45 Works

Data from: Relationships among taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic ant diversity across the biogeographic regions of Europe

Xavier Arnan, Xim Cerdá & Javier Retana
Understanding how different biodiversity components are related across different environmental conditions is a major goal in macroecology and conservation biogeography. We investigated correlations among alpha and beta taxonomic (TD), phylogenetic (PD), and functional diversity (FD) in ant communities in the five biogeographic regions most representative of western Europe; we also examined the degree of niche conservatism. We combined data from 349 ant communities composed of 154 total species, which were characterized by 10 functional traits...

Data from: Combined exposure to sublethal concentrations of an insecticide and a fungicide affect feeding, ovary development and longevity in a solitary bee

Fabio Sgolastra, Xavier Arnan, Riccardo Cabbri, Gloria Isani, Piotr Medrzycki, Dariusz Teper & Jordi Bosch
Pollinators in agroecosystems are often exposed to pesticide mixtures. Even at low concentrations, the effects of these mixtures on bee populations are difficult to predict due to potential synergistic interactions. We orally exposed newly-emerged females of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis to environmentally-realistic levels of clothianidin (neonicotinoid insecticide) and propiconazole (fungicide), singly and in combination. The amount of feeding solution consumed was highest in bees exposed to the neonicotinoid, and lowest in bees exposed to...

Data from: Universal and blocking primer mismatches limit the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing for the quantitative metabarcoding of arthropods

Josep Piñol, Gisela Mir, Priscila Gomez-Polo & Nuria Agusti
The quantification of the biological diversity in environmental samples using high-throughput DNA sequencing is hindered by the PCR bias caused by variable primer–template mismatches of the individual species. In some dietary studies, there is the added problem that samples are enriched with predator DNA, so often a predator-specific blocking oligonucleotide is used to alleviate the problem. However, specific blocking oligonucleotides could coblock nontarget species to some degree. Here, we accurately estimate the extent of the...

Data from: Selection on structural allelic variation biases plasticity estimates

Mauro Santos, Margarida Matos, Sheng Pei Wang & David M Althoff
Wang and Althoff (2019) explored the capacity of Drosophila melanogaster to exhibit adaptive plasticity in a novel environment. In a full-sib, half-sib design, they scored the activity of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and plastic responses, measured as changes in ADH activity across ethanol concentrations in the range of 0-10% (natural variation) and 16% (the novel environment). ADH activity increased with alcohol concentration, and there was a positive association between larval viability and ADH activity...

Ecological network complexity scales with area

Nuria Galiana
Larger geographical areas contain more species–an observation raised to a law in ecology. Less explored is whether biodiversity changes are accompanied by a modification of interaction networks. We use data from 32 spatial interaction networks from different ecosystems to analyse how network structure changes with area. We find that basic community structure descriptors (number of species, links, and links per species) increase with area following a power-law. Yet, the distribution of links per species varies...

Divergence time estimation using ddRAD data and an isolation-with-migration model applied to water vole populations of Arvicola

Jose Castresana, Alfonso Balmori-De La Puente, Jacint Ventura, Marcos Miñarro, Aitor Somoano & Jody Hey
Molecular dating methods of population splits are crucial in evolutionary biology, but they present important difficulties due to the complexity of the genealogical relationships of genes and past migrations between populations. Using the double digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) technique and an isolation-with-migration (IM) model, we studied the evolutionary history of water vole populations of the genus Arvicola, a group of complex evolution with fossorial and semi-aquatic ecotypes. To do this, we first estimated mutation...

Data from: Climate variability and community stability in Mediterranean shrublands: the role of functional diversity and soil environment

Ignacio M. Pérez-Ramos, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado, Enrique G. De La Riva, Rafael Villar, Francisco Lloret & Teodoro Marañón
1.Understanding how different factors mediate the resistance of communities to climatic variability is a question of considerable ecological interest that remains mostly unresolved. This is particularly remarkable to improve predictions about the impact of climate change on vegetation. 2.Here we used a trait-based approach to analyse the sensitivity to climatic variability over nine years of 19 Mediterranean shrubland communities located in southwest Spain. We evaluated the role of functional diversity and soil environment as drivers...

