38 Works

Nabro Urgency Array

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A deployment of 8 Guralp 6TD seismometers around Nabro Volcano, Eritrea following the eruption on June 12th 2011.

Data from: Retrospective harm benefit analysis of pre-clinical animal research for six treatment interventions

Pandora Pound & Christine J. Nicol
Background: The harm benefit analysis (HBA) is the cornerstone of animal research regulation and is considered to be a key ethical safeguard for animals. The HBA involves weighing the anticipated benefits of animal research against its predicted harms to animals but there are doubts about how objective and accountable this process is. Objectives: i. To explore the harms to animals involved in pre-clinical animal studies and to assess these against the benefits for humans accruing...

Data from: Inferring selection in instances of long‐range colonization: the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) in the Mediterranean Basin

Rose Ruiz Daniels, Richard S. Taylor, María Jesús Serra-Varela, Giovanni G. Vendramin, Santiago C. González-Martínez & Delphine Grivet
Teasing apart the effects of natural selection and demography on current allele frequencies is challenging, due to both processes leaving a similar molecular footprint. In particular, when attempting to identify selection in species that have undergone a recent range expansion, the increase of genetic drift at the edges of range expansions (“allele surfing”) can be a confounded factor. To address this potential issue, we first assess the long-range colonisation history of the Aleppo pine across...

Data from: Anatomy of the Ediacaran rangeomorph Charnia masoni

Frances S. Dunn, Philip R. Wilby, Charlotte G. Kenchington, Dmitry V. Grazhdankin, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Alexander G. Liu & Dmitriy V. Grazhdankin
The Ediacaran macrofossil Charnia masoni Ford is perhaps the most iconic member of the Rangeomorpha: a group of seemingly sessile, frondose organisms that dominates late Ediacaran benthic, deep‐marine fossil assemblages. Despite C. masoni exhibiting broad palaeogeographical and stratigraphical ranges, there have been few morphological studies that consider the variation observed among populations of specimens derived from multiple global localities. We present an analysis of C. masoni that evaluates specimens from the UK, Canada and Russia,...

Data from: A grazing Gomphotherium in Middle Miocene Central Asia, 10 million years prior to the origin of the Elephantidae

Yan Wu, Tao Deng, Yaowu Hu, Jiao Ma, Xinying Zhou, Limi Mao, Hanwen Zhang, Jie Ye & Shi-Qi Wang
Feeding preference of fossil herbivorous mammals, concerning the coevolution of mammalian and floral ecosystems, has become of key research interest. In this paper, phytoliths in dental calculus from two gomphotheriid proboscideans of the middle Miocene Junggar Basin, Central Asia, have been identified, suggesting that Gomphotherium connexum was a mixed feeder, while the phytoliths from G. steinheimense indicates grazing preference. This is the earliest-known proboscidean with a predominantly grazing habit. These results are further confirmed by...

Data from: Perceiving the evil eye: investigating hostile interpretation of ambiguous facial emotional expression in violent and non-violent offenders

Niki C. Kuin, Erik D.M. Masthoff, Marcus R. Munafò & Ian S. Penton-Voak
Research into the causal and perpetuating factors influencing aggression has partly focused on the general tendency of aggression-prone individuals to infer hostile intent in others, even in ambiguous circumstances. This is referred to as the 'hostile interpretation bias'. Whether this hostile interpretation bias also exists in basal information processing, such as perception of facial emotion, is not yet known, especially with respect to the perception of ambiguous expressions. In addition, little is known about how...

Data from: Evolution of jaw disparity in fishes

Jennifer J. Hill, Mark N. Puttick, Thomas L. Stubbs, Emily J. Rayfield & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The morphology of the vertebrate lower jaw has been used to infer feeding ecology.; transformations in mandibular shape and structure likely to have facilitated the emergence of different feeding behaviours in vertebrate evolution. Here we present elliptical Fourier shape and principal component analyses, characterizing and comparing the disparity of jaw shape in early gnathostomes and their modern primitively aquatic counterparts. 83% of shape variation is summarized on the first three principal component axes and all...

