40 Works

Data from: The importance of delineating networks by activity type in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida

Stefanie Gazda, Swami Iyer, Timothy Killingback, Richard Connor & Solange Brault
Network analysis has proved to be a valuable tool for studying the behavioural patterns of complex social animals. Often such studies either do not distinguish between different behavioural states of the organisms or simply focus attention on a single behavioural state to the exclusion of all others. In either of these approaches it is impossible to ascertain how the behavioural patterns of individuals depend on the type of activity they are engaged in. Here we...

Data from: Divergent habitat use of two urban lizard species

Kristin M. Winchell, Elizabeth J. Carlen, Alberto R. Puente-Rolón & Liam J. Revell
Faunal responses to anthropogenic habitat modification represent an important aspect of global change. In Puerto Rico, two species of arboreal lizard, Anolis cristatellus and A. stratulus, are commonly encountered in urban areas, yet seem to use the urban habitat in different ways. In this study, we quantified differences in habitat use between these two species in an urban setting. For each species, we measured habitat use and preference, and the niche space of each taxon,...

Data from: Measuring the magnitude of morphological integration: the effect of differences in morphometric representations and the inclusion of size

Fabio A Machado, Alex Hubbe, Diogo Melo, Arthur Porto & Gabriel Marroig
The magnitude of morphological integration is a major aspect of multivariate evolution, providing a simple measure of the intensity of association between morphological traits. Studies concerned with morphological integration usually translate phenotypes into morphometric representations to quantify how different morphological elements covary. Geometric and classic morphometric representations translate biological form in different ways, raising the question if magnitudes of morphological integration estimates obtained from different morphometric representations are compatible. Here we sought to answer this...

Data from: Selection and constraints in the ecomorphological adaptive evolution of the skull of living Canidae (Carnivora, Mammalia)

Fabio Machado
The association between phenotype and ecology is essential for understanding the environmental drivers of morphological evolution. This is a particularly challenging task when dealing with complex traits such as the skull, where multiple selective pressures are at play and evolution might be constrained by ontogenetic and genetic factors. In the present contribution I integrate morphometric tools, comparative methods and quantitative genetics to investigate how ontogenetic constraints and selection might have interacted during the evolution of...

Phylogeographic and phenotypic outcomes of brown anole colonization across the Caribbean provide insight into the beginning stages of an adaptive radiation

Jason J. Kolbe, Richard E. Glor, Marta López‐Darias, C. Verónica Gómez Pourroy, Alexis S. Harrison, Kevin De Queiroz, Liam J. Revell, Jonathan B. Losos & Robert Graham Reynolds
Some of the most important insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes of diversification and speciation have come from studies of island adaptive radiations, yet relatively little research has examined how these radiations initiate. We suggest that Anolis sagrei is a candidate for understanding the origins of the Caribbean Anolis adaptive radiation and how a colonizing anole species begins to undergo allopatric diversification, phenotypic divergence and, potentially, speciation. We undertook a genomic and morphological analysis...

Data from: Ancestral character estimation under the threshold model from quantitative genetics

Liam J. Revell
Evolutionary biology is a study of life's history on Earth. In researching this history, biologists are often interested in attempting to reconstruct phenotypes for the long extinct ancestors of living species. Various methods have been developed to do this on a phylogeny from the data for extant taxa. In the present article, I introduce a new approach for ancestral character estimation for discretely valued traits. This approach is based on the threshold model from evolutionary...

Data from: Linking locomotor performance to morphological shifts in urban lizards

Kristin M. Winchell, Inbar Maayan, Jason R. Fredette & Liam J. Revell
Urban habitats are drastically modified from their natural state, creating unique challenges and selection pressures for organisms that reside in them. We compared locomotor performance of Anolis lizards from urban and forest habitats on tracks differing in angle and substrate, and found that using artificial substrates came at a cost: lizards ran substantially slower and frequently lost traction on man-made surfaces compared to bark. We found that various morphological traits were positively correlated with sprint...

Data from: Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas

Robert G. Reynolds, David C. Collar, Stesha A. Pasachnik, Matthew L. Niemiller, Alberto R. Puente-Rolon & Liam J. Revell
Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of...

Data from: A survey of risk tolerance to multiple sclerosis therapies

Robert J. Fox, Carol Cosenza, Lauren Cripps, Paul Ford, MaryBeth Mercer, Sneha Natarajan, Amber Salter, Tuula Tyry & Stacey S. Cofield
Objective: To determine tolerance to various risk scenarios associated with current MS therapies. Methods: People with MS from the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry’s online cohort and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society were invited to complete a questionnaire on tolerance to real-world risks associated with a hypothetical therapy. Multiple risks levels were presented including, skin rash, infection, kidney injury, thyroid injury, liver injury, and PML. Results: Both progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...

