40 Works

Data from: Heterologous expression and transcript analysis of gibberellin biosynthetic genes of grasses reveals novel functionality in the GA3ox family.

Stephen Pearce, Alison K. Huttly, Ian M. Prosser, Yi-Dan Li, Simon P. Vaughan, Barbora Gallova, Archana Patil, Jane A. Coghill, Jorge Dubcovsky, Peter Hedden & Andrew L. Phillips
Background: The gibberellin (GA) pathway plays a central role in the regulation of plant development, with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs: GA20ox, GA3ox, GA2ox) that catalyse the later steps in the biosynthetic pathway of particularly importance in regulating bioactive GA levels. Although GA has important impacts on crop yield and quality, our understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis during wheat and barley development remains limited. In this study we identified or assembled genes encoding the...

Data from: Prevalence and outcomes of multimorbidity in South Asia: a systematic review

Sanghamitra Pati, Subhashisa Swain, Mohammad Akhtar Hussain, Marjan Van Den Akker, Job Metsemakers, J. André Knottnerus & Chris Salisbury
Objective: To systematically review the studies of prevalence, patterns and consequences of multimorbidity reported from South Asia. Design: Systematic review. Setting: South Asia. Data sources: Articles were retrieved from two electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) and from the relevant references lists. Methodical data extraction according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was followed. English-language studies published between 2000 and March 2015 were included. Eligibility criteria: Studies addressing prevalence, consequences and...

Data from: Rapid recovery following short-term acoustic disturbance in two fish species

Rick Bruintjes, Julia Purser, Kirsty A. Everley, Stephanie Mangan, Stephen D. Simpson & Andrew N. Radford
Noise from human activities is known to impact organisms in a variety of taxa, but most experimental studies on the behavioural effects of noise have focused on examining responses associated with the period of actual exposure. Unlike most pollutants, acoustic noise is generally short-lived, usually dissipating quickly after the source is turned off or leaves the area. In a series of experiments, we use established experimental paradigms to examine how fish behaviour and physiology are...

Data from: Genetics, morphology, advertisement calls, and historical records distinguish six new polyploid species of African clawed frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa

Ben J. Evans, Timothy F. Carter, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Darcy B. Kelley, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Olivier S. G. Pauwels, Daniel M. Portik, Edward L. Stanley, Richard C. Tinsley, Martha L. Tobias & David C. Blackburn
African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness...

Data from: Behaviour-related scalar habitat use by Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)

Emily Bennitt, Mpaphi Casper Bonyongo & Stephen Harris
Studies of habitat use by animals must consider behavioural resource requirements at different scales, which could influence the functional value of different sites. Using Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, we tested the hypotheses that behaviour affected use between and within habitats, hereafter referred to as macro- and microhabitats, respectively. We fitted GPS-enabled collars to fifteen buffalo and used the distances and turning angles between consecutive fixes to cluster the resulting...

Data from: Managing conflict between bats and humans: the response of soprano pipistrelles (Pipistrellus pygmaeus) to exclusion from roosts in houses

Emma Stone, Matt R. K. Zeale, Stuart E. Newson, William J. Browne, Stephen Harris & Gareth Jones
Conflict can arise when bats roost in human dwellings and householders are affected adversely by their presence. In the United Kingdom, the exclusion of bats from roosts can be licensed under exceptional circumstances to alleviate conflict, but the fate of excluded bats and the impact on their survival and reproduction is not well understood. Using radio-tracking, we investigated the effects of exclusion on the soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus, a species that commonly roosts in buildings...

Data from: Tag jumps illuminated – reducing sequence-to-sample misidentifications in metabarcoding studies

Ida Bærholm Schnell, Kristine Bohmann, M. Thomas P. Gilbert & Ida Baerholm Schnell
Metabarcoding of environmental samples on second-generation sequencing platforms has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies. A fundamental assumption of this approach is the reliance on being able to track tagged amplicons back to the samples from which they originated. In this study, we address the problem of sequences in metabarcoding sequencing outputs with false combinations of used tags (tag jumps). Unless these sequences can be identified and excluded from downstream analyses, tag jumps...

Data from: The fossil record of ichthyosaurs, completeness metrics and sampling biases

Terri J. Cleary, Benjamin C. Moon, Alexander M. Dunhill & Michael J. Benton
Ichthyosaurs were highly successful marine reptiles with an abundant and well-studied fossil record. However, their occurrences through geological time and space are sporadic, and it is important to understand whether times of apparent species richness and rarity are real or the result of sampling bias. Here, we explore the skeletal completeness of 351 dated and identified ichthyosaur specimens, belonging to all 102 species, the first time that such a study has been carried out on...

