444 Works

Data from: Nathusius' bats optimize long-distance migration by flying at maximum range speed.

Sara A. Troxell, Marc W. Holderied, Gunars Petersons & Christian C. Voigt
Metabolic rate of 12 Pipistrellus nathusii in relation to varying airspeed. We measured the metabolic rate of flying bats in a wind tunnel using the 13C labeled Na-bicarbonate method. The relationship between metabolic rate and airspeed was U-shaped in the majority of individuals. We could not find a U-shaped curve in a few individuals that engaged in flight manoeuvers, including landing. We used the shape of the U-shaped power curve to estimate minimum flight speed...

Data from: Is MHC diversity a better marker for conservation than neutral genetic diversity? a case study of two contrasting dolphin populations

Oliver Manlik, Michael Krutzen, Anna M. Kopps, Janet Mann, Lars Bejder, Simon J. Allen, Celine Frere, Richard C. Connor & William B. Sherwin
Genetic diversity is essential for populations to adapt to changing environments. Measures of genetic diversity are often based on selectively neutral markers, such as microsatellites. Genetic diversity to guide conservation management, however, is better reflected by adaptive markers, including genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Our aim was to assess MHC and neutral genetic diversity in two contrasting bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) populations in Western Australia—one apparently viable population with high reproductive output (Shark...

Data from: The global geography of human subsistence

Michael C. Gavin, Patrick H. Kavanagh, Hannah J. Haynie, Claire Bowern, Carol R. Ember, Russell D. Gray, Fiona M. Jordan, Kathryn R. Kirby, Geoff Kushnick, Bobbi S. Low, Bruno Vilela & Carlos A. Botero
How humans obtain food has dramatically reshaped ecosystems and altered both the trajectory of human history and the characteristics of human societies. Our species’ subsistence varies widely, from predominantly foraging strategies, to plant-based agriculture and animal husbandry. The extent to which environmental, social, and historical factors have driven such variation is currently unclear. Prior attempts to resolve long-standing debates on this topic have been hampered by an over-reliance on narrative arguments, small and geographically-narrow samples,...

Early-life effects on body size in each sex interact to determine reproductive success in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

Eleanor Bladon, Sinead English, Sonia Pascoal & Rebecca Kilner
Early-life conditions have been shown to have a profound effect on an animal’s body size and fecundity across diverse taxa. However, less is known about how early-life effects on fecundity within each sex interact to determine reproductive success. We used experiments with burying beetles Nicrophorus vespilloides to analyse this problem. The nutritional conditions experienced by burying beetles in early life are a key determinant of adult body size in both sexes, and adult body size...

Data from: Climatic drivers of latitudinal variation in Late Triassic tetrapod diversity

Emma Dunne, Alexander Farnsworth, Sarah Greene, Daniel Lunt & Richard Butler
The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG), the increase in biodiversity from the poles to the equator, is one of the most widely recognised global macroecological patterns, yet its deep time evolution and drivers remain uncertain. The Late Triassic (237–201 million years ago), a critical interval for the early evolution and radiation of modern tetrapod groups (e.g. crocodylomorphs, dinosaurs, mammaliamorphs), offers a unique opportunity to explore the palaeolatitudinal patterns of tetrapod diversity since it is extensively sampled...

RITICS Catch Me If You Can Dataset

Richard Thomas, Joseph Gardiner, Tom Chothia, Awais Rashid, Emmanouil Samanis & Joshua Perrett
Automatic scraping and parsing of ICS-CERT advisories, extraction of data values and cross-referencing NIST NVD CVEs and MITRE CWEs.

A new Changhsingian (Lopingian) brachiopod fauna of the shallow-water clastic-shelf facies from Fujian Province, southeastern China

Huiting Wu, Yang Zhang, Thomas Stubbs, Jingqi Liu & Yuanlin Sun
Although much attention has been paid to Changhsingian brachiopods in South China, there are only two Chinese studies, published in 1979 and 1990, on Changhsingian brachiopods from the southeastern part of South China. Based on systematically collected fossil material, this paper describes and quantitatively analyses a Changhsingian brachiopod fauna from the Luokeng Formation at the Hongtian section, Fujian Province, southeastern China, for the first time. Among the brachiopods (30 species in 18 genera) described and...

Verifiability of genus-level classification under quantification and parsimony theories: a case study of follicucullid radiolarians

Yifan Xiao, Noritoshi Suzuki, Weihong He, Michael Benton, Tinglu Yang & Chenyang Cai
The classical taxonomy of fossil invertebrates is based on subjective judgments of morphology, which can cause confusion since there are no codified standards for the classification of genera. Here, we explore the validity of the genus taxonomy of 75 species and morphospecies of the Follicucullidae, a Late Paleozoic family of radiolarians, using a new method, Hayashi’s quantification theory II (HQT-II), a general multivariate statistical method for categorical datasets relevant to discriminant analysis. We identify a...

