40 Works

Data from: Early post-metamorphic, Carboniferous blastoid reveals the evolution and development of the digestive system in early echinoderms

Imran A. Rahman, Johnny A. Waters, Colin D. Sumrall & Alberto Astolfo
Inferring the development of the earliest echinoderms is critical to uncovering the evolutionary assembly of the phylum-level body plan but has long proven problematic because early ontogenetic stages are rarely preserved as fossils. Here, we use synchrotron tomography to describe a new early post-metamorphic blastoid echinoderm from the Carboniferous (approx. 323 Ma) of China. The resulting three-dimensional reconstruction reveals a U-shaped tubular structure in the fossil interior, which is interpreted as the digestive tract. Comparisons...

Data from: Do cladistic and morphometric data capture common patterns of morphological disparity?

Alexander J. Hetherington, Emma Sherratt, Marcello Ruta, Mark Wilkinson, Bradley Deline & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The distinctly non-random diversity of organismal form manifests itself in discrete clusters of taxa that share a common body plan. As a result, analyses of disparity require a scalable comparative framework. The difficulties of applying geometric morphometrics to disparity analyses of groups with vastly divergent body plans are overcome partly by the use of cladistic characters. Character-based disparity analyses have become increasingly popular, but it is not clear how they are affected by character coding...

Data from: Palaeodiversity and formation counts: redundancy or bias?

Michael J. Benton
A key question in palaeontology is whether the fossil record taken at face value is adequate to represent true patterns of diversity through time. Some methods of assessing data quality have depended on the commonly observed covariation of palaeodiversity and fossiliferous formation counts through time, based on the assumption that the count of formations containing fossils, to a greater or lesser extent, drives diversity; but what if diversity drives formations? Close study of two fossil...

Data from: Horizontal gene flow from Eubacteria to Archaebacteria and what it means for our understanding of eukaryogenesis

Wasiu A. Akanni, Karen Siu-Ting, Christopher J. Creevey, James O. McInerney, Mark Wilkinson, Peter G. Foster & Davide Pisani
The origin of the eukaryotic cell is considered one of the major evolutionary transitions in the history of life. Current evidence strongly supports a scenario of eukaryotic origin in which two prokaryotes, an archaebacterial host and an α-proteobacterium (the free-living ancestor of the mitochondrion), entered a stable symbiotic relationship. The establishment of this relationship was associated with a process of chimerization, whereby a large number of genes from the α-proteobacterial symbiont were transferred to the...

Data from: The Beothukis/Culmofrons problem and its bearing on Ediacaran macrofossil taxonomy: evidence from an exceptional new fossil locality

Alexander G. Liu, Jack J. Matthews & Duncan McIlroy
The late Ediacaran siliciclastic successions of eastern Newfoundland, Canada, are renowned for their fossils of soft-bodied macro-organisms, which may include some of the earliest animals. Despite the potential importance of such fossils for evolutionary understanding, the taxonomic framework within which Ediacaran macrofossils are described is not clearly defined. Rangeomorphs from a newly discovered fossil surface on the Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland, require us to reconsider contemporary use of morphological characters to distinguish between genera and species...

Data from: Implications for welfare, productivity and sustainability of the variation in reported levels of mortality for laying hen flocks kept in different housing systems: a meta-analysis of ten studies.

Claire A. Weeks, Sarah L. Lambton & Adrian G. Williams
Data from ten sources comprising 3,851 flocks were modelled to identify variation in levels of mortality in laying hens. The predicted increase with age was curvilinear with significant variation between the seven breed categories. Mortality was higher in loose housing systems than in cages and variable within system, confirming previous reports. Cumulative mortality (CM) was higher in flocks with intact beaks (?2 = 6.03; df 1; p=0.014) than in those with trimmed beaks. Most data...

Data from: Experimental reduction of intromittent organ length reduces male reproductive success in a bug

Liam R. Dougherty, Imran A. Rahman, Emily R. Burdfield-Steel, E. V. Greenway & David M. Shuker
It is now clear in many species that male and female genital evolution has been shaped by sexual selection. However, it has historically been difficult to confirm correlations between morphology and fitness, as genital traits are complex and manipulation tends to impair function significantly. In this study, we investigate the functional morphology of the elongate male intromittent organ (or processus) of the seed bug Lygaeus simulans, in two ways. We first use micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)...

