40 Works

Data from: Moving in groups: how density and unpredictable motion affect predation risk

Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, Gavin Holmes, Roland Baddeley & Innes C. Cuthill
One of the most widely applicable benefits of aggregation is a per capita reduction in predation risk. Many factors can contribute to this but, for moving groups, an increased difficulty in tracking and targeting one individual amongst many has received particular attention. This “confusion effect” has been proposed to result from a bottleneck in information processing, a hypothesis supported by both modelling and experiment. If the competition for limited attention is localised to the particular...

Root and leaf phenology of Scandinavian subarctic plant communities, 2008-2009

V.L Sloan, B.J Fletcher & G.K Phoenix
This dataset consists of measurements of leaf and root growth, species abundance and soil temperature made in ten subarctic plant communities located at the Arctic Biosphere Atmosphere Coupling at Multiple Scales (ABACUS) project sites near to Abisko, Sweden, and Kevo, Finland. The data were collected during the summer growing seasons (May to September) in 2008 and 2009, and comprise field survey measurements, temperature logs and values derived from analyses of mini-rhizotron images.

Data from: Cellular hypertrophy and increased susceptibility to spontaneous calcium-release of rat left atrial myocytes due to elevated afterload

Haifei Zhang, Mark Cannell, Shang Jin Kim, Judy J. Watson, Ruth Norman, Sarah C. Calaghan, Clive J. Orchard, Andrew F. James, Mark B. Cannell & Clive H. Orchard
Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged...

Data from: A comparison of clearfelling and gradual thinning of plantations for the restoration of insect herbivores and woodland plants

Beth Atkinson, Sallie Bailey, Ian P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
1. Testing restoration methods is essential for the development of restoration ecology as a science. It is also important to monitor a range of taxa, not just plants which have been the traditional focus of restoration ecology. Here we compare the effects on ground flora and leaf-miners, of two restoration practices used when restoring conifer plantations. 2. Two methods of restoration were investigated: clearfelling of plantations and the gradual thinning of conifers over time. Unrestored...

Data from: Experimental reduction of intromittent organ length reduces male reproductive success in a bug

Liam R. Dougherty, Imran A. Rahman, Emily R. Burdfield-Steel, E. V. Greenway & David M. Shuker
It is now clear in many species that male and female genital evolution has been shaped by sexual selection. However, it has historically been difficult to confirm correlations between morphology and fitness, as genital traits are complex and manipulation tends to impair function significantly. In this study, we investigate the functional morphology of the elongate male intromittent organ (or processus) of the seed bug Lygaeus simulans, in two ways. We first use micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)...

Data from: The skull and endocranium of a Lower Jurassic ichthyosaur based on digital reconstructions

Ryan D. Marek, Benjamin C. Moon, Matt Williams & Michael J. Benton
Even after 200 years of study, some details of the cranial anatomy of ichthyosaurs, one of the most successful groups of marine vertebrates in the Mesozoic, are still unclear. New information on the braincase, palate and occiput are provided from three-dimensional scans of an exceptionally preserved ichthyosaur (‘Hauffiopteryx’ typicus) skull from the Toarcian (183–174 Ma, Lower Jurassic) of Strawberry Bank, England. This ichthyosaur has unusual, hollow, tubular hyoid bars. The occipital and braincase region is...

Data from: Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization

Aodhán D. Butler, John A. Cunningham, Graham E. Budd & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record, though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation. To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity, oxygen diffusion and reducing...

Data from: Information use by humans during dynamic route choice in virtual crowd evacuations

Nikolai W. F. Bode, Armel U. Kemloh Wagoum & Edward A. Codling
We conducted a computer-based experiment with over 450 human participants and used a Bayesian model selection approach to explore dynamic exit route choice mechanisms of individuals in simulated crowd evacuations. In contrast to previous work, we explicitly explore the use of time-dependent and time-independent information in decision-making. Our findings suggest that participants tended to base their exit choices on time-dependent information, such as differences in queue lengths and queue speeds at exits rather than on...

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

Data from: A new titanosaurian braincase from the Cretaceous “Lo Hueco” locality in Spain sheds light on neuroanatomical evolution within Titanosauria

Fabien Knoll, Lawrence M. Witmer, Ryan C. Ridgely, Francisco Ortega & Jose Luis Sanz
Despite continuous improvements, our knowledge of the neurocranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs as a whole is still poor, which is especially true for titanosaurians even though their postcranial remains are common in many Upper Cretaceous sites worldwide. Here we describe a braincase from the uppermost Cretaceous locality of ‘‘Lo Hueco” in Spain that is one of the most complete titanosaurian braincases found so far in Europe. Although the titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp. is known from the...