Potential evolutionary trade-off between feeding and stability in Cambrian cinctan echinoderms

Imran Rahman, James O'Shea, Stephan Lautenschlager & Samuel Zamora
Reconstructing the function and behaviour of extinct groups of echinoderms is problematic because there are no modern analogues for their aberrant body plans. Cinctans, an enigmatic group of Cambrian echinoderms, exemplify this problem: their asymmetrical body plan differentiates them from all living species. Here, we used computational fluid dynamics to analyse the functional performance of cinctans without assuming an extant comparative model. Three-dimensional models of six species from across cinctan phylogeny were used in computer...

Mesozoic squamate mandible ecomorphospaces

Michael Benton
Among modern vertebrates, squamates (lizards and snakes) are one of the most successful groups, with over 10,000 species and a broad range of ecological adaptations. Molecular phylogenetic studies point to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, 66 million years ago (Ma) as the trigger for massive expansion of diversity in the Paleogene, and yet squamates had had a long fossil record dating back to the Triassic, over 240 Ma. Here we show that this diversity expansion was...

Evolution of ecospace occupancy by Mesozoic marine tetrapods

Jane C. Reeves, Benjamin C. Moon, Michael J. Benton & Thomas L. Stubbs
Ecology and morphology are different, and yet in comparative studies of fossil vertebrates the two are often conflated. The macroevolution of Mesozoic marine tetrapods has been explored in terms of morphological disparity, but less commonly using ecological-functional categories. Here we use ecospace modelling to quantify ecological disparity across all Mesozoic marine tetrapods. We document the explosive radiation of marine tetrapod groups in the Triassic and their rapid attainment of high ecological disparity. Late Triassic extinctions...

External anatomy of the extinct giant shark Otodus megalodon

Catalina Pimiento, Jack Cooper, Humberto Ferrón & Michael Benton
Inferring the size and shape of extinct animals is fraught with danger, especially when they were much larger than their modern relatives. Such extrapolations are particularly risky when allometry is present. The extinct giant shark Otodus megalodonis known almost exclusively from fossilised teeth, and estimates have been made from these of its total length and body mass using the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) as the modern analogue. This is problematic as the two species...

Morphological convergence obscures functional diversity in sabre-toothed carnivores

Stephan Lautenschlager, Stephan Lautenschlager, Borja Figueirido, Daniel Cashmore, Eva-Maria Bendel & Thomas Stubbs
The acquisition of elongated, sabre-like canines in multiple vertebrate clades during the last 265 million years represents a remarkable example for convergent evolution. Due to striking superficial similarities in the cranial skeleton, the same or similar skull and jaw functions have been inferred for sabre-toothed species and interpreted as an adaptation to subdue large-bodied prey. However, although some sabre-tooth lineages have been classified into different ecomorphs (dirk-tooths and scimitar-tooths) the functional diversity within and between...

The impact of a native dominant plant, Euphorbia jolkinii, on plant-flower visitor networks and pollen deposition on stigmas of co-flowering species in sub-alpine meadows of Shangri-La, SW China

Yan-Hui Zhao, Jane Memmott, Ian Vaughan, Hai-Dong Li, Zong-Xin Ren, Amparo Lazaro, Wei Zhou, Xin Xu, Wei-Jia Wang, Huan Liang, De-Zhu Li & Hong Wang
1. Anthropogenic activity can modify the distribution of species abundance in a community leading to the appearance of new dominant species. While many studies report that an alien plant species which becomes increasingly dominant can change species composition, plant-pollinator network structure and the reproductive output of native plant species, much less is known about native plant species which become dominant in their communities. 2. Euphorbia jolkinii Boissier (Euphorbia, hereafter) has become a dominant native plant...

Data from: On the links between nature's values and language

Dylan Inglis & Unai Pascual
1. Recent research into the plural values about nature is focusing on relational values as a concept through which to better understand the breadth and importance of situated human-nature relations. However, potential relevance of language as a mediating factor in relational values has not been sufficiently examined. 2. In order to investigate links between language and values, we explore the influence of the ancient non-Indo-European Basque language (‘Euskara’) upon people’s relationships with mountain forests in...

Background complexity can mitigate poor camouflage

Zeke Rowe, Innes Cuthill, Nicholas Scott-Samuel, Daniel Austin, Nicol Chippington, William Flynn, Finn Starkey & Edward Wightman
Avoiding detection through camouflage is often key to survival. However, an animal’s appearance is not the only factor affecting conspicuousness: background complexity also alters detectability. This has been experimentally demonstrated for both artificially patterned backgrounds in the lab and natural backgrounds in the wild, but only for targets that already match the background well. Do habitats of high visual complexity provide concealment to even relatively poorly-camouflaged animals? Using artificial prey which differed in their degrees...

