56 Works

A catastrophic tropical drought kills hydraulically vulnerable tree species

Jennifer Powers, German Vargas-G, Timothy Brodribb, Naomi Schwartz, Daniel Perez-Aviles, Chris Smith-Martin, Justin Becknell, Filippo Aureli, Roger Blanco, Erick Calderón-Morales, Julio César Calvo-Alvarado, Ana Julieta Calvo-Obando, María Marta Chavarría, Dorian Carvajal-Vanegas, César Dionisio Jiménez-Rodríguez, Evin Murillo Chacon, Colleen Schaffner, Leland Werden, Xiangtao Xu & David Medvigy
Drought-related tree mortality is now a widespread phenomenon predicted to increase in magnitude with climate change. However, the patterns of which species and trees are most vulnerable to drought, and the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive, in part due to the lack of relevant data and difficulty of predicting the location of catastrophic drought years in advance. We used long‐term demographic records and extensive databases of functional traits and distribution patterns to understand the responses...

Data from: Chewing on the trees: constraints and adaptation in the evolution of the primate mandible

Carlo Meloro, Nilton Carlos Cáceres, Francesco Carotenuto, Jonas Sponchiado, Geruza Leal Melo, Federico Passaro & Pasquale Raia
Chewing on different food types is a demanding biological function. The classic assumption in studying the shape of feeding apparatuses is that animals are what they eat, meaning that adaptation to different food items accounts for most of their interspecific variation. Yet, a growing body of evidence points against this concept. We use the primate mandible as a model structure to investigate the complex interplay between shape, size, diet and phylogeny. We find a weak...

Data from: A new solution to an old riddle: elongate dinosaur tracks explained as deep penetration of the foot, not plantigrade locomotion

Jens N. Lallensack, James O. Farlow & Peter L. Falkingham
The dinosaur track record features numerous examples of trackways with elongate metatarsal marks. Such “elongate tracks” are often highly variable and characterised by indistinct outlines and abbreviated or missing digit impressions. Elongate dinosaur tracks are well-known from the Paluxy River bed of Texas, where some had been interpreted as “man tracks” by creationists due to their superficially human-like appearance. The horizontal orientation of the metatarsal marks led to the now widely accepted idea of a...

Data from: A method for mapping morphological convergence on three-dimensional digital models: the case of the mammalian saber-tooth

Pasquale Raia, Marina Melchionna, Antonio Profico, Silvia Castiglione, Carmela Serio, Alessandro Mondanaro, Maria Modafferi, Davide Tamagnini, Luigi Maiorano, Pasquale Raia, Stephen Wroe, Lawrence Witmer & Gabriele Sansalone
Morphological convergence can be assessed through a variety of statistical methods. None of the methods proposed to date enable the visualization of convergence. All are based on the assumption that the phenotypes either converge, or do not. However, between species, morphologically similar regions of a larger structure may behave differently. Previous approaches do not identify these regions within the larger structures or quantify the degree to which they may contribute to overall convergence. Here we...

Gregariousness, foraging effort, and social interactions in lactating bonobos and chimpanzees

Sean Lee, Gottfried Hohmann, Elizabeth Lonsdorf, Barbara Fruth & Carson Murray
Fission-fusion dynamics have evolved in a broad range of animal taxa and are thought to allow individuals to mitigate feeding competition. While this is the principal benefit of fission-fusion, few studies have evaluated its costs. We compared gregariousness, foraging budgets, and social budgets between lactating bonobos and chimpanzees from wild populations to evaluate such costs. Both species exhibit fission-fusion dynamics, but chimpanzees, particularly in East African populations, appear to experience higher feeding competition than bonobos....

Data from: CHIIMP: an automated high-throughput microsatellite genotyping approach reveals greater allelic diversity in wild chimpanzees

Hannah J. Barbian, Andrew Jesse Connell, Alexa N. Avitto, Ronnie M. Russell, Andrew G. Smith, Madhurima S. Gundlapally, Alexander L. Shazad, Yingying Li, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Emily E. Wroblewski, Deus Mjungu, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Fiona A. Stewart, Alexander K. Piel, Anne E. Pusey, Paul M. Sharp & Beatrice H. Hahn
Short tandem repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, are commonly used to non-invasively genotype wild-living endangered species, including African apes. Until recently, capillary electrophoresis has been the method of choice to determine the length of polymorphic STR loci. However, this technique is labor intensive, difficult to compare across platforms, and notoriously imprecise. Here we developed a MiSeq-based approach and tested its performance using previously genotyped fecal samples from long-term studied chimpanzees in Gombe National Park,...

