788 Works

Geochemical and petrological data pertaining to the eruptive deposits of 1883 caldera-forming eruption of Krakatau

Amber Madden-Nadeau
Geochemical data has been collected on samples from new exposures of the 1883 deposits, revealed by the 2018 tsunamigenic flank collapse of Anak Krakatau, which provides improved stratigraphic context. Whole-rock data taken by X-ray Florescence shows no systematic stratigraphic correlation. Chemical data for transects across, and spot points on, plagioclase phenocrysts, including some trace element data, all obtained using Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), with Backscatter electron (BSE) images of crystals, obtained using Scanning Electron Microscope,...

Speleothem chronology in Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves used in publication \"Paleoclimate evidence of vulnerable permafrost during times of low sea-ice\" By Vaks, A. et al.(2020)

A Vaks, A.J. Mason, S. F. M. Breitenbach, A. M. Kononov, A. V. Osinzev, M. Rosensaft, A. Borshevsky, O. S. Gutareva & G. M. Henderson
The tables describe U-series chronology of speleothems in Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves used in the manuscript "Paleoclimate evidence of vulnerable permafrost during times of low sea ice" by Vaks et al. 2020, Nature 577, 7789, 221–225. The information included in the tables is listed as following: Table 1: Table 1a includes U–Pb data from Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves; Table 1b includes common Pb estimates for Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves. Table 2: U–Th...

High-resolution global topographic index values

T.R. Marthews, S.J. Dadson, B. Lehner, S. Abele & N. Gedney
The topographic index is a hydrological quantity describing the propensity of the soil at landscape points to become saturated with water as a result of topographic position (i.e. not accounting for other factors such as climate that also affect soil moisture but are accounted for separately). Modern land surface models require a characterisation of the land surface hydrological regime and this parameter allows the use of the TOPMODEL hydrological model to achieve this .This Geographic...

Plant census and microenvironment dataset from Mt. Baldy, Colorado, USA, 2014-2017

B. Blonder, R.E. Kapas, R.M. Dalton, B.J. Graae, J.M. Heiling & Ø.H. Opedal
The data comprise a long-term study of alpine plant community dynamics in the Gunnison National Forest of Colorado. The data comprise annual census data for all plants (including seedlings) in each of 50 2x2m plots, including information on size, reproduction, life stage, and mortality, with all plants identified and geo-located. These data are also made available transformed to provide individual-level estimates of growth, survival, fecundity, and recruitment. The dataset covers several thousand individuals of approximately...

High-resolution hydraulic parameter maps for surface soils in tropical South America

T. Marthews, C.A. Quesada, D.R. Galbraith, Y. Malhi, C.E. Mullins, M.G. Hodnett & I. Dharssi
Spatial data files holding gridded parameter maps of surface soil hydraulic parameters derived from a selection of pedotransfer functions. Modern land surface model simulations capture soil profile water movement through the use of soil hydraulics sub-models, but good hydraulic parameterisations are often lacking - especially in the tropics - and it is this lack that we fill here in the context of South America. Optimal hydraulic parameter values are given for the Brooks and Corey,...

Mimetic host shifts in a social parasite of ants: Behavioural study

K. Schönrogge, J.A. Thomas, G.W. Elmes, M. Sielezniew, A. Stankiewicz-Fiedurek, D. Simcox & J. Settele
This dataset derives from cross-over experiments using ant worker rescue behaviour towards caterpillars of the socially parasitic butterfly from two host-ecotypes. The data comprise datasets collected from four 4 experiments 3 hours after testing and from 4 experiments 7 days later. They all include nest numbers, the order of retrieval ranked by the attention of nurse ants to the ant pupae, large larvae and small larvae and the adult Maculinea rebeli. The data give the...

Mark-Release-Recapture data showing moth and dung beetle movements in riparian reserves within the SAFE project landscape, Malaysian Borneo, 2016-17

R.E.J. Gray, E.M. Slade, A.Y.C. Chung & O.T. Lewis
This dataset consists of moth and dung beetle recapture, movement, and trait data from a mark-release-recapture experiment conducted within riparian forest reserves, in an oil palm landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo conducted as part of the SAFE project (Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems). This resource includes information regarding the recapture frequency and movement behaviour of both moths and dung beetles with respect to three habitat types: riparian forest reserve, continuous forest, and oil palm plantation....

2014 Machine Learning Data Set for NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

David Fouhey, Meng Jin, Mark Cheung, Abndres Munoz-Jaramillo, Richard Galvez, Rajat Thomas, Paul Wright, Alexander Szenicer, Monica G. Bobra, Yang Liu & James Mason
We present a curated dataset from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission in a format suitable for machine learning research. Beginning from level 1 scientific products we have processed various instrumental corrections, downsampled to manageable spatial and temporal resolutions, and synchronized observations spatially and temporally. We anticipate this curated dataset will facilitate machine learning research in heliophysics and the physical sciences generally, increasing the scientific return of the SDO mission. This work is a...