Data from: Constructing more informative plant-pollinator networks: visitation and pollen deposition networks in a heathland plant community

Gavin Ballantyne, Katherine C. R. Baldock & Pat G. Willmer
Interaction networks are widely used as tools to understand plant–pollinator communities, and to examine potential threats to plant diversity and food security if the ecosystem service provided by pollinating animals declines. However, most networks to date are based on recording visits to flowers, rather than recording clearly defined effective pollination events. Here we provide the first networks that explicitly incorporate measures of pollinator effectiveness (PE) from pollen deposition on stigmas per visit, and pollinator importance...

Data from: Modest enhancements to conventional grassland diversity improve the provision of pollination services

Katherine A. Orford, Jane Memmott, Ian P. Vaughan & Phil J. Murray
1. Grassland for livestock production is a major form of land use throughout Europe and its intensive management threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes. Modest increases to conventional grassland biodiversity could have considerable positive impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, such as pollination, to surrounding habitats. 2. Using a field-scale experiment in which grassland seed mixes and sward management were manipulated, complemented by surveys on working farms and phytometer experiments, the impact...

Data from: Implications for welfare, productivity and sustainability of the variation in reported levels of mortality for laying hen flocks kept in different housing systems: a meta-analysis of ten studies.

Claire A. Weeks, Sarah L. Lambton & Adrian G. Williams
Data from ten sources comprising 3,851 flocks were modelled to identify variation in levels of mortality in laying hens. The predicted increase with age was curvilinear with significant variation between the seven breed categories. Mortality was higher in loose housing systems than in cages and variable within system, confirming previous reports. Cumulative mortality (CM) was higher in flocks with intact beaks (?2 = 6.03; df 1; p=0.014) than in those with trimmed beaks. Most data...

Data from: Ants determine their next move at rest: motor planning and causality in complex systems

Edmund R. Hunt, Roland J. Baddeley, Alan Worley, Ana B. Sendova-Franks & Nigel R. Franks
To find useful work to do for their colony, individual eusocial animals have to move, somehow staying attentive to relevant social information. Recent research on individual Temnothorax albipennis ants moving inside their colony’s nest found a power-law relationship between a movement’s duration and its average speed; and a universal speed profile for movements showing that they mostly fluctuate around a constant average speed. From this predictability it was inferred that movement durations are somehow determined...

Data from: Heterologous expression and transcript analysis of gibberellin biosynthetic genes of grasses reveals novel functionality in the GA3ox family.

Stephen Pearce, Alison K. Huttly, Ian M. Prosser, Yi-Dan Li, Simon P. Vaughan, Barbora Gallova, Archana Patil, Jane A. Coghill, Jorge Dubcovsky, Peter Hedden & Andrew L. Phillips
Background: The gibberellin (GA) pathway plays a central role in the regulation of plant development, with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs: GA20ox, GA3ox, GA2ox) that catalyse the later steps in the biosynthetic pathway of particularly importance in regulating bioactive GA levels. Although GA has important impacts on crop yield and quality, our understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis during wheat and barley development remains limited. In this study we identified or assembled genes encoding the...

Data from: Genetics, morphology, advertisement calls, and historical records distinguish six new polyploid species of African clawed frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa

Ben J. Evans, Timothy F. Carter, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Darcy B. Kelley, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Olivier S. G. Pauwels, Daniel M. Portik, Edward L. Stanley, Richard C. Tinsley, Martha L. Tobias & David C. Blackburn
African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness...

Data from: Rapid recovery following short-term acoustic disturbance in two fish species

Rick Bruintjes, Julia Purser, Kirsty A. Everley, Stephanie Mangan, Stephen D. Simpson & Andrew N. Radford
Noise from human activities is known to impact organisms in a variety of taxa, but most experimental studies on the behavioural effects of noise have focused on examining responses associated with the period of actual exposure. Unlike most pollutants, acoustic noise is generally short-lived, usually dissipating quickly after the source is turned off or leaves the area. In a series of experiments, we use established experimental paradigms to examine how fish behaviour and physiology are...

Data from: Managing conflict between bats and humans: the response of soprano pipistrelles (Pipistrellus pygmaeus) to exclusion from roosts in houses

Emma Stone, Matt R. K. Zeale, Stuart E. Newson, William J. Browne, Stephen Harris & Gareth Jones
Conflict can arise when bats roost in human dwellings and householders are affected adversely by their presence. In the United Kingdom, the exclusion of bats from roosts can be licensed under exceptional circumstances to alleviate conflict, but the fate of excluded bats and the impact on their survival and reproduction is not well understood. Using radio-tracking, we investigated the effects of exclusion on the soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus, a species that commonly roosts in buildings...

