11 Works

Data from: Rapid evolution of ant thermal tolerance across an urban-rural temperature cline

Sarah E. Diamond, Lacy Chick, Abe Perez, Stephanie A. Strickler & Ryan A. Martin
Rates of urbanization are accelerating worldwide. The increases in temperature associated with ‘urban heat island’ effects provide both an ecological imperative and a unique opportunity to explore the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie organismal responses to rapid environmental change. We used the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus (Mayr 1866), to compare shifts in thermal tolerance of ants from rural and urban habitats throughout Cleveland, USA. Urban warming in the region has been ongoing for the...

Data from: Cross-modal influence of mechanosensory input on gaze responses to visual motion in Drosophila

Shwetha Mureli, Ilakkiya Thanigaivalen, Michael L. Schaffer & Jessica L. Fox
Animals typically combine inertial and visual information to stabilize their gaze against confounding self-generated visual motion, and to maintain a level gaze when the body is perturbed by external forces. In vertebrates, an inner ear vestibular system provides information about body rotations and accelerations, but gaze stabilization is less understood in insects, which lack a vestibular organ. In flies, the halteres, reduced hindwings imbued with hundreds of mechanosensory cells, sense inertial forces and provide input...

Data from: A longitudinal cline characterizes the genetic structure of human populations in the Tibetan plateau

Choognwon Jeong, Benjamin M. Peter, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Cynthia M. Beall, Geoff Childs, Sienna R. Craig, John Novembre, Anna Di Rienzo & Choongwon Jeong
Indigenous populations of the Tibetan plateau have attracted much attention for their good performance at extreme high altitude. Most genetic studies of Tibetan adaptations have used genetic variation data at the genome scale, while genetic inferences about their demography and population structure are largely based on uniparental markers. To provide genome-wide information on population structure, we analyzed new and published data of 338 individuals from indigenous populations across the plateau in conjunction with worldwide genetic...

Data from: Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection

Adam Siepielski, Michael B. Morrissey, Mathieu Buoro, Stephanie M. Carlson, Christina M. Caruso, Sonya M. Clegg, Tim Coulson, Joseph DiBattista, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Clinton D. Francis, Joe Hereford, Joel G. Kingsolver, Kate E. Augustine, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, Ryan A. Martin, Ben C. Sheldon, Nina Sletvold, Erik I. Svensson, Michael J. Wade & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation—natural selection—are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By...

Data from: A chromosome 5q31.1 locus associates with tuberculin skin test reactivity in HIV-positive individuals from tuberculosis hyper-endemic regions in east Africa

Rafal S. Sobota, Catherine M. Stein, Nuri Kodaman, Isaac Maro, Wendy Wieland-Alter, Robert P. Igo, Albert Magohe, LaShaunda L. Malone, Keith Chervenak, Noemi B. Hall, Mecky Matee, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Moses Joloba, Jason H. Moore, William K. Scott, Timothy Lahey, W. Henry Boom, C. Fordham Von Reyn, Scott M. Williams & Giorgio Sirugo
One in three people has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and the risk for MTB infection in HIV-infected individuals is even higher. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic regions who do not get infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are genetically resistant. Using an "experiment of nature" design that proved successful in our previous work, we performed a genome-wide association study of tuberculin skin test positivity using 469 HIV-positive patients from prospective study cohorts...

Data from: Spatiotemporal changes in the distribution of LHFPL5 in mice cochlear hair bundles during development and in the absence of PCDH15

Shanthini Mahendrasingam, Robert Fettiplace, Kumar N. Alagramam, Ellen Cross & David N. Furness
Mechanosensory transduction by vertebrate hair cells depends on a protein complex at the tips of shorter stereocilia associated with mechanoelectrical transduction channels activated by tip links in the hair bundle. In mammalian hair cells, this complex includes transmembrane channel-like protein subunit 1 (TMC1), lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 5 protein (LHFPL5) and protocadherin 15 (PCDH15), a lower-end component of the tip link. TMC1 interacts with LHFPL5 and PCDH15 but how the complex develops to maturity, and...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity of plant-soil feedbacks increases per capita reproductive biomass of species at an establishment disadvantage

Jean H. Burns, Angela J. Brandt, Jennifer E. Murphy, Angela M. Kaczowka & David J. Burke
Plant–soil feedbacks have been widely implicated as a driver of plant community diversity, and the coexistence prediction generated by a negative plant–soil feedback can be tested using the mutual invasibility criterion: if two populations are able to invade one another, this result is consistent with stable coexistence. We previously showed that two co-occurring Rumex species exhibit negative pairwise plant–soil feedbacks, predicting that plant–soil feedbacks could lead to their coexistence. However, whether plants are able to...

Data from: Symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria: nodulation and phylogenetic data across legume genera

Michelle E. Afkhami, D. Luke Mahler, Jean H. Burns, Marjorie G. Weber, Martin F. Wojciechowski, Janet Sprent & Sharon Y. Strauss
How species interactions shape global biodiversity and influence diversification is a central – but also data-hungry – question in evolutionary ecology. Microbially-based mutualisms are widespread and could cause diversification by ameliorating stress and thus allowing organisms to colonize and adapt to otherwise unsuitable habitats. Yet the role of these interactions in generating species diversity has received limited attention, especially across large taxonomic groups. In the massive angiosperm family Leguminosae, plants often associate with root-nodulating bacteria...

Data from: Tadpole begging reveals high quality

Matthew B. Dugas, Stephanie A. Strickler & Jennifer L. Stynoski
Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources non-randomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e., begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the diagnostic predictions of three ‘honest begging’ hypotheses –Signal of Need, Signal of Quality, and Signal of Hunger – in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative...

Data from: Ethnically Tibetan women in Nepal with low hemoglobin concentration have better reproductive outcomes

Jang Ik Cho, Buddha Basnyat, Choongwon Jeong, Anna Di Rienzo, Geoff Childs, Sienna Craig, Jiayang Sun, Cynthia Beall & Cynthia M. Beall
Abstract Background and objectives: Tibetans have distinctively low hemoglobin concentrations at high altitudes compared with visitors and Andean highlanders. This study hypothesized that natural selection favors an unelevated hemoglobin concentration among Tibetans. It considered nonheritable sociocultural factors affecting reproductive success and tested the hypotheses that a higher percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (indicating less stress) or lower hemoglobin concentration (indicating dampened response) associated with higher lifetime reproductive success. Methodology: We sampled 1006 post-reproductive ethnically...

Data from: Intraspecific adaptive radiation: competition, ecological opportunity, and phenotypic diversification within species

Nicholas A. Levis, Ryan A. Martin, Kerry A. O'Donnell & David W. Pfennig
Intraspecific variation in resource-use traits can have profound ecological and evolutionary implications. Among the most striking examples are resource polymorphisms, where alternative morphs that utilize different resources evolve within a population. An underappreciated aspect of their evolution is that the same conditions that favor resource polymorphism—competition and ecological opportunity—might foster additional rounds of diversification within already existing morphs. We examined these issues in spadefoot toad tadpoles that develop into either a generalist ‘omnivore’ or a...

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