Flow cytometry analysis of water samples for bacterial and Pico-plankton enumeration, samples collected in the Barents Sea during 2017-2018

Elaine Mitchell, Sharon McNeil, Callum Whyte, Finlo Cottier, Joanne Hopkins & Keith Davidson
Collection and preservation of open ocean water samples from stations along a transect in the Barents Sea over the course of a year from July 2017 - July 2018. Four cruises in total to cover seasonal changes, two on board the James Clark Ross (RRS) and two aboard the Helmer Hansen (RV). A standard CTD cast was deployed to collect the samples, the depths were selected to support Primary Production experiments on board the ship,...

Data on nest choices by long-tailed tit helpers

Nicole Sturrock, Ben Hatchwell, Josh Firth & Jonathan Green
Cooperative breeding sometimes occurs when adult breeders form groups following natal dispersal and mating. In such cases, individuals typically face a choice of potential social partner with whom to cooperate. Selection of appropriate social partners is crucial to maximising the fitness payoffs from cooperation, but our understanding of the criteria guiding social partner choice is limited. Here, we analyse helping decisions by long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), which may redirect their care to assist breeders in...

Ecological consequences of large herbivore exclusion in an African savanna: 12 years of data from the UHURU experiment

Jesse Alston, Courtney Reed, Leo Khasoha, Bianca Brown, Gilbert Busienei, Nathaniel Carlson, Tyler Coverdale, Megan Dudenhoeffer, Marissa Dyck, John Ekeno, Abdikadir Hassan, Rhianna Hohbein, Rhiannon Jakopak, Buas Kimiti, Samson Kurukura, Peter Lokeny, Allison Louthan, Simon Musila, Paul Musili, Tosca Tindall, Sarah Weiner, Tyler Kartzinel, Todd Palmer, Robert Pringle & Jacob Goheen
Diverse communities of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), once widespread, are now rare. LMH exert strong direct and indirect effects on community structure and ecosystem functions, and measuring these effects is important for testing ecological theory and for understanding past, current, and future environmental change. This in turn requires long-term experimental manipulations, owing to the slow and often nonlinear responses of populations and assemblages to LMH removal. Moreover, the effects of particular species or body-size classes...

Clinician-researcher’s perspectives on clinical research during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Silverberg, Lisa Puchalski-Ritchie, Nina Gobat, Alistair Nichol & Srinavas Murthy
Objectives: The outcome of well-performed clinical research is essential for evidence-based patient management during pandemics. However, conducting clinical research amidst a pandemic requires researchers to balance clinical and research demands. We seek to understand the values, experiences, and beliefs of physicians working at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to inform clinical research planning. We aim to understand whether pandemic settings affect physician comfort with research practices, and how physician experiences shape their...

Data from: Large-bodied sabre-toothed anchovies reveal unanticipated ecological diversity in early Palaeogene teleosts

Alessio Capobianco, Hermione Beckett, Etienne Steurbaut, Philip Gingerich, Giorgio Carnevale & Matthew Friedman
Many modern groups of marine fishes first appear in the fossil record during the early Palaeogene (66–40 million years ago), including iconic predatory lineages of spiny-rayed fishes that appear to have originated in response to ecological roles left empty after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene extinction. The hypothesis of extinction-mediated ecological release likewise predicts that other fish groups have adopted novel predatory ecologies. Here we report remarkable trophic innovation in early Palaeogene clupeiforms (herrings and allies), a group...

Data from: Prey colonization in freshwater landscapes can be stimulated or inhibited by the proximity of remote predators

Beth Turner, Hendrik Trekels, Mathil Vandromme & Bram Vanschoenwinkel
1. Recent findings suggest that the colonization of habitat patches may be affected by the quality of surrounding patches. For instance, patches that lack predators may be avoided when located near others with predators, a pattern known as risk contagion. Alternatively, predator avoidance might also redirect dispersal towards nearby predator-free patches resulting in so-called habitat compression. However, it is largely unknown how predators continue to influence these habitat selection behaviors at increasing distances from outside...

Data from: It takes two: heritable male effects on reproductive timing but not clutch size in a wild bird population

Simon R. Evans, Erik Postma & Ben C. Sheldon
Within-population variation in the traits underpinning reproductive output has long been of central interest to biologists. Since they are strongly linked to lifetime reproductive success, these traits are expected to be subject to strong selection and, if heritable, to evolve. Despite the formation of durable pair bonds in many animal taxa, reproductive traits are often regarded as female-specific, and estimates of quantitative genetic variation seldom consider a potential role for heritable male effects. Yet reliable...

Human decisions about when to act originate within a basal forebrain-nigral circuit

Nima Khalighinejad, Luke Priestley, Saad Jbabdi & Matthew Rushworth
Decisions about when to act are critical for survival in humans as in animals but how a desire is translated into the decision that an action is worth taking at any particular point in time is incompletely understood. Here we show that a simple model developed to explain when animals decide it is worth taking an action also explains a significant portion of the variance in timing observed when humans take voluntary actions. The model...