DNA barcode analyses improve accuracy in fungal species distribution models

Javier Fernández-López, M. Teresa Telleria, Margarita Dueñas, Tom May & María P. Martín
Species distribution models based on environmental predictors are useful to explain a species geographic range. For many groups of organisms, including fungi, the increase of occurrence data sets has generalized their use. However, fungal species are not always easy to distinguish, and taxonomy of many groups is not completely settled. This study explores the effect of taxonomic uncertainty in databases used for modeling fungal distributions. We analyze distribution models for three morphospecies from the corticioid...

Evolutionary mismatch along salinity gradients in a Neotropical water strider

Anakena Castillo & Luis De León
The evolution of local adaptation is crucial for the in situ persistence of populations in changing environments. However, selection along broad environmental gradients could render local adaptation difficult, and might even result in maladaptation. We address this issue by quantifying fitness trade-offs (via common garden experiments) along a salinity gradient in two populations of the Neotropical water strider Telmatometra withei – a species found in both fresh (FW) and brackish (BW) water environments across Panama....

Data from: Divergence in coloration and the evolution of reproductive isolation in the Anolis marmoratus species complex

Martha M. Muñoz, Nicholas G. Crawford, , Nicholas J. Messana, Rebecca D. Tarvin, Liam J. Revell, Rosanne M. Zandvliet, Juanita M. Hopwood, Elbert Mock, André L. Schneider, Chris J. Schneider, Thomas J. McGreevy & Christopher J. Schneider
Adaptive divergence in coloration is expected to produce reproductive isolation in species that use colorful signals in mate choice and species recognition. Indeed, many adaptive radiations are characterized by differentiation in colorful signals, suggesting that divergent selection acting on coloration may be an important component of speciation. Populations in the Anolis marmoratus species complex from the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe display striking divergence in adult male color and pattern that occurs over small geographic distances,...

Data from: Phenotypic shifts in urban areas in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus

Kristin M. Winchell, Robert Graham Reynolds, Sofia R. Prado-Irwin, Alberto R. Puente-Rolón & Liam J. Revell
Urbanization is an important dimension of global change, and urban areas impose significant natural selection on species within them. Although many species persist in urban areas, little research has investigated whether populations have adapted to urbanization. Even less work has considered tropical regions, which have recently experienced dramatic urban growth. In the present study we focused on the neotropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus. We tested whether lizard ecology and morphology differ between urban and natural areas...

Data from: Phylogenetic distribution of symbiotic bacteria from Panamanian amphibians that inhibit growth of the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Matthew H. Becker, Jenifer B. Walke, Lindsey Murrill, Douglas C. Woodhams, Laura K. Reinert, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Elizabeth A. Burzynski, Thomas P. Umile, Kevin P. C. Minbiole & Lisa K. Belden
The introduction of next-generation sequencing has allowed for greater understanding of community composition of symbiotic microbial communities. However, determining the function of individual members of these microbial communities still largely relies on culture-based methods. Here, we present results on the phylogenetic distribution of a defensive functional trait of cultured symbiotic bacteria associated with amphibians. Amphibians are host to a diverse community of cutaneous bacteria and some of these bacteria protect their host from the lethal...

Data from: Rapid evolution of a native species following invasion by a congener

Yoel E. Stuart, Todd S. Campbell, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Robert G. Reynolds, Liam J. Revell & Jonathan B. Losos
In recent years, biologists have increasingly recognized that evolutionary change can occur rapidly when natural selection is strong; thus, real-time studies of evolution can be used to test classic evolutionary hypotheses directly. One such hypothesis is that negative interactions between closely related species can drive phenotypic divergence. Such divergence is thought to be ubiquitous, though well-documented cases are surprisingly rare. On small islands in Florida, we found that the lizard Anolis carolinensis moved to higher...

Data from: Exceptional convergence on the macroevolutionary landscape in island lizard radiations

D. Luke Mahler, Travis Ingram, Liam J. Revell & Jonathan B. Losos
G. G. Simpson, one of the chief architects of evolutionary biology’s modern synthesis, proposed that diversification occurs on a macroevolutionary adaptive landscape, but landscape models are seldom used to study adaptive divergence in large radiations. We show that for Caribbean Anolis lizards, diversification on similar Simpsonian landscapes leads to striking convergence of entire faunas on four islands. Parallel radiations unfolding at large temporal scales shed light on the process of adaptive diversification, indicating that the...

Data from: Comparing the rates of speciation and extinction between phylogenetic trees

Liam J. Revell
Over the past decade or so it has become increasingly popular to use reconstructed evolutionary trees to investigate questions about the rates of speciation and extinction. Although the methodology of this field has grown substantially in its sophistication in recent years, here I’ll take a step back to present a very simple model that is designed to investigate the relatively straightforward question of whether the tempo of diversification (speciation and extinction) differs between two or...

Improved 2-D grounding-line orientation in an ice-sheet model.