Data Supporting the Article: Dual-Polarized Wearable Antenna/Rectenna for Full-Duplex and MIMO Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT)

Mahmoud Mohamed, Geoffrey S. Hilton, Alexander Weddell & Stephen Beeby
Dataset supporting the Article "Data Supporting the Dual-Polarized Wearable Antenna/Rectenna for Full-Duplex and MIMO Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT)" in the IEEE Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation. Article DOI 10.1109/OJAP.2021.3098939

Data from: The sound of recovery: coral reef restoration success is detectable in the soundscape

Timothy Lamont, Ben Williams, Lucille Chapuis, Mochyudho Prasetya, Marie Seraphim, Harry Harding, Eleanor May, Noel Janetski, Jamaluddin Jompa, Dave Smith, Andrew Radford & Stephen Simpson
1. Pantropical degradation of coral reefs is prompting considerable investment in their active restoration. However, current measures of restoration success are based largely on coral cover, which does not fully reflect ecosystem function or reef health. 2. Soundscapes are an important aspect of reef health; loud and diverse soundscapes guide the recruitment of reef organisms, but this process is compromised when degradation denudes soundscapes. As such, acoustic recovery is a functionally important component of ecosystem...

The Cenozoic history of palms: Global diversification, biogeography, and the decline of megathermal forests

Jun Ying Lim, Huasheng Huang, Alexander Farnsworth, Daniel Lunt, William Baker, Robert Morley, W. Daniel Kissling & Carina Hoorn
Aim: Megathermal rainforests and mangroves are much smaller in extent today than in the early Cenozoic, primarily due to global cooling and drying trends since the Eocene--Oligocene Transition (~ 34 Ma). The general reduction of these biomes is hypothesized to shape the diversity and biogeographic history of tropical plant clades. However, this has rarely been examined due to a paucity of good fossil records of tropical taxa and the difficulty in assigning them to modern...

Whole genome resequencing data enables a targeted SNP panel for conservation and aquaculture of Oreochromis cichlid fishes

Adam Ciezarek, Antonia Ford, Graham Etherington, Nasser Kasozi, Milan Malinsky, Tarang Mehta, Luca Penso-Dolfin, Benjamin Ngatunga, Asilatu Shechonge, Rashid Tamatamah, Wilfried Haerty, Federica Di Palma, Martin Genner & Turner George
Cichlid fish of the genus Oreochromis form the basis of the global tilapia aquaculture and fisheries industries. Broodstocks for aquaculture are often collected from wild populations, which in Africa may be from locations containing multiple Oreochromis species. However, many species are difficult to distinguish morphologically, hampering efforts to maintain good quality farmed strains. Additionally, non-native farmed tilapia populations are known to be widely distributed across Africa and to hybridize with native Oreochromis species, which themselves...

Impacts of additional noise on the social interactions of a cooperatively breeding fish

Ines Braga Goncalves, Emily Richmond, Harry Harding & Andrew Radford
Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant known to affect the behaviour of individual animals in all taxa studied. However, there has been relatively little experimental testing of the effects of additional noise on social interactions between conspecifics, despite these forming a crucial aspect of daily life for most species. Here we use established paradigms to investigate how white-noise playback affects both group defensive actions against an intruder and associated within-group behaviours in a model fish...

Functional assessment of morphological homoplasy in stem-gnathostomes

Humberto Ferrón, Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Imran Rahman, Víctor Selles De Lucas, Héctor Botella & Philip Donoghue
The Osteostraci and Galeaspida are stem gnathostomes, occupying a key phylogenetic position for resolving the nature of the jawless ancestor from which jawed vertebrates evolved more than 400 million years ago. Both groups are characterized by the presence of rigid headshields that share a number of common morphological traits, in some cases hindering the resolution of their interrelationships and the exact nature of their affinities with jawed vertebrates. Here, we explore the morphological and functional...

The limits of demographic buffering in coping with environmental variation

Roberto Rodríguez-Caro, Roberto Rodríguez-Caro, Pol Capdevila, Eva Graciá, Jomar Barbosa, Andrés Giménez & Rob Salguero-Gomez
Animal populations have developed multiple strategies to deal with environmental change. Among them, the demographic buffering strategy consists in constraining the temporal variation of the vital rate(s) that most affect(s) the overall performance of the population. Tortoises are known to buffer their temporal variation in adult survival, which typically has the highest contribution to the population growth rate λ, at the expense of a high variability on reproductive rates, which contribute far less to λ....

Supplementary Information for Phylogenetic analyses of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) using collagen type I protein sequences

Virginia Harvey, Joseph Keating & Michael Buckley
Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) are the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, comprising over half of all living vertebrate species. Phylogenetic relationships between ray-finned fishes have historically pivoted on the study of morphology, which has notoriously failed to resolve higher-order relationships, such as within the percomorphs. More recently, comprehensive genomic analyses have provided further resolution of actinopterygian phylogeny, including higher-order relationships. Such analyses are rightfully regarded as the ‘gold standard’ for phylogenetics. However, DNA retrieval...

Data from: Donoghue, P.C.J., 2001. Conodonts meet cladistics: recovering relationships and assessing the completeness of the conodont fossil record

Philip Donoghue
A numerical cladistic analysis of the conodont family Palmatolepidae has been undertaken to determine the applicability of the technique to group-wide systematic revision. Results suggest a new hypothesis of relationships that is considerably more parsimonious than trees compatible with existing hypotheses of relationships, or trees that are even loosely constrained stratigraphically. This may occur either because the fossil record is incomplete, because taxon sampling for the cladistic analysis is low, or because the most parsimonious...

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