37 Works

Data from: The challenges of recognising individuals with few distinguishing features: identifying red foxes Vulpes vulpes from camera-trap photos

Jo Dorning
Over the last two decades, camera traps have revolutionised the ability of biologists to undertake faunal surveys and estimate population densities, although identifying individuals of species with subtle markings remains challenging. We conducted a two-year camera-trapping study as part of a long-term study of urban foxes: our objectives were to determine whether red foxes could be identified individually from camera-trap photos, and highlight camera-trapping protocols and techniques to facilitate photo identification of species with few...

Data from: Improving Illumina assemblies with Hi-C and long reads: an example with the North African dromedary

Jean P. Elbers, Mark F. Rogers, Polina L. Perelman, Anastasia A. Proskuryakova, Natalia A. Serdyukova, Warren E. Johnson, Petr Horin, Jukka Corander, David Murphy & Pamela A. Burger
Researchers have assembled thousands of eukaryotic genomes using Illumina reads, but traditional mate-pair libraries cannot span all repetitive elements, resulting in highly fragmented assemblies. However, both chromosome conformation capture techniques, such as Hi-C and Dovetail Genomics Chicago libraries and long-read sequencing, such as Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore, help span and resolve repetitive regions and therefore improve genome assemblies. One important livestock species of arid regions that does not have a high-quality contiguous reference genome...

Data from: Experimental evidence that intruder and group member attributes affect outgroup defence and associated within-group interactions in a social fish

Ines Braga Goncalves & Andrew Radford
In many social species, individuals communally defend resources from conspecific outsiders. Participation in defence and in associated within-group interactions, both during and after contests with outgroup rivals, is expected to vary between group members because the threat presented by different outsiders is not the same to each individual. However, experimental tests examining both the contributions to, and the consequences of, outgroup conflict for all group members are lacking. Using groups of the cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher,...

Data from: Managing hedgerows for nocturnal wildlife: do bats and their insect prey benefit from targeted agri-environment schemes?

Jérémy S. P. Froidevaux, Katherine L. Boughey, Charlotte L. Hawkins, Moth Broyles & Gareth Jones
1. Mitigating the detrimental impacts of intensive farming on biodiversity requires the implementation of cost-effective conservation actions. Targeted agri-environment-schemes (AESs) to enhance populations of threatened species inhabiting farmland have been proposed for this purpose, yet their effectiveness for nocturnal wildlife remains unknown. 2. We assessed whether hedgerow management prescribed by targeted AESs to improve habitat conditions for the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) in England may positively influence the species, the entire bat assemblage and...

Data from: Predicting future distributions of lanternfish; a significant ecological resource within the Southern Ocean

Jennifer J. Freer, Geraint A. Tarling, Martin A. Collins, Julian C. Partridge & Martin J. Genner
Aim: Lanternfish (Myctophidae) are one of the most abundant and ecologically important families of pelagic teleosts, yet how these species will respond to climate change is unclear, especially within polar regions. The aim of this study is to predict the impact of climate change on the distribution of Southern Ocean lanternfish, and to relate these predicted responses to species traits. Location: Circumpolar, 35-75° S. Methods: We used MaxEnt ecological niche models to estimate the present...

Data from: Experimental field evidence that out-group threats influence within-group behaviour

Amy Morris-Drake, Charlotte Christensen, Julie M. Kern & Andrew N. Radford
In social species, conspecific outsiders present various threats to groups and their members. These out-group threats are predicted to affect subsequent within-group interactions (e.g. affiliation and aggression) and individual behaviour (e.g. foraging and vigilance decisions). However, experimental investigations of such consequences are rare, especially in natural conditions. We used field-based call playbacks and faecal presentations on habituated wild dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula)—a cooperatively breeding, territorial species—to examine post-interaction responses to the simulated threat of a...