D. Pollard & R. DeConto
The use of a boundary-layer parameterization of buttressing and ice flux across grounding lines in a two-dimensional ice-sheet model is improved by allowing general orientations of the grounding line. This and another modification to the model's grounding-line parameterization are assessed in two settings: a narrow fjord-like domain (MISMIP+), and in future simulations of West Antarctic ice retreat under RCP8.5-based climates. The new modifications are found to have significant effects on the fjord results, which are...

Data from: Probiotic treatment restores protection against lethal fungal infection lost during amphibian captivity

Jordan G. Kueneman, Douglas C. Woodhams, Reid Harris, Holly M. Archer, Rob Knight & Valerie J. McKenzie
Host-associated microbiomes perform many beneficial functions including resisting pathogens and training the immune system. Here, we show that amphibians developing in captivity lose substantial skin bacterial diversity, primarily due to reduced ongoing input from environmental sources. We combined studies of wild and captive amphibians with a database of over 1 000 strains that allows us to examine antifungal function of the skin microbiome. We tracked skin bacterial communities of 62 endangered boreal toads, Anaxyrus boreas,...

Data from: 100-year time-series reveal little morphological change following impoundment and predator invasion in two Neotropical characids

Ilke Geladi, Luis Fernando De León, Mark Torchin, Andrew Hendry, Rigoberto Gonzalez & Diana Sharpe
Human activities are dramatically altering ecosystems worldwide, often resulting in shifts in selection regimes. In response, natural populations sometimes undergo rapid phenotypic changes, which if adaptive, can increase their probability of persistence. However, in many instances, populations fail to undergo any phenotypic change, which might indicate a variety of possibilities, including maladaptation. In freshwater ecosystems, the impoundment of rivers and the introduction of exotic species are among the leading threats to native fishes. We examined...

Data from: Placing cryptic, recently extinct, or hypothesized taxa into an ultrametric phylogeny using continuous character data: A case study with the lizard Anolis roosevelti

Liam J. Revell, D. Luke Mahler, Robert Graham Reynolds & Graham James Slater
In recent years, enormous effort and investment has been put into assembling the tree of life: a phylogenetic history for all species on Earth. Overwhelmingly, this progress toward building an ever increasingly complete phylogeny of living things has been accomplished through sophisticated analysis of molecular data. In the modern genomic age, molecular genetic data have become very easy and inexpensive to obtain for many species. However, some lineages are poorly represented in or absent from...

Data from: Exploring the effects of salinization on trophic diversity in freshwater ecosystems: a quantitative review

Luis Fernando De León, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Diana M. T. Sharpe & Anakena M. Castillo
Salinization of freshwater ecosystems represents a potential threat to biodiversity, but the distribution of salinity tolerance among freshwater organisms and its functional consequences are understudied. In this study, we reviewed global patterns of salinity tolerance across a broad range of freshwater organisms. Specifically, we compared published data on LC50 (a metric of salinity tolerance) across climatic regions, taxa, and functional feeding groups (FFGs). We found that microinvertebrates were more sensitive to salinity than vertebrates and...

Historical allopatry and secondary contact or primary intergradation in the Puerto Rican Crested Anole, Anolis cristatellus, on Vieques Island

Liam J Revell, R. Graham Reynolds & Quynh N. Quach
Recent work revealed surprisingly deep mitochondrial genetic divergence in the lizard Anolis cristatellus among samples obtained from the small Caribbean island of Vieques. We sought to determine whether this had resulted from natural or anthropogenic causes, and (if the former), whether divergence occurred in a biogeographic context of allopatry followed by secondary contact, or via isolation-by-distance across the species’ historical range. We first estimated a mitochondrial gene tree for 379 samples and then genotyped 3,407...

Phylogenetic signal and evolutionary correlates of urban tolerance in a widespread neotropical lizard clade

Kristin Winchell, Klaus P. Schliep, D. Luke Mahler & Liam J. Revell
Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and while some species tolerate and even exploit urban environments, many others are excluded entirely from this new habitat. Understanding the factors that underlie tolerance of urbanization is thus of rapidly growing importance. Here we examine urban tolerance across a diverse group of lizards: Caribbean members of the neotropical genus Anolis. Our analyses reveal that urban tolerance has strong phylogenetic signal, suggesting that closely related species tend to respond similarly to...

Data from: Biting disrupts integration to spur skull evolution in eels

David C. Collar, Peter C. Wainwright, Michael E. Alfaro, Liam J. Revell & Rita S. Mehta
The demand that anatomical structures work together to perform biological functions is thought to impose strong limits on morphological evolution. Breakthroughs in diversification can occur, however, when functional integration among structures is relaxed. Although such transitions are expected to generate variation in morphological diversification across the tree of life, empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. Here we show that transitions between suction-based and biting modes of prey capture, which require different degrees of coordination...

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