Data from: Prevalence and outcomes of multimorbidity in South Asia: a systematic review

Sanghamitra Pati, Subhashisa Swain, Mohammad Akhtar Hussain, Marjan Van Den Akker, Job Metsemakers, J. André Knottnerus & Chris Salisbury
Objective: To systematically review the studies of prevalence, patterns and consequences of multimorbidity reported from South Asia. Design: Systematic review. Setting: South Asia. Data sources: Articles were retrieved from two electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) and from the relevant references lists. Methodical data extraction according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was followed. English-language studies published between 2000 and March 2015 were included. Eligibility criteria: Studies addressing prevalence, consequences and...

Data from: Behaviour-related scalar habitat use by Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)

Emily Bennitt, Mpaphi Casper Bonyongo & Stephen Harris
Studies of habitat use by animals must consider behavioural resource requirements at different scales, which could influence the functional value of different sites. Using Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, we tested the hypotheses that behaviour affected use between and within habitats, hereafter referred to as macro- and microhabitats, respectively. We fitted GPS-enabled collars to fifteen buffalo and used the distances and turning angles between consecutive fixes to cluster the resulting...

Data from: Cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event: evidence from genes and fossils

Bettina E. Schirrmeister, Muriel Gugger & Philip C. J. Donoghue
NOTE: PLEASE ALSO SEE THE CORRIGENDUM TO THE ORIGINAL ARTICLE, PUBLISHED AT http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pala.12193. Cyanobacteria are among the most ancient of evolutionary lineages, oxygenic photosynthesizers that may have originated before 3.0 Ga, as evidenced by free oxygen levels. Throughout the Precambrian, cyanobacteria were one of the most important drivers of biological innovations, strongly impacting early Earth's environments. At the end of the Archean Eon, they were responsible for the rapid oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere during an...

Data from: Tag jumps illuminated – reducing sequence-to-sample misidentifications in metabarcoding studies

Ida Bærholm Schnell, Kristine Bohmann, M. Thomas P. Gilbert & Ida Baerholm Schnell
Metabarcoding of environmental samples on second-generation sequencing platforms has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies. A fundamental assumption of this approach is the reliance on being able to track tagged amplicons back to the samples from which they originated. In this study, we address the problem of sequences in metabarcoding sequencing outputs with false combinations of used tags (tag jumps). Unless these sequences can be identified and excluded from downstream analyses, tag jumps...

Data from: A dynamic framework for the study of optimal birth intervals reveals the importance of sibling competition and mortality risks

Matthew G. Thomas, Daryl P. Shanley, Alasdair I. Houston, John M. McNamara, Ruth Mace & Tom B. L. Kirkwood
Human reproductive patterns have been well studied, but the mechanisms by which physiology, ecology and existing kin interact to affect the life history need quantification. Here, we create a model to investigate how age-specific interbirth intervals adapt to environmental and intrinsic mortality, and how birth patterns can be shaped by competition and help between siblings. The model provides a flexible framework for studying the processes underlying human reproductive scheduling. We developed a state-based optimality model...

Data from: Early Pennsylvanian (Langsettian) fish assemblages from the Joggins Formation, Canada, and their implications for palaeoecology and palaeogeography

David K. Carpenter, Howard J. Falcon-Lang, Michael J. Benton & Melissa Grey
A review of all available specimens of fossil fishes from the classic Pennsylvanian Joggins locality of Nova Scotia, Canada, reveals the existence of a diverse community of chondrichthyans (xenacanthids, ctenacanthids and the enigmatic Ageleodus), acanthodians (gyracanthids), sarcopterygians (rhizodontids, megalichthyids, rhizodopsids and dipnoans) and actinopterygians (haplolepids). Reassessment of supposed endemic species (Ctenoptychius cristatus, Sagenodus plicatus, Gyracanthus duplicatus) indicates they are invalid, and overall, the assemblage comprises cosmopolitan taxa that were widespread around the coasts of tropical...

Data from: The fossil record of ichthyosaurs, completeness metrics and sampling biases

Terri J. Cleary, Benjamin C. Moon, Alexander M. Dunhill & Michael J. Benton
Ichthyosaurs were highly successful marine reptiles with an abundant and well-studied fossil record. However, their occurrences through geological time and space are sporadic, and it is important to understand whether times of apparent species richness and rarity are real or the result of sampling bias. Here, we explore the skeletal completeness of 351 dated and identified ichthyosaur specimens, belonging to all 102 species, the first time that such a study has been carried out on...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Bristol
  • University of Leeds
  • Cardiff University
  • Université d'Orléans
  • University of Southampton
  • University of Manchester
  • University College London
  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Exeter
  • Memorial University of Newfoundland