Data from: Why does noise reduce response to alarm calls? Experimental assessment of masking, distraction and greater vigilance in wild birds

You Zhou, Andrew N. Radford & Robert D. Magrath
1. Environmental noise from anthropogenic and other sources affects many aspects of animal ecology and behaviour, including acoustic communication. Acoustic masking is often assumed in field studies to be the cause of compromised communication in noise, but other mechanisms could have similar effects. 2. We tested experimentally how background noise disrupted the response to conspecific alarm calls in wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, assessing the effects of acoustic masking, distraction and changes in vigilance. We...

Data from: Morphological innovation and the evolution of hadrosaurid dinosaurs

Thomas L. Stubbs, Michael J. Benton, Armin Elsler & Albert Prieto-Márquez
The hadrosaurids were a successful group of herbivorous dinosaurs. During the Late Cretaceous, 100 to 66 million years ago, hadrosaurids had high diversity, rapid speciation rates, and wide geographic distribution. Most hadrosaurids were large-bodied and had similar postcranial skeletons. However, they show important innovations in the skull, including disparate crests that functioned as socio-sexual display structures, and a complex feeding apparatus, with specialized jaws bearing dental batteries. Little is known about the macroevolutionary processes that...

Data from: Non-random latitudinal gradients in range size and niche breadth predicted by spatial patterns of climate

Erin E. Saupe, Corinne E. Myers, A. Townsend Peterson, Jorge Soberón, Joy Singarayer, Paul Valdes & Huijie Qiao
Aim. Tropical species are thought to experience and be adapted to narrow ranges of abiotic conditions. This idea has been invoked to explain a broad array of biological phenomena, including the latitudinal diversity gradient and differential rates of speciation and extinction. However, debate continues regarding the broad-scale applicability of this pattern and potential processes responsible. Here, we use a simulation approach to test two propositions: (1) strong geographic patterns of variation in realized niche breadth...

Data from: Testing the limits of pheromone stigmergy in spatially constrained robotic swarms

Edmund Hunt, Simon Jones & Sabine Hauert
Area coverage and collective exploration are key challenges for swarm robotics. Previous research in this field has drawn inspiration from ant colonies, with real, or more commonly virtual, pheromones deposited into a shared environment to coordinate behaviour through stigmergy. Repellent pheromones can facilitate rapid dispersal of robotic agents, yet this has been demonstrated only for relatively small swarm sizes (N<30). Here, we report findings from swarms of real robots (Kilobots) an order of magnitude larger...

Data from: The effect of fossil sampling on the estimation of divergence times with the fossilised birth death process

Joseph E. O’Reilly & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Timescales are of fundamental importance to evolutionary biology as they facilitate hypothesis tests of historical evolutionary processes. Through the incorporation of fossil occurrence data, the fossilised birth-death (FBD) process provides a framework for estimating divergence times using more palaeontological data than traditional node calibration approaches have allowed. The inclusion of more data can refine evolutionary timescale estimates, but for many taxonomic groups it is computationally infeasible to include all fossil occurrence data. Here, we utilise...

Data from: Phenology of farmland floral resources reveals seasonal gaps in nectar availability for bumblebees

Thomas P. Timberlake, Ian P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
Floral resources are known to be important in regulating wild pollinator populations and are therefore an important component of agri‐environment and restoration schemes which aim to support pollinators and their associated services. However, the phenology of floral resources is often overlooked in these schemes – a factor which may be limiting their success. Our study characterises and quantifies the phenology of nectar resources at the whole‐farm scale on replicate farms in Southwestern UK throughout the...

Data from: Plant species roles in pollination networks: an experimental approach

Kate Pereira Maia, I.P. Vaughan & Jane Memmott
Pollination is an important ecosystem service threatened by current pollinator declines, making flower planting schemes an important strategy to recover pollination function. However, ecologists rarely test the attractiveness of chosen plants to pollinators in the field. Here, we experimentally test whether plant species roles in pollination networks can be used to identify species with the most potential to recover plant-pollinator communities. Using published pollination networks, we calculated each plant’s centrality and chose five central and...