Data from: Repeated land mass reformation limits diversification in the widespread littoral zone mosquito Anopheles sundaicus sensu lato in the Indo-Oriental Region

Magdalena Zarowiecki, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Rory J. Post, Michael J. Bangs, Pe Than Htun, Thaung Hlaing, Chang Moh Seng, Visut Baimai, Trung Ho Ding, Tho Sochantha & Catherine Walton
Southeast Asia harbours abundant biodiversity, hypothesized to have been generated by Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic and environmental change. Vicariance between the island of Borneo, the remaining Indonesian archipelago and mainland Southeast Asia caused by elevated sea levels during interglacial periods has been proposed to lead to diversification in the littoral zone mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Rodenwaldt) sensu lato. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we inferred the population history and assessed gene flow of A. sundaicus...

Data from: Multilocus genetic diversity and historical biogeography of the endemic wall lizard from Ibiza and Formentera, Podarcis pityusensis (Squamata: Lacertidae)

Virginia Rodríguez, Richard P. Brown, Barbara Terrasa, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Jose A. Castro, Antonia Picornell & M. Misericordia Ramon
Two monophyletic sister species of wall lizards inhabit the two main groups of Balearic Islands: Podarcis lilfordi from islets and small islands around Mallorca and Menorca and Podarcis pityusensis from Ibiza, Formentera and associated islets. Genetic diversity within the endangered P. lilfordi has been well characterized, but P. pityusensis has not been studied in depth. Here, 2430 bp of mtDNA and 15 microsatellite loci were analysed from P. pityusensis populations from across its natural range....

The impact of a heat and moisture exchange mask on respiratory symptoms and airway response to exercise in asthma

John Dickinson, Anna Jackson, James Hull, James Hopker, Hannah Fletcher, William Gowers & John Molphy
Respiratory symptoms, including cough are prevalent in asthmatic individuals when exercising. This study investigates whether a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) face mask is effective in modulating exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and post exercise cough in a cold, dry environment in asthmatic individuals. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with asthma (20 males, 6 females) completed three cycling exercise challenges (EX) at 8 oC and 24% relative humidity (RH) in a randomised order. Participants wore either an HME...

Habitat selection of samango monkeys

Edwin Parker
Aim: As habitat loss continues to accelerate with global human population growth, identifying landscape characteristics that influence species occurrence is a key conservation priority in order to prevent global biodiversity loss. In South Africa, the arboreal samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis sp.) is threatened due to loss and fragmentation of the indigenous forests it inhabits. The aim of this study was to determine the habitat preferences of the samango monkey at different spatial scales, and to...

Skull shape data for 188 species of living Carnivora

Carlo Meloro & Davide Tamagnini
There are 5 files. Two include 2D coordinates used to quantify cranium and mandible shape for a sample of 188 averaged Carnivora species. These coordinates are in .NTS format. Another file is the phylogenetic tree employed for this study in nexus format. In Excel there is museum catalog list of all the specimens included in the study while the text file RoutineR.txt include most of the scripts employed in this study with examples on how...

Pitfall and refuge trap sampling Linn Co March 2018-June2019

Inga Reich, Casi Jessie, Seung-Joon Ahn, Man-Yeon Choi, Christopher Williams, Mike Gormally & Rory Mc Donnell
Numbers of carabid beetles, caterpillars, cranefly larvae and slugs collected from pitfall and refuge traps in ten Annual Ryegrass fields in Linn County, Oregon between March 23, 2018 and June 20, 2019. Given are details on sampling date, trap, size and sex (carabids only), weight (slugs only) and species (where possible). Provided are also the results of the molecular gut content analysis of the carabid beetles: Date of gut dissection and associated details on the...