Enchytraeid worm abundance and delta 13C cholesterol data from Sourhope field experiment site, Scotland, 2000 [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

H.I.J. Black, S.B. Piertney, C. Macdonald, V. Standen, I.D. Bull, R.P. Evershed, J.S. Chaplow & A.M. Thompson
This dataset comprises enchytraeid worm abundance and Delta 13C values from enchytraeid cholesterol. The data were collected as a component of the NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme, consisting of a one year study of the diversity and activity of Enchytraeid worms, small relatives of the earthworm. These worms are very common in upland soils and often outweigh all other fauna, including sheep. The project focused on investigating the importance of Enchytraeid species, or group diversity, in...

Data from: The mosasaur fossil record through the lens of fossil completeness

Daniel A. Driscoll, Alexander M. Dunhill, Thomas L. Stubbs & Michael J. Benton
The quality of the fossil record affects our understanding of macroevolutionary patterns. Palaeodiversity is filtered through geological and human processes; efforts to correct for these biases are part of a debate concerning the role of sampling proxies and standardization in biodiversity models. We analyse the fossil record of mosasaurs in terms of fossil completeness as a measure of fossil quality, using three novel, correlating metrics of fossil completeness and 4083 specimens. A new qualitative measure...

Data from: Using DNA metabarcoding for simultaneous inference of common vampire bat diet and population structure

Kristine Bohmann, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Martin Nielsen, Luisa Dos Santos Bay Nielsen, Gareth Jones, Daniel G. Streicker & M. Thomas P. Gilbert
Metabarcoding diet analysis has become a valuable tool in animal ecology; however, co-amplified predator sequences are not generally used for anything other than to validate predator identity. Exemplified by the common vampire bat we demonstrate the use of metabarcoding to infer predator population structure alongside diet assessments. Growing populations of common vampire bats impact human, livestock and wildlife health in Latin America through transmission of pathogens, such as lethal rabies infections. Techniques to determine large...

Data from: The Middle Triassic procolophonid Kapes bentoni: computed tomography of the skull and skeleton

Marta Zaher, Robert R. Coram & Michael J. Benton
Procolophonids were diverse small reptiles through the Late Permian and Triassic. Relatively complete specimens of various taxa are known from the Early and Late Triassic, but the ten or so Middle Triassic taxa, from South Africa, Russia, China and the UK, are mostly incomplete, being known only from skulls or partial and poorly preserved isolated elements. Because of their small size, it has often been difficult to establish details of anatomy using physical preparation methods,...

Data from: The reproductive biology of two poorly known relatives of the fig (Ficus) and insights into the evolution of the fig syconium.

Chris Thorogood, Naomi Dalton, Aisa Irvine & Simon Hiscock
We conducted the first detailed investigation of the floral architecture and reproductive biology of two species from the genus Dorstenia, which are poorly known relatives of Ficus (Moraceae). Our aims were to extend and refine knowledge of the understudied genus Dorstenia and to explore possible insights into the evolution of the fig syconium. We characterised four key stages of floral development using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and histological staining. Reproductive biology was found to...

Data from: New species of Karydomys (Rodentia) from the Miocene of Chios Island (Greece) and phylogenetic relationships of this rare democricetodontine genus

Raquel López Antoñanzas, Pablo Peláez-Campomanes, Jêrome Prieto & Fabien Knoll
Karydomys is a rare and little diversified democricetodontine, of which only six species are currently recognized. This group of rodents is first recorded in the early Miocene (MN3) in China and spread quickly thereafter to Kazakhstan and Greece (MN4). Karydomys reached south‐western and central Europe by early middle Miocene times (MN5), from where it became extinct shortly thereafter (MN6). A new species of Karydomys is here described from the Miocene Keramia Formation of Chios Island...