Data from: Digging the optimum pit: antlions, spirals and spontaneous stratification

Nigel R. Franks, Alan Worley, Max Falkenberg, Ana B. Sendova-Franks & Kim Christensen
Most animal traps are constructed from self-secreted silk, so antlions are rare among trap builders because they use only materials found in the environment. We show how antlions exploit the properties of the substrate to produce very effective structures in the minimum amount of time. Our modelling demonstrates how antlions (1) exploit self-stratification in granular media differentially to expose deleterious large grains at the bottom of the construction trench where they can be ejected preferentially...

Quantifying the structure and dynamics of fish shoals under predation threat in three-dimensions

Maksym Romenskyy, James Herbert-Read, Christol Ioannou, Alex Szorkovszky, Ashley Ward & David Sumpter
Detailed quantifications of how predators and their grouping prey interact in three dimensions (3D) remain rare. Here we record the structure and dynamics of fish shoals (Pseudomugil signifer) in 3D both with and without live predators (Philypnodon grandiceps) under controlled laboratory conditions. Shoals adopted two distinct types of shoal structure; ‘sphere-like’ geometries at depth, and flat ‘carpet-like’ structures at the water’s surface, with shoals becoming more compact in both horizontal and vertical planes in the...

Processed InSAR images over Fentale Volcano, Main Ethiopian Rift

Tesfaye Tessema
This data set contains 119 unwrapped and geocoded inteferograms derived from Cosmo-SkyMed (CSK) SAR scenes aquired over the Northen Main Ethiopian Rift between June 2014 and December 2015. This data set also contains displacement time series derived from processed CSK and Sentinel-1 inteferograms at the locations specified in the accompanying README files.

DECIPHeR model estimates of daily flow for 1366 gauged catchments in Great Britain (1962-2015) using observed driving data

G. Coxon, J. Freer, R. Lane, T. Dunne, W.J.M. Knoben, N.J.K. Howden, N. Quinn, T. Wagener & R. Woods
This dataset provides 100 model realisations of daily river flow in cubic metres per second (m3/s) for 1,366 catchments, for the period 1962 to 2015. The dataset is model output from the DECIPHeR hydrological model driven by observed climate data (CEH-GEAR rainfall and CHESS-PE potential evapotranspiration). The modelled catchments correspond to locations of National River Flow Archive (NRFA) gauging stations and provide good spatial coverage across the UK. The dataset was produced as part of...

Affiliation history and age similarity predict alliance formation in adult male bottlenose dolphins

Livia Gerber, Richard Connor, Stephanie King, Simon Allen, Samuel Wittwer, Manuela Bizzozzero, Whitney Friedman, Stephanie Kalberer, William Sherwin, Sonja Wild, Erik Willems & Michael Kruetzen
Male alliances are an intriguing phenomenon in the context of reproduction since, in most taxa, males compete over an indivisible resource, female fertilization. Adult male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Shark Bay, Western Australia, form long-term, multi-level alliances to sequester estrus females. These alliances are therefore critical to male reproductive success. Yet, the long-term processes leading to the formation of such complex social bonds are still poorly understood. To identify the criteria by which male...

Data from: Does exceptional preservation distort our view of disparity in the fossil record?

Joseph T. Flannery Sutherland, Benjamin C. Moon, Tom L. Stubbs & Michael J. Benton
How much of evolutionary history is lost because of the unevenness of the fossil record? Lagerstätten, sites of exceptional fossil preservation, provide remarkable, yet distorting insights into past life. When examining macroevolutionary trends in the fossil record, they can generate an uneven sampling signal for taxonomic diversity; by comparison, their effect on morphological variety (disparity) is poorly understood. We show here that lagerstätten impact the disparity of ichthyosaurs, Mesozoic marine reptiles, by preserving higher diversity...