Bringing Back the Manchester Argus Coenonympha tullia ssp. davus (Fabricius 1777): Quantifying the habitat resource requirements to inform the successful reintroduction of a specialist peatland butterfly

Andrew Osborne, Mike Longden, Dave Bourke & Emma Coulthard
2021-30 has been designated the UN decade of ecosystem restoration. A landscape scale peatland restoration project is being undertaken on Chat Moss, Greater Manchester, UK, with conservation translocations an important component of this work. The Manchester Argus Coenonympha tullia ssp. davus, a specialist butterfly of lowland raised bogs in the northwest of England, UK is under threat due to severe habitat loss and degradation. A species reintroduction was planned for spring 2020. This study aimed...

Listening and watching: do camera traps or acoustic sensors more efficiently detect wild chimpanzees in an open habitat?

Anne-Sophie Crunchant, David Borchers, Hjalmar Kuehl & Alex K. Piel
1. With one million animal species at risk of extinction, there is an urgent need to regularly monitor threatened species. However, in practice this is challenging, especially with wide-ranging, elusive and cryptic species or those that occur at low density. 2. Here we compare two non-invasive methods, passive acoustic monitoring (n=12) and camera trapping (n=53), to detect chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a savanna-woodland mosaic habitat at the Issa Valley, Tanzania. With occupancy modelling we evaluate...

Data from: All is fish that comes to the net: metabarcoding for rapid fisheries catch assessment

Lorenzo Talarico, Tommaso Russo, Giulia Maiello, Charles Baillie, Giuliano Colosimo, Lorenzo D'Andrea, Federico Di Maio, Fabio Fiorentino, Simone Franceschini, Germana Garofalo, Dario Scannella, Stefano Cataudella & Stefano Mariani
AbstractMonitoring marine resource exploitation is a key activity in fisheries science and biodiversity conservation. Since research surveys are time-consuming and costly, fishery-dependent data (i.e. derived directly from fishing vessels) are increasingly credited with a key role in expanding the reach of ocean monitoring. Fishing vessels may be seen as widely ranging data-collecting platforms, which could act as a fleet of sentinels for monitoring marine life, in particular exploited stocks. Here, we investigate the possibility of...

Data from: Testing the occurrence of convergence in the cranio-mandibular shape evolution of living carnivorans

Davide Tamagnini, Carlo Meloro, Pasquale Raia & Luigi Maiorano
Convergence consists in the independent evolution of similar traits in distantly related species. The mammalian cranio-mandibular complex constitutes an ideal biological structure to investigate ecomorphological dynamics and the carnivorans, due to their phenotypic variability and ecological flexibility, offer an interesting case-study to explore the occurrence of convergent evolution. Here, we applied multiple pattern-based metrics to test the occurrence of convergence in the cranio-mandibular shape of extant carnivorans. To this aim, we tested for convergence in...

Patterns of recent natural selection on genetic loci associated with sexually differentiated human body size and shape phenotypes

Audrey M. Arner, Kathleen E. Grogan, Mark Grabowski, Hugo Reyes-Centeno & George H. Perry
Levels of sex differences for human body size and shape phenotypes are hypothesized to have adaptively reduced following the agricultural transition as part of an evolutionary response to relatively more equal divisions of labor and new technology adoption. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by studying genetic variants associated with five sexually differentiated human phenotypes: height, body mass, hip circumference, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. We first analyzed genome-wide association (GWAS) results for...

Data from: The importance of mammalian torpor for survival in a post-fire landscape

Clare Stawski, Gerhard Körtner, Julia Nowack & Fritz Geiser
Wildfires have increased in frequency and intensity worldwide with climate change as a main driving factor. While a number of studies have focused on population changes in regard to fires, there are essentially no quantitative data on behavioural and physiological adjustments that are vital for the persistence of individuals during and after fires. Here we show that brown antechinus, a small insectivorous marsupial mammal, (i) endured a prescribed fire in situ, (ii) remained in their...

Data from: Reproductive competition triggers mass eviction in cooperative banded mongooses

Faye J. Thompson, Harry H. Marshall, Jennifer J. Sanderson, Emma I. K. Vitikainen, Hazel J. Nichols, Jason S. Gilchrist, Andrew J. Young, Sarah J. Hodge & Michael A. Cant
In many vertebrate societies, forced eviction of group members is an important determinant of population structure, but little is known about what triggers eviction. Three main explanations are (1) the reproductive competition hypothesis; (2) the coercion of cooperation hypothesis; and (3) the adaptive forced dispersal hypothesis. The last hypothesis proposes that dominant individuals use eviction as an adaptive strategy to propagate copies of their alleles through a highly structured population. We tested these hypotheses as...

