57 Works

Visual obstruction, but not moderate traffic noise, increases reliance on heterospecific alarm calls

Chaminda Ratnayake, You Zhou, Francesca Dawson Pell, Dominique Potvin, Andrew Radford & Robert Magrath
Animals rely on both personal and social information about danger to minimise risk, yet environmental conditions constrain information. Both visual obstructions and background noise can reduce detectability of predators, which may increase reliance on social information, such as from alarm calls. Furthermore, a combination of visual and auditory constraints might greatly increase reliance on social information, because the loss of information from one source cannot be compensated by the other. Testing these possibilities requires manipulating...

Projected climatic changes lead to biome changes in areas of previously constant biome

Brian Huntley, Judy Allen, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Ralf Ohlemüller, Joy Singarayer & Paul Valdes
Aim: Recent studies in southern Africa identified past biome stability as an important predictor of biodiversity. We aimed to assess the extent to which past biome stability predicts present global biodiversity patterns, and the extent to which projected climatic changes may lead to eventual biome changes in areas with constant past biome. Location: Global. Taxon: Spermatophyta; terrestrial vertebrates. Methods: Biome constancy was assessed and mapped using results from 89 dynamic global vegetation model simulations, driven...

Data from: Slow and fast evolutionary rates in the history of lepidosaurs

Jorge A. Herrera-Flores, Armin Elsler, Thomas L. Stubbs & Michael J. Benton
Biodiversity today is uneven, with equally ancient sister groups containing few or many species. It has often been assumed that high biodiversity indicates fast evolution, and yet in a classic work in 1944 George Simpson suggested that fast evolution might generate instability and extinction, and that slow evolution led to high biodiversity. Here we show that evolutionary rates can vary substantially through the history of a clade and find evidence for Simpson’s claim. In a...

Cephalic biomechanics underpins the evolutionary success of trilobites

Jorge Esteve, Jordi Marcé-Nogué, Francesc Pérez-Peris & Emily Rayfield
Arthropods (i.e. insects, spiders, crustaceans, myriapods and others), are the most successful Phanerozoic animals. The group are characterised by the possession of a segmented body, jointed limbs and a hard cuticle that is episodically moulted. One highly successful, but now extinct, group of arthropods are the trilobites. Trilobites underwent episodic moulting (ecdysis), and most trilobites possess facial sutures, lines of weakness in the cephalon, via which the exuviae is shed and the animal emerges. However,...

Corridor quality affects net movement, size of dispersers, and population growth in experimental microcosms

Dongbo Li, Christopher F. Clements, Isobel L.G. Shan & Jane Memmott
Corridors are expected to increase species dispersal in fragmented habitats. However, it remains unclear how the quality of corridors influences the dispersal process, and how it interacts with corridor length and width. Here we investigate these factors using a small-scale laboratory system where we track the dispersal of the model organism Collembola Folsomia candida. Using this system, we study the effects of corridor length, width, and quality on the probability of dispersal, net movement, body...

Data for: Neural divergence and hybrid disruption between ecologically isolated Heliconius butterflies

Stephen Montgomery, Matteo Rossi, W. Owen McMillan & Richard Merrill
The importance of behavioral evolution during speciation is well established, but we know little about how this is manifest in sensory and neural systems. A handful of studies have linked specific neural changes to divergence in host or mate preferences associated with speciation. However, the degree to which brains are adapted to local environmental conditions, and whether this contributes to reproductive isolation between close relatives that have diverged in ecology, remains unknown. Here, we examine...

Dataset for quantifying avian inertial properties using calibrated computed tomography

Shane Windsor, Yusuf Mahadik & Nicholas Durston
Estimating centre of mass and mass moments of inertia is an important aspect of many studies in biomechanics. Characterising these parameters accurately in three dimensions is challenging with traditional methods requiring dissection or suspension of cadavers. Here, we present a method to quantify the three-dimensional centre of mass and inertia tensor of birds of prey using calibrated computed-tomography (CT) scans. The technique was validated using several independent methods, providing body segment mass estimates within approximately...

In vitro study on the effect of peucedanol on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes

Cun Zhang, Yongwei Li, Changlong Yin, Jie Zheng & Guozhi Liu
Peucedanol is a major extract of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. (Apiaceae) roots, which is a commonly used herb in paediatrics. Its interaction with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450s) would lead to adverse effects or even failure of therapy. The interaction between peucedanol and CYP450s was investigated. Peucedanol (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μM) was incubated with eight human liver CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, 2A6, 3A4, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 2E1), in pooled human liver...

On the use of genome-wide data to model and date the time of anthropogenic hybridisation: an example from the Scottish wildcat

Jo Howard-McCombe, Daniel Ward, Andrew Kitchener, Dan Lawson, Helen Senn & Mark Beaumont
While hybridisation has long been recognised as an important natural phenomenon in evolution, the conservation of taxa subject to introgressive hybridisation from domesticated forms is a subject of intense debate. Hybridisation of Scottish wildcats and domestic cats is a good example in this regard. We develop a modelling framework to determine the timescale of introgression using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Applying the model to ddRAD-seq data from 129 individuals, genotyped at 6,546 loci, we show...