Data from: The role of morbidly obesity in the promotion of metabolic disruptions and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by Helicobacter Pylori

Albert Lecube, Silvia Valladares, Carolina Lopez-Cano, Liliana Gutiérrez, Andreea Ciudin, José Manuel Fort, Josep Maria Reñé, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Ines De Torres, Marta Bueno, Judit Pallarés & Juan Antonio Baena
Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been associated to an increased rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and liver disease through its effect on insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. However, results are inconstant and no studies exist in morbidly obese patients, in which both insulin resistance and inflammation coexist. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationship between HP infection and alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, inflammation markers, and liver disease in patients awaiting...

Data from: Phenotypic biomarkers of climatic impacts on declining insect populations: a key role for decadal drought, thermal buffering and amplification effects and host plant dynamics

Jofre Carnicer, Constantí Stefanescu, Maria Vives-Ingla, Carlos López, Sofia Cortizas, Christopher Wheat, Roger Vila, Joan Llusià & Josep Penuelas
1. Widespread population declines have been reported for diverse Mediterranean butterflies over the last three decades, and have been significantly associated to increased global change impacts. The specific landscape and climatic drivers of these declines remain uncertain for most declining species. 2. Here we analyse whether plastic phenotypic traits of a model butterfly species (Pieris napi) perform as reliable biomarkers of vulnerability to extreme temperature impacts in natural populations, showing contrasting trends in thermally exposed...

Data from: Spatial variability in a plant-pollinator community across a continuous habitat: high heterogeneity in the face of apparent uniformity

Sara Reverté, Jordi Bosch, Xavier Arnan, Tomas Roslin, Constanti Stefanescu, J. A. Calleja, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Carlos Hernández-Castellano & Anselm Rodrigo
Large-scale spatial variability in plant-pollinator communities (e.g., along geographic gradients, across different landscapes) is relatively well understood. However, we know much less about how these communities vary at small scales within a uniform landscape. Plants are sessile and highly sensitive to microhabitat conditions, whereas pollinators are highly mobile and, for the most part, display generalist feeding habits. Therefore, we expect plants to show greater spatial variability than pollinators. We analysed the spatial heterogeneity of a...

Data from: Historical citizen science to understand and predict climate-driven trout decline

Miguel Clavero, Miquel Ninyerola, Virgilio Hermoso, Ana Filipa Filipe, Magda Pla, Daniel Villero, Lluís Brotons & Miguel Delibes
Historical species records offer an excellent opportunity to test the predictive ability of range forecasts under climate change, but researchers often consider that historical records are scarce and unreliable, besides the datasets collected by renowned naturalists. Here, we demonstrate the relevance of biodiversity records developed through citizen-science initiatives generated outside the natural sciences academia. We used a Spanish geographical dictionary from the mid-nineteenth century to compile over 10 000 freshwater fish records, including almost 4...

HDL particle size and cholesterol content in Heart Failure. Supplementary Material

Albert Teis, German Cediel, Nuria Amigo, Josep Julve, Julia Aranyo, Joan Andres, Carlos Puig-Jove, Esmeralda Castellblanco, Francisco Gual-Capllonch, Elena Ferrer-Sistach, Nuria Vallejo, Gladys Juncà, Jorge López-Ayerbe, Marta De Antonio, Mar Domingo, Evelyn Santiago-Vacas, Pau Codina, Didac Mauricio, Josep Lupón, Nuria Alonso & Antonio Bayes-Genis
Supplementary material corresponding to the article entitled Particle Size and Cholesterol Content of circulating HDL correlate with Cardiovascular Death in Chronic Heart Failure.

Data from: Abundance and morphometry changes across the high-mountain lake-size gradient in the tropical Andes of Southern Ecuador

Pablo V. Mosquera, Henrietta Hampel, Raúl F. Vázquez, Miguel Alonso & Jordi Catalan
The number, size, and shape of lakes are key determinants of the ecological functionality of a lake district. The lake area scaling relationships with lake number and volume enable upscaling biogeochemical processes and spatially considering organisms' metapopulation dynamics. These relationships vary regionally depending on the geomorphological context, particularly in the range of lake area <1 km2 and mountainous regions. The Cajas Massif (Southern Ecuador) holds a tropical mountain lake district with 5955 water bodies. The...