Data from: Sediment-encased maturation: a novel method for simulating diagenesis in organic fossil preservation

Evan T. Saitta, Thomas G. Kaye & Jakob Vinther
Exceptional fossils can preserve diagenetically-altered biomolecules, and understanding the pathways to such preservation is vital to utilising fossil information in evolutionary and palaeoecological studies. Experimental taphonomy explores the stability of tissues during microbial/autolytic decay or their molecular stability through maturation under high pressure and temperature. Maturation experiments are often hampered by the fact that maturation occurs inside sealed containers, which does not allow for the loss of labile, mobile, or volatile molecules. On the other...

Data from: Losing cichlid fish biodiversity: genetic and morphological homogenization of tilapia following colonization by introduced species

Asilatu Shechonge, Benjamin P. Ngatunga, Rashid Tamatamah, Stephanie J. Bradbeer, Jack Harrington, Antonia G.P. Ford, George F. Turner, Martin J. Genner & Antonia G. P. Ford
Among the many negative impacts of invasive species, hybridization with indigenous species has increasingly become recognized as a major issue. However, few studies have characterized the phenotypic outcomes of hybridization following biological invasions. Here we investigate the genetic and morphological consequences of stocking invasive tilapia species in two water bodies in central Tanzania. We sampled individuals from Mindu Reservoir on the Ruvu river system, and at Kidatu on the Great Ruaha-Rufiji river system. We screened...

Data from: Circadian mood variations in Twitter content

Fabon Dzogang, Stafford Lightman & Nello Cristianini
Background: Circadian regulation of sleep, cognition, and metabolic state is driven by a central clock, which is in turn entrained by environmental signals. Understanding the circadian regulation of mood, which is vital for coping with day-to-day needs, requires large datasets and has classically utilised subjective reporting. Methods: In this study, we use a massive dataset of over 800 million Twitter messages collected over 4 years in the United Kingdom. We extract robust signals of the...

Data from: A coalescent-based estimator of genetic drift, and acoustic divergence in the Pteronotus parnellii species complex

Liliana M Davalos, Winston C Lancaster, Miguel S Nunez Novas, Yolanda M Leon, Bonnie R Lei, Jon Flanders & Amy L Russell
Determining the processes responsible for phenotypic variation is one of the central tasks of evolutionary biology. While the importance of acoustic traits for foraging and communication in echolocating mammals suggests adaptation, the seldom-tested null hypothesis to explain trait divergence is genetic drift. Here we derive FST values from multi-locus coalescent isolation-with-migration models, and couple them with estimates of quantitative trait divergence, or PST, to test drift as the evolutionary process responsible for phenotypic divergence in...

Data from: Assessing metabolic constraints on the maximum body size of actinopterygians: locomotion energetics of Leedsichthys problematicus (Actinopterygii, Pachycormiformes)

Humberto G. Ferrón, Borja Holgado, Jeff J. Liston, Carlos Martínez Pérez & Hector Botella
Maximum sizes attained by living actinopterygians are much smaller than those reached by chondrichthyans. Several factors, including the high metabolic requirements of bony fishes, have been proposed as possible body-size constraints but no empirical approaches exist. Remarkably, fossil evidence has rarely been considered despite some extinct actinopterygians reaching sizes comparable to those of the largest living sharks. Here, we have assessed the locomotion energetics of Leedsichthys problematicus, an extinct gigantic suspension-feeder and the largest actinopterygian...

Data from: The role of climate, water and biotic interactions in shaping biodiversity patterns in arid environments across spatial scales

Orly Razgour, Mike Persey, Uzi Shamir & Carmi Korine
Aim: Desert ecosystems, with their harsh environmental conditions, hold the key to understanding the responses of biodiversity to climate change. As desert community structure is influenced by processes acting at different spatial scales, studies combining multiple scales are essential for understanding the conservation requirements of desert biota. We investigated the role of environmental variables and biotic interactions in shaping broad and fine-scale patterns of diversity and distribution of bats in arid environments to understand how...