Data from: Phylogenetic sampling affects evolutionary patterns of morphological disparity

Thomas Smith, Mark Puttick, Joseph O'Reilly, Davide Pisani & Philip Donoghue
Cladistic character matrices are routinely repurposed in analyses of morphological disparity. Unfortunately, the sampling of taxa and characters within such datasets reflects their intended application - to resolve phylogeny, rather than distinguish between phenotypes - resulting in tree shapes that often misrepresent broader taxonomic and morphological diversity. Here we use tree shape as a proxy to explore how sampling can affect perceptions of evolving morphological disparity. Through analyses of simulated and empirical data, we demonstrate...

The Paris Climate Agreement and future sea level rise from Antartica

Robert M. DeConto, David Pollard, Richard B. Alley, Isabella Velicogna, Edward Gasson, Natalya Gomez, Shaina Sadai, Alan Condron, Daniel M. Gilford, Erica L. Ashe, Robert E. Kopp, Dawei Li & Andrea Dutton

Sponge-like rigid structures in frictional granular packings

Kuang Liu, Jonathan E. Kollmer, Karen E. Daniels, J.M. Schwarz & Silke Henkes
We show how rigidity emerges in experiments of sheared two-dimensional frictional granular materials by using generalizations of two methods for identifying rigid structures. Both approaches, the force-based dynamical matrix and the topology-based rigidity percolation, agree with each other and identify similar rigid structures. As the system becomes jammed, at a critical contact number z = 2.4±0.1, a rigid backbone interspersed with floppy, particle-filled holes of a broad range of sizes emerges, creating a sponge-like morphology....

Dataset for Ecomorphological diversification of squamates in the Cretaceous

Jorge A. Herrera-Flores, Thomas L. Stubbs & Michael J. Benton
Squamates (lizards and snakes) are highly successful modern vertebrates, with over 10,000 species. Squamates have a long history, dating back to at least 240 million years ago (Ma), and showing increasing species richness in the Late Cretaceous (84 Ma) and early Paleogene (66–55 Ma). We confirm that the major expansion of dietary functional morphology happened before these diversifications, in the mid Cretaceous, 110–90 Ma. Until that time, squamates had relatively uniform tooth types, which then...

Sea ice biology and biogeochemistry data of Lincoln Sea 2018

Karley Campbell
Data were collected as part of the DiatomARCTIC project during the Multidisciplinary Arctic Program - Last Ice sampling campaign (82.576 N 62.471 W), 7-23 May, 2018. The bottom 10 cm of ice samples were collected during this time from neighbouring first-year and multi-year sea ice floes, from which the following parameters were determined: chlorophyll a, exopolymeric substances, ice algal taxonomic composition, oxygen-based net community production and bulk-ice nitrate, nitrite and phosphate concentrations. All samples were...

Raspberry Pi nest cameras – an affordable tool for remote behavioural and conservation monitoring of bird nests

Hannah Hereward, Richard Facey, Alyssa Sargent, Sara Roda, Matthew Couldwell, Emma Renshaw, Katie Shaw, Jack Devlin, Sarah Long, Ben Porter, Jodie Henderson, Christa Emmett, Laura Astbury, Luke Maggs, Sean Rands & Robert Thomas
1. Bespoke (custom-built) Raspberry Pi cameras are increasingly popular research tools in the fields of behavioural ecology and conservation, because of their comparative flexibility in programmable settings, ability to be paired with other sensors, and because they are typically cheaper than commercially built models. 2. Here we describe a novel, Raspberry Pi-based camera system that is fully portable and yet weatherproof – especially to humidity and salt spray. The camera was paired with a passive...

Benthic silica flux magnitudes and silicon isotopic composition of marine sediment pore waters and solid phase leachates for the Barents Sea (summer 2017-2019)

James PJ Ward, Sian F Henley, Johan C Faust & Felipe Sales de Freitas
This data product comprises 5 files, containing marine sediment pore water and solid phase leachate silicon (Si) isotopic and element concentration data, as well as benthic silica flux magnitudes derived from core incubation experiments and sediment biogenic silica contents. Samples were collected over three cruises of the Changing Arctic Ocean Seafloor (ChAOS) project summer sampling campaigns in the Barents Sea between 2017 and 2019 aboard the RRS James Clark Ross (cruises JR16006, JR17007 and JR18006)....

Re-emergence and diversification of a specialised antennal lobe morphology in ithomiine butterflies

Billy J Morris, Antoine Couto, Asli Aydin & Stephen H Montgomery
How an organism’s sensory system functions is central to how it navigates its environment. The insect olfactory system is a prominent model for investigating how ecological factors impact sensory reception and processing. Notably, work in Lepidoptera led to the discovery of vastly expanded structures, termed macroglomerular complexes (MGCs), within the primary olfactory processing centre. MGCs typically process pheromonal cues, are usually larger in males, and provide classic examples of how variation in the size of...