Data from: Genomic islands of speciation separate cichlid ecomorphs in an East African crater lake

Milan Malinsky, Richard J. Challis, Alexandra M. Tyers, Stephan Schiffels, Yohey Terai, Benjamin P. Ngatunga, Eric A. Miska, Richard Durbin, Martin J. Genner & George F. Turner
The genomic causes and effects of divergent ecological selection during speciation are still poorly understood. Here we report the discovery and detailed characterization of early-stage adaptive divergence of two cichlid fish ecomorphs in a small (700 meters in diameter) isolated crater lake in Tanzania. The ecomorphs differ in depth preference, male breeding color, body shape, diet, and trophic morphology. With whole-genome sequences of 146 fish, we identified 98 clearly demarcated genomic “islands” of high differentiation...

Data from: Computed tomography, anatomical description and three-dimensional reconstruction of the lower jaw of Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteaves, 1881 from the Upper Devonian of Canada

Laura B. Porro, Emily J. Rayfield & Jennifer A. Clack
The cranial anatomy of the iconic early tetrapod Eusthenopteron foordi is probably the best understood of all fossil fishes. In contrast, the anatomy of the lower jaw – crucial for both phylogenetics and biomechanical analyses – has been only superficially described. Computed tomography data of three Eusthenopteron skulls were segmented using visualization software to digitally separate bone from matrix and individual bones from each other. Here, we present a new description of the lower jaw...

Data from: Cambrian cinctan echinoderms shed light on feeding in the ancestral deuterostome

Imran A. Rahman, Samuel Zamora, Peter L. Falkingham & Jeremy C. Phillips
Reconstructing the feeding mode of the latest common ancestor of deuterostomes is key to elucidating the early evolution of feeding in chordates and allied phyla; however, it is debated whether the ancestral deuterostome was a tentaculate feeder or a pharyngeal filter feeder. To address this, we evaluated the hydrodynamics of feeding in a group of fossil stem-group echinoderms (cinctans) using computational fluid dynamics. We simulated water flow past three-dimensional digital models of a Cambrian fossil...

Data from: A dynamic framework for the study of optimal birth intervals reveals the importance of sibling competition and mortality risks

Matthew G. Thomas, Daryl P. Shanley, Alasdair I. Houston, John M. McNamara, Ruth Mace & Tom B. L. Kirkwood
Human reproductive patterns have been well studied, but the mechanisms by which physiology, ecology and existing kin interact to affect the life history need quantification. Here, we create a model to investigate how age-specific interbirth intervals adapt to environmental and intrinsic mortality, and how birth patterns can be shaped by competition and help between siblings. The model provides a flexible framework for studying the processes underlying human reproductive scheduling. We developed a state-based optimality model...

Data from: Cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event: evidence from genes and fossils

Bettina E. Schirrmeister, Muriel Gugger & Philip C. J. Donoghue
NOTE: PLEASE ALSO SEE THE CORRIGENDUM TO THE ORIGINAL ARTICLE, PUBLISHED AT http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pala.12193. Cyanobacteria are among the most ancient of evolutionary lineages, oxygenic photosynthesizers that may have originated before 3.0 Ga, as evidenced by free oxygen levels. Throughout the Precambrian, cyanobacteria were one of the most important drivers of biological innovations, strongly impacting early Earth's environments. At the end of the Archean Eon, they were responsible for the rapid oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere during an...

Data from: Early Pennsylvanian (Langsettian) fish assemblages from the Joggins Formation, Canada, and their implications for palaeoecology and palaeogeography

David K. Carpenter, Howard J. Falcon-Lang, Michael J. Benton & Melissa Grey
A review of all available specimens of fossil fishes from the classic Pennsylvanian Joggins locality of Nova Scotia, Canada, reveals the existence of a diverse community of chondrichthyans (xenacanthids, ctenacanthids and the enigmatic Ageleodus), acanthodians (gyracanthids), sarcopterygians (rhizodontids, megalichthyids, rhizodopsids and dipnoans) and actinopterygians (haplolepids). Reassessment of supposed endemic species (Ctenoptychius cristatus, Sagenodus plicatus, Gyracanthus duplicatus) indicates they are invalid, and overall, the assemblage comprises cosmopolitan taxa that were widespread around the coasts of tropical...

Data from: Cellular hypertrophy and increased susceptibility to spontaneous calcium-release of rat left atrial myocytes due to elevated afterload

Haifei Zhang, Mark Cannell, Shang Jin Kim, Judy J. Watson, Ruth Norman, Sarah C. Calaghan, Clive J. Orchard, Andrew F. James, Mark B. Cannell & Clive H. Orchard
Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged...

Data from: Moving in groups: how density and unpredictable motion affect predation risk

Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, Gavin Holmes, Roland Baddeley & Innes C. Cuthill
One of the most widely applicable benefits of aggregation is a per capita reduction in predation risk. Many factors can contribute to this but, for moving groups, an increased difficulty in tracking and targeting one individual amongst many has received particular attention. This “confusion effect” has been proposed to result from a bottleneck in information processing, a hypothesis supported by both modelling and experiment. If the competition for limited attention is localised to the particular...