Data from: Hsp70 protein levels and thermotolerance in Drosophila subobscura: a reassessment of the thermal co-adaptation hypothesis

Gemma Calabria, Olga Dolgova, Carla Rego, Luís E. Castañeda, Enrico L. Rezende, Joan Balanyà, Marta Pascual, Jesper G. Sørensen, Volker Loeschcke & Mauro Santos
Theory predicts that geographic variation in traits and genes associated with climatic adaptation may be initially driven by the correlated evolution of thermal preference and thermal sensitivity. This assumes that an organism’s preferred body temperature corresponds with the thermal optimum in which performance is maximized; hence, shifts in thermal preferences affect the subsequent evolution of thermal-related traits. Drosophila subobscura evolved world-wide latitudinal clines in several traits including chromosome inversion frequencies, with some polymorphic inversions being...

Data from: Analysis of the porcine APOA2 gene expression in liver, polymorphisms identification and association with fatty acid composition traits

M. Ballester, M. Revilla, A. Puig-Oliveras, J. A. P. Marchesi, A. Castello, J. Corominas, A. I. Fernandez & J. M. Folch
APOA2 is a protein implicated in triglyceride, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In pigs, the APOA2 gene is located on pig chromosome 4 (SSC4) in a QTL region affecting fatty acid composition, fatness and growth traits. In this study, we evaluated APOA2 as a candidate gene for meat quality traits in an Iberian × Landrace backcross population. The APOA2:c.131T>A polymorphism, located in exon 3 of APOA2 and determining a missense mutation, was associated with the...

Cortical microstructural correlates of astrocytosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

Eduard Vilaplana, Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez, Daniel Ferreira, Victor Montal, Ove Almkvist, Anders Wall, Alberto Lleo, Eric Westman, Caroline Graff, Juan Fortea & Agneta Nordberg
Objective To study the macrostructural and microstructural MRI correlates of brain astrocytosis, measured with 11C-deuterium-L-deprenyl (11C-DED)–PET, in familial autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). Methods The total sample (n = 31) comprised ADAD mutation carriers (n = 10 presymptomatic, 39.2 ± 10.6 years old; n = 3 symptomatic, 55.5 ± 2.0 years old) and noncarriers (n = 18, 44.0 ± 13.7 years old) belonging to families with mutations in either the presenilin-1 or amyloid precursor protein...

Genetic response to human‐induced habitat changes in the marine environment: A century of evolution of European sprat in Landvikvannet, Norway

María Quintela, Cecilie Kvamme, Dorte Bekkevold, Richard D. M. Nash, Eeva Jansson, Geir Dahle, Kevin A. Glover, Àlex Richter‐Boix, Florian Berg & François Besnier
Habitat changes represent one of the five most pervasive threats to biodiversity. However, anthropogenic activities also have the capacity to create novel niche spaces to which species respond differently. In 1880, one such habitat alterations occurred in Landvikvannet, a freshwater lake on the Norwegian coast of Skagerrak, which became brackish after being artificially connected to the sea. This lake is now home to the European sprat, a pelagic marine fish that managed to develop a...

Data from: Comparison of the genetic determinism of two key phenological traits, flowering and maturity dates, in three Prunus species: peach, apricot and sweet cherry

Patrick Lambert, David Ruiz, Luca Dondini, Eudald Illa, Jean-Marc Audergon, Stefano Tartarini, Philippe Letourmy, Elisabeth Dirlewanger, José Quéro-Garcia, Loïck Le Dantec, Bénédicte Quilot-Turion & Pere Arus
The present study investigates the genetic determinism of flowering and maturity dates, two traits highly affected by global climate change. Flowering and maturity dates were evaluated on five progenies from three Prunus species, peach, apricot and sweet cherry, during three to eight years. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection was performed separately for each year and also by integrating data from all years together. High heritability estimates were obtained for flowering and maturity dates. Several QTLs...