Data from: The extinct, giant giraffid Sivatherium giganteum: skeletal reconstruction and body mass estimation

Christopher Basu, Peter L. Falkingham & John R. Hutchinson
Sivatherium giganteum is an extinct giraffid from the Plio–Pleistocene boundary of the Himalayan foothills. To date, there has been no rigorous skeletal reconstruction of this unusual mammal. Historical and contemporary accounts anecdotally state that Sivatherium rivalled the African elephant in terms of its body mass, but this statement has never been tested. Here, we present a three-dimensional composite skeletal reconstruction and calculate a representative body mass estimate for this species using a volumetric method. We...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding reveals that 200-μm-size-fractionated filtering is unable to discriminate between planktonic microbial and large eukaryotes

Lemian Liu, Min Liu, David M. Wilkinson, Huihuang Chen, Xiaoqing Yu & Yang Jun
Microeukaryotic plankton (0.2–200 μm) are critical components of aquatic ecosystems and key players in global ecological processes. High-throughput sequencing is currently revolutionizing their study on an unprecedented scale. However, it is currently unclear whether we can accurately, effectively and quantitatively depict the microeukaryotic plankton communities using traditional size-fractionated filtering combined with molecular methods. To address this, we analysed the eukaryotic plankton communities both with, and without, prefiltering with a 200 μm pore-size sieve –by using...

Foraging behaviour data for sympatric Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, and Cebus imitator

Carrie Veilleux, Amanda Melin, Chihiro Hiramatsu, Karem Sánchez‐Solano, Shasta Webb, Rachel Williamson, Megan Mah, Evin Murillo-Chacon, Colleen Schaffner, Laura Hernández‐Salazar, Filippo Aureli & Shoji Kawamura
Senses form the interface between animals and environments, and their form and function provide a window into the ecology of past and present species. However, research on the senses used during foraging (e.g. smell, vision, touch, taste) by wild terrestrial frugivores is sparse. Here, we combine 26,094 fruit foraging sequences recorded from three wild, sympatric primates (Cebus imitator, Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata) with data on within- and between-species variation in colour vision, olfaction, taste, and...

Data from: Banded mongooses avoid inbreeding when mating with members of the same natal group

Jennifer L. Sanderson, Jinliang Wang, Emma I. K. Vitikainen, Michael A. Cant & Hazel J. Nichols
Inbreeding and inbreeding avoidance are key factors in the evolution of animal societies, influencing dispersal and reproductive strategies which can affect relatedness structure and helping behaviours. In cooperative breeding systems, individuals typically avoid inbreeding through reproductive restraint and/or dispersing to breed outside their natal group. However, where groups contain multiple potential mates of varying relatedness, strategies of kin recognition and mate choice may be favoured. Here, we investigate male mate choice and female control of...

Data from: Kin discrimination via odour in the cooperatively breeding banded mongoose

Jessica Mitchell, Solomon Kyabulima, Robert Businge, Michael A. Cant & Hazel J. Nichols
Kin discrimination is often beneficial for group-living animals as it aids in inbreeding avoidance and providing nepotistic help. In mammals, the use of olfactory cues in kin discrimination is widespread and may occur through learning the scents of individuals that are likely to be relatives, or by assessing genetic relatedness directly through assessing odour similarity (phenotype matching). We use scent presentations to investigate these possibilities in a wild population of the banded mongoose Mungos mungo,...

Data from: Pregnancy is detected via odour in a wild cooperative breeder

Jessica Mitchell, Michael A. Cant & Hazel J. Nichols
Among mammals, scent has long been known to encode oestrus; however, in many species, detecting pregnancy may also be important in terms of both competition and mate-choice. Here, we show, through odour presentation experiments, that pregnancy is discernible via scent by both sexes in the cooperatively breeding banded mongoose, Mungos mungo. Males spent more time investigating and were more likely to scent mark the odours of non-pregnant females, compared to pregnant females. Females showed increased...

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  • Liverpool John Moores University
  • Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
  • University of Salford
  • Universidad Veracruzana
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Cambridge
  • New York University
  • University of Manchester
  • Sapienza University of Rome
  • University of Liverpool