Data from: Information use by humans during dynamic route choice in virtual crowd evacuations

Nikolai W. F. Bode, Armel U. Kemloh Wagoum & Edward A. Codling
We conducted a computer-based experiment with over 450 human participants and used a Bayesian model selection approach to explore dynamic exit route choice mechanisms of individuals in simulated crowd evacuations. In contrast to previous work, we explicitly explore the use of time-dependent and time-independent information in decision-making. Our findings suggest that participants tended to base their exit choices on time-dependent information, such as differences in queue lengths and queue speeds at exits rather than on...

Data from: The skull and endocranium of a Lower Jurassic ichthyosaur based on digital reconstructions

Ryan D. Marek, Benjamin C. Moon, Matt Williams & Michael J. Benton
Even after 200 years of study, some details of the cranial anatomy of ichthyosaurs, one of the most successful groups of marine vertebrates in the Mesozoic, are still unclear. New information on the braincase, palate and occiput are provided from three-dimensional scans of an exceptionally preserved ichthyosaur (‘Hauffiopteryx’ typicus) skull from the Toarcian (183–174 Ma, Lower Jurassic) of Strawberry Bank, England. This ichthyosaur has unusual, hollow, tubular hyoid bars. The occipital and braincase region is...

Data from: A new titanosaurian braincase from the Cretaceous “Lo Hueco” locality in Spain sheds light on neuroanatomical evolution within Titanosauria

Fabien Knoll, Lawrence M. Witmer, Ryan C. Ridgely, Francisco Ortega & Jose Luis Sanz
Despite continuous improvements, our knowledge of the neurocranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs as a whole is still poor, which is especially true for titanosaurians even though their postcranial remains are common in many Upper Cretaceous sites worldwide. Here we describe a braincase from the uppermost Cretaceous locality of ‘‘Lo Hueco” in Spain that is one of the most complete titanosaurian braincases found so far in Europe. Although the titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp. is known from the...

Data from: Modest enhancements to conventional grassland diversity improve the provision of pollination services

Katherine A. Orford, Jane Memmott, Ian P. Vaughan & Phil J. Murray
1. Grassland for livestock production is a major form of land use throughout Europe and its intensive management threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes. Modest increases to conventional grassland biodiversity could have considerable positive impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, such as pollination, to surrounding habitats. 2. Using a field-scale experiment in which grassland seed mixes and sward management were manipulated, complemented by surveys on working farms and phytometer experiments, the impact...

Data from: Constructing more informative plant-pollinator networks: visitation and pollen deposition networks in a heathland plant community

Gavin Ballantyne, Katherine C. R. Baldock & Pat G. Willmer
Interaction networks are widely used as tools to understand plant–pollinator communities, and to examine potential threats to plant diversity and food security if the ecosystem service provided by pollinating animals declines. However, most networks to date are based on recording visits to flowers, rather than recording clearly defined effective pollination events. Here we provide the first networks that explicitly incorporate measures of pollinator effectiveness (PE) from pollen deposition on stigmas per visit, and pollinator importance...

Data from: Ants determine their next move at rest: motor planning and causality in complex systems

Edmund R. Hunt, Roland J. Baddeley, Alan Worley, Ana B. Sendova-Franks & Nigel R. Franks
To find useful work to do for their colony, individual eusocial animals have to move, somehow staying attentive to relevant social information. Recent research on individual Temnothorax albipennis ants moving inside their colony’s nest found a power-law relationship between a movement’s duration and its average speed; and a universal speed profile for movements showing that they mostly fluctuate around a constant average speed. From this predictability it was inferred that movement durations are somehow determined...

Data from: Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization

Aodhán D. Butler, John A. Cunningham, Graham E. Budd & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record, though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation. To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity, oxygen diffusion and reducing...

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Bristol
  • University of Leeds
  • Cardiff University
  • Université d'Orléans
  • University of Southampton
  • University of Manchester
  • University College London
  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Exeter
  • Memorial University of Newfoundland