Data from: Nathusius' bats optimize long-distance migration by flying at maximum range speed.

Sara A. Troxell, Marc W. Holderied, Gunars Petersons & Christian C. Voigt
Metabolic rate of 12 Pipistrellus nathusii in relation to varying airspeed. We measured the metabolic rate of flying bats in a wind tunnel using the 13C labeled Na-bicarbonate method. The relationship between metabolic rate and airspeed was U-shaped in the majority of individuals. We could not find a U-shaped curve in a few individuals that engaged in flight manoeuvers, including landing. We used the shape of the U-shaped power curve to estimate minimum flight speed...

Data from: Is MHC diversity a better marker for conservation than neutral genetic diversity? a case study of two contrasting dolphin populations

Oliver Manlik, Michael Krutzen, Anna M. Kopps, Janet Mann, Lars Bejder, Simon J. Allen, Celine Frere, Richard C. Connor & William B. Sherwin
Genetic diversity is essential for populations to adapt to changing environments. Measures of genetic diversity are often based on selectively neutral markers, such as microsatellites. Genetic diversity to guide conservation management, however, is better reflected by adaptive markers, including genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Our aim was to assess MHC and neutral genetic diversity in two contrasting bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) populations in Western Australia—one apparently viable population with high reproductive output (Shark...

Data from: Morphological disparity in theropod jaws: comparing discrete characters and geometric morphometrics

Joep Schaeffer, Michael J. Benton, Emily J. Rayfield & Thomas L. Stubbs
Disparity, the diversity of form and function of organisms, is frequently measured, and can be assessed from cladistic or phenetic characters, and from discrete characters or continuous characters such as landmarks, outlines, or ratios. But do these different methods of assessing disparity provide comparable results? Here we provide a large-scale test in which character sets are standardized for anatomical-functional comparability, and compare three methods of capturing morphological disparity (discrete characters, morphometric outlines and geometric morphometric...

Data from: Effects of body plan evolution on the hydrodynamic drag and energy requirements of swimming in ichthyosaurs

Susana Gutarra, Benjamin Moon, Imran Rahman, Colin Palmer, Stephan Lautenschlager, Alison Brimacombe & Michael Benton
Ichthyosaurs are an extinct group of fully marine tetrapods that were well adapted to aquatic locomotion. During their ~160-million-year existence, they evolved from elongate and serpentine forms into stockier, fish-like animals, convergent with sharks and dolphins. Here, we use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to quantify the impact of this transition on the energy demands of ichthyosaur swimming for the first time. We run computational simulations of water flow using three-dimensional digital models of nine ichthyosaurs...

Data from: Attractiveness is positively related to World Cup performance in male, but not female, biathletes

Tim W. Fawcett, Jack Ewans, Alice Lawrence & Andrew N. Radford
Whole-organism performance capacity is thought to play a key role in sexual selection, through its impacts on both intrasexual competition and intersexual mate choice. Based on data from elite sports, several studies have reported a positive association between facial attractiveness and athletic performance in humans, leading to claims that facial correlates of sporting prowess in men reveal heritable or non-heritable mate quality. However, for most of the sports studied (soccer, ice hockey, American football and...

Data from: Pipefish embryo oxygenation, survival and development: egg size, male size and temperature effects

Malin Nygård, Charlotta Kvarnemo, Ingrid Ahnesjö & Ines Braga Goncalves
In animals with uniparental care, the quality of care provided by one sex can deeply impact the reproductive success of both sexes. Studying variation in parental care quality within a species and which factors may affect it can therefore shed important light on patterns of mate choice and other reproductive decisions observed in nature. Using Syngnathus typhle, a pipefish species with extensive uniparental male care, with embryos developing inside a brood pouch during a lengthy...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Bristol
  • Imperial College London
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Zurich
  • University of Sydney
  • Cardiff University
  • UNSW Sydney
  • Uppsala University
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • University of Kansas