Data from: State-dependent judgement bias in Drosophila: evidence for evolutionarily primitive affective processes

Amanda Deakin, Michael Mendl, William J. Browne, Elizabeth S. Paul & James J. L. Hodge
Affective states influence decision-making under ambiguity in humans and other animals. Individuals in a negative state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than individuals in a positive state. We demonstrate that the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, also exhibits state-dependent changes in cue interpretation. Drosophila were trained on a Go/Go task to approach a positive (P) odour associated with a sugar reward and actively avoid a negative (N) odour associated with shock. Trained flies were...

Methane ebullition from two lowland floodplain fens

C. M. Heppell, K.M. Stanley & L.R. Belyea
This dataset includes measurements of methane fluxes from two lowland floodplain fen sites in East Anglia, UK under conservation management (Sutton and Strumpshaw Fens). The data were collected on seven monthly to bimonthly visits during 2013 and comprise methane ebullition fluxes measured using inverted funnels, and methane fluxes measured using static chambers. The tall, static chambers captured methane transported by diffusion, plant-mediated transport and steady ebullition, whereas the inverted funnels captured methane transported by steady...

Data from: Distance-dependent aposematism and camouflage in the cinnabar moth caterpillar (Tyria jacobaeae Erebidae)

James B. Barnett, Innes C. Cuthill & Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel
Defended prey often use distinctive, conspicuous, colours to advertise their unprofitability to potential predators (aposematism). These warning signals are frequently made up of salient, high contrast, stripes which have been hypothesised to increase the speed and accuracy of predator avoidance learning. Limitations in predator visual acuity, however, mean that these patterns cannot be resolved when viewed from a distance, and adjacent patches of colour will blend together (pattern blending). We investigated how saliency changes at...

Data from: The global geography of human subsistence

Michael C. Gavin, Patrick H. Kavanagh, Hannah J. Haynie, Claire Bowern, Carol R. Ember, Russell D. Gray, Fiona M. Jordan, Kathryn R. Kirby, Geoff Kushnick, Bobbi S. Low, Bruno Vilela & Carlos A. Botero
How humans obtain food has dramatically reshaped ecosystems and altered both the trajectory of human history and the characteristics of human societies. Our species’ subsistence varies widely, from predominantly foraging strategies, to plant-based agriculture and animal husbandry. The extent to which environmental, social, and historical factors have driven such variation is currently unclear. Prior attempts to resolve long-standing debates on this topic have been hampered by an over-reliance on narrative arguments, small and geographically-narrow samples,...

Data from: Archosauromorph extinction selectivity during the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction

Bethany J. Allen, Thomas L. Stubbs, Michael J. Benton & Mark N. Puttick
Many traits have been linked to extinction risk among modern vertebrates, including mode of life and body size. However, previous work has indicated there is little evidence that body size, or any other trait, was selective during past mass extinctions. Here, we investigate the impact of the Triassic–Jurassic mass extinction on early Archosauromorpha (basal dinosaurs, crocodylomorphs and their relatives) by focusing on body size and other life history traits. We built several new archosauromorph maximum‐likelihood...

Data from: Does postcranial palaeoneurology provide insight into pterosaur behaviour and lifestyle? New data from the azhdarchoid Vectidraco and the ornithocheirids Coloborhynchus and Anhanguera

Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone, Daniel Sykes & Darren Naish
The postcranial palaeoneurology of fossil reptiles is understudied, and those studies that exist focus predominantly on crocodyliforms and dinosaurs. The intervertebral foramina of the spine house nerves that exit to innervate surrounding tissues and the extremities. In the heavily fused (and typically distorted or poorly preserved) pterosaurian sacrum, intervertebral foramina can be difficult to observe and are rarely identified. The Early Cretaceous azhdarchoid Vectidraco from the Isle of Wight, UK, exhibits large, paired foramina on...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    38

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    38

Affiliations

  • University of Bristol
    37
  • University of Bath
    2
  • University of Glasgow
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • University of Southampton
    2
  • University of Leeds
    2
  • University of Manchester
    2
  • University of Exeter
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • Grand Valley State University
    1