity promotes phenotypic diversity. However, correlations between life cycle stages can constrain the evolution of some structures and functions. Despite the potential macroevolutionary consequences, few studies have tested the impacts of life cycle evolution on broad-scale patterns of trait diversification. Here we show that larval and adult salamanders with a...

The cost of ectoparasitism in cliff swallows declines over 35 years

Charles Brown, Stacey Hannebaum, Valerie O'Brien, Catherine Page, Bruce Rannala, Erin Roche, Gigi Wagnon, Sarah Knutie, Amy Moore & Mary Brown
Host-parasite dynamics often vary over time, brought about by changes in the parasite’s virulence or the host’s ability to resist or tolerate the parasite. Although virulence evolution in microparasites is well studied, we know little about temporal change in the pathogenicity of macroparasites such as blood-feeding insects. Using data collected over 35 years, we report a reduction in pathogenicity of the hematophagous swallow bug (Cimex vicarius) on its cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) host. Relative to...

Smaller brained cliff swallows are more likely to die during harsh weather

Charles Brown
The cognitive-buffer hypothesis proposes that more harsh and unpredictable environments favor animals with larger brains and resulting greater cognitive skills. Comparisons across taxa have supported the hypothesis, but it has rarely been tested within a species. We measured brain size, as inferred from head dimensions, for 1141 cliff swallow specimens collected in western Nebraska, 1982-2018. Cliff swallows starving to death during unusual late-spring cold snaps had significantly smaller brains than those dying from other causes,...

A mechanism for red coloration in vertebrates

Matthew Toomey, Cristiana Marques, Pedro Araújo, Delai Huang, Siqiong Zhong, Yu Liu, Gretchen Schreiner, Connie Myers, Paulo Pereira, Sandra Afonso, Pedro Andrade, Malgorzata Gazda, Ricardo Lopes, Ivan Viegas, Maureen Haynes, Dustin Smith, Yohey Ogawa, Daniel Murphy, Rachel Kopec, David Parichy, Miguel Carneiro & Joseph Corbo
Red coloration is a salient feature of the natural world. Many vertebrates produce red color by converting dietary yellow carotenoids into red ketocarotenoids via an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that two enzymes, cytochrome P450 2J19 (CYP2J19) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1-like (BDH1L), are sufficient to catalyze this conversion. In birds, both enzymes are expressed at sites of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis (feather follicles and red cone photoreceptors), and genetic evidence implicates these enzymes in yellow/red color variation...

Additional file 4 of Bile acid distributions, sex-specificity, and prognosis in colorectal cancer

Yuping Cai, Xinyi Shen, Lingeng Lu, Hong Yan, Huang Huang, Patricia Gaule, Engjel Muca, Casey M. Theriot, Zahra Rattray, Nicholas J. W. Rattray, Jun Lu, Nita Ahuja, Yawei Zhang, Philip B. Paty, Sajid A. Khan & Caroline H. Johnson
Additional file 4. Clinical information and bile acid values (dichotomized by medians) of individual patients.

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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of Tulsa
    19
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    4
  • University of Strathclyde
    4
  • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
    4
  • Xi'an Jiaotong University
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  • Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
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  • Shandong University
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  • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
    4
  • Shandong Provincial Hospital
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  • Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College
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