Data from: Heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura along a latitudinal gradient: contrasting patterns between plastic and genetic responses

Luis E. Castañeda, Enrico L. Rezende & Mauro Santos
Susceptibility to global warming relies on how thermal tolerances respond to increasing temperatures through plasticity or evolution. Climatic adaptation can be assessed examining the geographic variation in thermal-related traits. We studied latitudinal patterns in heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura reared at two temperatures. We used four static stressful temperatures to estimate the thermal death time curves (TDT), and two ramping assays with fast and slow heating rates. TDT curves allow estimating the critical thermal maximum...

Data from: Wide variation in spatial genetic structure between natural populations of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and its implications for SGS comparability

Alistair S. Jump, Laura Rico, Marta Coll & Josep Peñuelas
Identification and quantification of spatial genetic structure (SGS) within populations remains a central element of understanding population structure at the local scale. Understanding such structure can inform on aspects of the species' biology, such as establishment patterns and gene dispersal distance, in addition to sampling design for genetic resource management and conservation. However, recent work has identified that variation in factors such as sampling methodology, population characteristics, and marker system can all lead to significant...

Data from: Partitioning between atmospheric deposition and canopy microbial nitrification into throughfall nitrate fluxes in a Mediterranean forest

Rossella Guerrieri, Lucas Lecha, Stefania Mattana, Joan Cáliz, Emilio Casamayor, Anna Barceló, Greg Michalski, Josep Penuelas, Anna Àvila & Maurizio Mencuccini
1. Microbial activity plays a central role in nitrogen (N) cycling, with effects on forest productivity. Though N bio-transformations, such as nitrification, are known to occur in the soil, here we investigate whether nitrifiers are present in tree canopies and actively process atmospheric N. 2. This study was conducted in a Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) forest in Spain during the transition from hot dry summer to cool wet winter. We quantified NH4+—N and...

Data from: Two New Species of Aira (Poaceae) from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands

Maria Angeles Ortiz Herrera, Llorenç Sáez, Javier López-Alvarado, Pere Fraga, Regina Berjano & Carlos Romero-Zarco
Two new diploid species, Aira minoricensis and Aira hercynica are described and illustrated, along with chromosome counts, risk assessment, distribution and habitat, phenology, and comparisons with morphologically similar species. A comparative table and a key for the species of Aira for the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands are provided to assist in the identification of these overlooked species, and their relationships to other taxa are discussed.

Dataset and scripts from: Predicting temperature mortality and selection in natural Drosophila populations

Enrico Rezende, Francisco Bozinovic, András Szilágyi & Mauro Santos
The study develops and validates a theoretical model to predict thermal mortality under natural conditions, based on measurements of mortality performed in the laboratory at multiple constant temperatures. The theoretical model first fits a thermal tolerance landscape, which describes how survival probability is affected by both temperature and exposure time, to the empirical measurements of mortality obtained in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Then, employing a numerical approximation to the analytical solution based on differential...

Nurses coping with daily stressors

Fermín Martínez-Zaragoza, Gemma Benavides-Gil, Tatiana Rovira, Silvia Edo, Rosa García-Sierra, Ángel Solanes-Puchol, Jordi Fernández-Castro & Beatriz Martín-Del-Río
Background: During their workday, nurses face a variety of stressors that are dealt with using different coping strategies. One criticism of the contextual models of work stress is that they fail to focus on individual responses like coping with stress. Neverthless, little is know about the momentary determinants of coping in nurses. Objectives: To identify the momentary predictors of problem-focused approaching coping and emotion-focused approaching coping, as well as those for seeking social support and...

Effects of soil salinity on the expression of direct and indirect defences in wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

Luis Abdala-Roberts, Teresa Quijano-Medina, Ted Turlings, Paula Sosenski, Luca Grandi, Jose Cervera & Xoaquin Moreira
Previous studies have reported effects of abiotic factors on herbivore-induced plant defences based on effects on single plant traits. However, plants commonly express multiple defences simultaneously and these traits are often correlated. Thus, a fuller understanding of abiotic-context dependency in plant defence requires measuring multiple traits and addressing their patterns of correlated expression. We evaluated the effects of soil salinity on the induction of direct (phenolic compounds, gossypol gland density) and indirect (volatile organic compounds,...

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