Data from: Quantifying nectar production by flowering plants in urban and rural landscapes

Nicholas Tew, Jane Memmott, Ian Vaughan, Stephanie Bird, Graham Stone, Simon Potts & Katherine Baldock
Floral resources (nectar and pollen) provide food for insect pollinators but have declined in the countryside due to land use change. Given widespread pollinator loss, it is important that we quantify their food supply to help develop conservation actions. While nectar resources have been measured in rural landscapes, equivalent data are lacking for urban areas, an important knowledge gap as towns and cities often host diverse pollinator populations. We quantified the nectar supply of urban...

De Novo Designed Peptide and Protein Hairpins Self-assemble into Sheets and Nanoparticles

Johanna Galloway, Harriet E. V. Bray, Deborah K. Shoemark,, Lorna R. Hodgson, Jennifer Coombs, Judith M. Mantell, Ruth S. Rose, James F. Ross,, Caroline Morris, Robert L. Harniman, Christopher W. Wood, Christopher Arthur, Paul Verkade & Derek N. Woolfson
AFM, TEM, fluorescence microscopy image files and spectral data published in DOI:10.1002/smll.202100472. Preprint of this is available at bioRxiv DOI:10.1101/2020.08.14.251462

Data from: Olfactory testing in Parkinson’s disease & REM behavior disorder: a machine learning approach

Christine Lo, Siddharth Arora, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Thomas Barber, Michael Lawton, Johannes Klein, Sofia Kanavou, Annette Janzen, Elisabeth Sittig, Wolfgang Oertel, Donald Grosset & Michele Hu
Objective: We sought to identify an abbreviated test of impaired olfaction, amenable for use in busy clinical environments in prodromal (isolated REM sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD)) and manifest Parkinson’s. Methods: 890 PD and 313 control participants in the Discovery cohort study underwent Sniffin’ stick odour identification assessment. Random forests were initially trained to distinguish individuals with poor (functional anosmia/hyposmia) and good (normosmia/super-smeller) smell ability using all 16 Sniffin’ sticks. Models were retrained using the top...

Niche partitioning shaped herbivore macroevolution through the early Mesozoic dataset

Suresh Singh, Armin Elsler, Thomas Stubbs, Russell Bond, Emily Rayfield & Michael Benton
The Triassic (252–201 Ma) marks a major punctuation in Earth history, when ecosystems rebuilt themselves following the devastating Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Herbivory evolved independently several times as ecosystems comprising diverse assemblages of therapsids, parareptiles and archosauromorphs rose and fell, leading to a world dominated by dinosaurs. It was assumed that dinosaurs prevailed either through long-term competitive replacement of the incumbent clades or rapidly and opportunistically following one or more extinction events. Here we use functional...

Scaling the extinction vortex: Body size as a predictor of population dynamics close to extinction events

Nathan Williams, Louise McRae, Robin Freeman, Pol Capdevila & Christopher Clements
Mutual reinforcement between abiotic and biotic factors can drive small populations into a catastrophic downward spiral to extinction – a process known as the ‘extinction vortex.’ However, empirical studies investigating extinction dynamics in relation to species’ traits have been lacking. We assembled a database of 35 vertebrate populations monitored to extirpation over a period of at least ten years, represented by 32 different species, including 25 birds, five mammals and two reptiles. We supplemented these...

Linking micro and macroevolution of head shape in an island radiation

Maxime Taverne, Hugo Dutel, Michael Fagan, Anamaria Štambuk, Duje Lisičić, Zoran Tadić, Anne-Claire Fabre & Anthony Herrel
Phenotypic traits have been shown to evolve in response to variation in the environment. However, the evolutionary processes underlying the emergence of phenotypic diversity can typically only be understood at the population level. Consequently, how subtle phenotypic differences at the intraspecific level can give rise to larger-scale changes in performance and ecology remains poorly understood. We here tested for the covariation between ecology, bite force, jaw muscle architecture, and the three-dimensional shape of the cranium...

Imperfect detection alters the outcome of management strategies for protected areas

Edd Hammill & Christopher Clement
Designing protected areas configurations to maximize biodiversity is a critical conservation goal. The configuration of protected areas can significantly impact the richness and identity of the species found there; one large patch supports larger populations but can facilitate competitive exclusion. Conversely, many small habitats spreads risk but may exclude predators that typically require large home ranges. Identifying how best to design protected areas is further complicated by monitoring programs failing to detect species. Here we...

Fish avoid visually noisy environments where prey targeting is reduced

Joanna Attwell, Christos Ioannou, Chris Reid & James Herbert-Read
The environment contains different forms of ecological no­­­ise that can reduce the ability of animals to detect information. Here we ask whether animals adapt their behaviour to either exploit or avoid areas of their environment with increased dynamic visual noise. Three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were immersed into environments with a simulated form of naturally occurring visual noise – moving light bands that form on underwater substrates caused by the refraction of light through surface waves....

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Bristol
  • University of Edinburgh
  • Tongji University
  • North West Agriculture and Forestry University
  • Shanghai University of Sport
  • West China Hospital of Sichuan University
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Central South University
  • Kunming Children's Hospital