Data from: A comparison of clearfelling and gradual thinning of plantations for the restoration of insect herbivores and woodland plants

Beth Atkinson, Sallie Bailey, Ian P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
1. Testing restoration methods is essential for the development of restoration ecology as a science. It is also important to monitor a range of taxa, not just plants which have been the traditional focus of restoration ecology. Here we compare the effects on ground flora and leaf-miners, of two restoration practices used when restoring conifer plantations. 2. Two methods of restoration were investigated: clearfelling of plantations and the gradual thinning of conifers over time. Unrestored...

Root and leaf phenology of Scandinavian subarctic plant communities, 2008-2009

V.L Sloan, B.J Fletcher & G.K Phoenix
This dataset consists of measurements of leaf and root growth, species abundance and soil temperature made in ten subarctic plant communities located at the Arctic Biosphere Atmosphere Coupling at Multiple Scales (ABACUS) project sites near to Abisko, Sweden, and Kevo, Finland. The data were collected during the summer growing seasons (May to September) in 2008 and 2009, and comprise field survey measurements, temperature logs and values derived from analyses of mini-rhizotron images.

Abundance of plant taxa on Norwood Farm, Somerset during 2007 and 2008

D.M. Evans, M.J.O. Pocock, J. Brooks & J. Memmott
Estimates of plant abundance (for leaf area, floral units and seed abundance, mass and energy) obtained from field-based sampling as part of a study of ecological interactions (food webs and plant-pollinator networks) on a single farm (Norwood Farm, Somerset, UK: 51.3128N 2.3206W) during 2007 and 2008. During the study, Norwood Farm was managed as an organic farm at relatively low intensity. The work was was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council [grant...

Flower density values of common British plant species [AgriLand]

M. Baude, W.E. Kunin & J. Memmott
This dataset consists of flower density values of common British plant species. The data were collected during field surveys taking place from February to October in 2011 and 2012. The majority of field sites were located in the south of England. The data were collected under a project named 'Agriland' ( Linking agriculture and land use change to pollinator populations) based at the University of Bristol, as part of the UK Insect Pollinators Initiative. The...

Nectar sugar values of common British plant species [AgriLand]

M. Baude, W.E. Kunin & J. Memmott
This dataset consists of nectar sugar values of common British plant species. The data were collected during field surveys taking place from February to October in 2011 and 2012. The majority of field sites were located in the south of England. The data were collected under a project named 'Agriland' ( Linking agriculture and land use change to pollinator populations) based at the University of Bristol, as part of the UK Insect Pollinators Initiative. The...

Data from: The arrangement of possible muscle fibres in the Ediacaran taxon Haootia quadriformis

Alexander G. Liu, Jack J. Matthews, Latha R. Menon, Duncan McIlroy & Martin D. Brasier
Haootia quadriformis from Newfoundland, Canada, is one of the most unusual impressions of a soft-bodied macro-organism yet described from the late Ediacaran Period. Interpreted as a metazoan of cnidarian grade, the body impression of H. quadriformis possesses features interpreted as fibrous structures that represent possible evidence for muscular tissue. Evidence both in support of and against a relationship between H. quadriformis and the Staurozoa, one of the cnidarian groups to which Haootia was compared in...

Data from: The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

Katherine A. Orford, Ian P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found...

Data from: The ‘duck-billed’ dinosaurs of Careless Creek (Upper Cretaceous of Montana, USA), with comments on hadrosaurid ontogeny

Albert Prieto-Márquez & Susana Gutarra
The Careless Creek Quarry (CCQ) is a multitaxic bonebed in the Campanian Judith River Formation of south-central Montana (USA) that produced a diverse assemblage of vertebrates, including several dinosaurian clades. We describe the morphology of the CCQ hadrosaurid material and reevaluate its taxonomic affinities. Our osteological comparative observations, coupled with maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses, indicate that the majority of the hadrosaurid material is referable to kritosaurin saurolophines. Only an ischium is unambiguously referable to Lambeosaurinae....

Data from: Early post-metamorphic, Carboniferous blastoid reveals the evolution and development of the digestive system in early echinoderms

Imran A. Rahman, Johnny A. Waters, Colin D. Sumrall & Alberto Astolfo
Inferring the development of the earliest echinoderms is critical to uncovering the evolutionary assembly of the phylum-level body plan but has long proven problematic because early ontogenetic stages are rarely preserved as fossils. Here, we use synchrotron tomography to describe a new early post-metamorphic blastoid echinoderm from the Carboniferous (approx. 323 Ma) of China. The resulting three-dimensional reconstruction reveals a U-shaped tubular structure in the fossil interior, which is interpreted as the digestive tract. Comparisons...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Bristol
  • University of Leeds
  • Cardiff University
  • Université d'Orléans
  • University of Southampton
  • University of Manchester
  • University College London
  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Exeter
  • Memorial University of Newfoundland