Oldest fossil ciliates from the Cryogenian glacial interlude reinterpreted as possible red algal spores

Phoebe Cohen, Maoli Vizcaino & Ross Anderson
The Cryogenian Period experienced two long lived global glaciations known as Snowball Earths. While these events were dramatic, eukaryotic life persisted through them, and fossil evidence shows that eukaryotes thrived during the ca. 30-million-year interlude between the glaciations. Carbonate successions have become an important taphonomic window for this interval. One of the most notable examples is the ca. 662–635 Ma Taishir Formation (Tsagaan Olom Group, Zavkhan Terrane, Mongolia) which has yielded a number of eukaryotic...

Data from: Developmental environment effects on sexual selection in male and female Drosophila melanogaster

Juliano Morimoto, Tommaso Pizzari & Stuart Wigby
The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes - high (low) densities for small (large) adults - and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities....

Data from: Recent ecological selection on regulatory divergence is shaping clinal variation in Senecio on Mount Etna

Graham Muir, Owen G. Osborne, Jonas Sarasa, Simon J. Hiscock & Dmitry A. Filatov
The hybrid zone on Mount Etna (Sicily) between Senecio aethnensis and Senecio chrysanthemifolius (two morphologically and physiologically distinct species) is a classic example of an altitudinal cline. Hybridization at intermediate altitudes and gradients in phenotypic and life-history traits occur along altitudinal transects of the volcano. The cline is considered to be a good example of ecological selection with species differences arising by divergent selection opposing gene flow. However, the possibility that the cline formed from...

Data from: Functional traits reveal the expansion and packing of ecological niche space underlying an elevational diversity gradient in passerine birds

Alex L. Pigot, Christopher H. Trisos & Joseph A. Tobias
Variation in species richness across environmental gradients may be associated with an expanded volume or increased packing of ecological niche space. However, the relative importance of these alternative scenarios remains unknown, largely because standardised information on functional traits and their ecological relevance is lacking for major diversity gradients. Here we combine data on morphological and ecological traits for 523 species of passerine birds distributed across an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient. We show that morphological traits capture...

Data from: The oldest, slowest forests in the world? Exceptional biomass and slow carbon dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides temperate rainforests in southern Chile

Rocio B. Urrutia-Jalabert, Yadvinder Malhi, Antonio Lara & Rocio Urrutia-Jalabert
Old-growth temperate rainforests are, per unit area, the largest and most long-lived stores of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, but their carbon dynamics have rarely been described. The endangered Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern South America include stands that are probably the oldest dense forest stands in the world, with long-lived trees and high standing biomass. We assess and compare aboveground biomass, and provide the first estimates of net primary productivity (NPP), carbon allocation and...

Data from: The contrasting role of male relatedness in different mechanisms of sexual selection in red junglefowl

Cedric Tan Kai Wei, Philippa Doyle, Emma Bagshaw, David S. Richardson, Stuart L. Wigby, Tom Pizzari, Cedric Kai Wei Tan, Stuart Wigby & Tommaso Pizzari
In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within-group male relatedness across pre- and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated...

Data from: The genomic bases of morphological divergence and reproductive isolation driven by ecological speciation in Senecio (Asteraceae)

Mark A Chapman, Simon J Hiscock & Dmitry A Filatov
Ecological speciation, driven by adaptation to contrasting environments, provides an attractive opportunity to study the formation of distinct species, and the role of selection and genomic divergence in this process. Here, we focus on a particularly clear-cut case of ecological speciation to reveal the genomic bases of reproductive isolation and morphological differences between closely related Senecio species, whose recent divergence within the last ~200,000 years was likely driven by the uplift of Mt. Etna (Sicily)....

Data from: Comparison of reproductive investment in native and non-native populations of common wall lizards reveals sex differences in adaptive potential.

Hannah E.A. MacGregor, Geoffrey M. While, Tobias Uller & Hannah E. A. MacGregor
Non-native animals can encounter very different environments than those they are adapted to. Functional changes in morphology, physiology and life-history following introduction show that organisms can adapt both fast and efficiently. It remains unclear, however, if female reproductive characters and male sexually selected behaviour show the same adaptive potential. Furthermore, the invasion success and evolutionary trajectory of non-native species might often depend on the ability of the sexes to coordinate shifts in characters associated with...

Data from: Dispersal in a patchy landscape reveals contrasting determinants of infection in a wild avian malaria system

Sarah C. L. Knowles, Matthew J. Wood, Ricardo Alves & Ben C. Sheldon
1. Understanding exactly when, where and how hosts become infected with parasites is critical to understanding host-parasite coevolution. However, for host-parasite systems in which hosts or parasites are mobile (for example vector-borne diseases), the spatial location of infection, and the relative importance of parasite exposure at successive host life-history stages, are often uncertain. 2. Here, using a six-year longitudinal dataset from a spatially referenced population of blue tits, we test the extent to which infection...

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